Class-10 Ch – 7 Print Culture and the Modern World Extra Questions and Notes

By | September 29, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

History

Chapter- 7 Print Culture and the Modern World

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Print Culture and the Modern World

Short Answers:-

1.Why do you think that the chapter ‘Print Culture’ is important to study?

 Ans. Print culture is important to study because it is a true medium of mass communication like newspapers, journals and books etc. It also helps in creation of new ideas, thoughts, etc via books and magazines, etc.

2.’It is difficult for us to imagine a world without printed matter’. Justify the statement giving any three suitable arguments.

 Ans. It is true that we cannot imagine a world without printed matter. We find evidence of print everywhere around us-in books, journals, newspapers, prints of famous paintings and also in everyday things like calendars, diaries, advertisements, etc.

(1) It is a true medium of mass communication like newspaper, journals and books, etc.

 (2) Printed matter helps in preservation and dissemination of history, scientific knowledge and culture, etc.

(3) It helps in creation of new ideas, thoughts, etc. via books and magazines, etc.

THE FIRST PRINTED BOOKS

Very Short Answers:-

1.What was a Kayo?  

 Ans. Kayo means pictures of floating world or depiction of ordinary human experience especially urban ones.

2. Which authority possessed the right of printing in ancient China?

 Ans. The imperial state in ancient China possessed the right of printing.

3. What was the use of woodblocks in 15th century in Europe?

 Ans. Wood blocks were used to print the playing cards, textile, images or patterns.

4.Name the Chinese traditional book-which folded and stitched at the side?

Ans. Accordion Book’

5. Give the ancient name of Tokyo.

Ans. ‘Diamond Sutra’.

6. What was the name of oldest printed book of Japan?                          

 Ans. The ancient name of Tokyo was ‘Edo’.

7. Mention any one feature of the oldest Japanese book.   

Ans. The oldest Japanese book contained six sheets of texts and woodcut.

8.Who introduced print-culture to Japan?

Ans. Buddhist missionaries from China introduced print-culture

9.What was the name of oldest printed book of Japan M?

Ans. The oldest Japanese book, printed in A.D. 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra.

10.Which city of China became the new huh of print-culture?

Ans. Shanghai

11.What is meant by ‘Calligraphy’?    

 Ans. Calligraphy means the art of beautiful and stylish writing.

12.Which method of hand-printing was developed in China?           

Ans. Calligraphy

Short Answers:-

1.Name the hub of the new print culture in China and describe it.

Ans. (1) Shanghai became the huh of new print culture in China.

 (2) In the Late 19th century the western powers established mechanical printing press in Shanghai.

 (3) Then, the mechanical printing had started there. Shanghai had started catering to the western style schools. From hand printing there was now a gradual shift to mechanical Printing

2.How did China remain a major producer of printed materials for a long time?

Or

Why was China a major producer of printed material for a very long time? Give any three reasons.

Or

 “The imperial state in China was the major producer of printed material for a very long time.” Examine the statement.                                                   

Or

 “The imperial state in China was the major producer of printed material.” Support this statement with examples.

 Ans. (1) Textbooks for the civil service examination were printed in vast numbers the sponsorship of the imperial state.

(2) Merchants used print in their everyday life as they collected trade information.

(3) The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, romantic plays.

(4) Rich women began to read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.

(5) Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives.

3.How had the earliest printing technology developed in the world? Explain.

Ans. (1) The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan, and Korea.

(2) Up to 6th century, the print was used only by scholar-officials.

(3) Then the Buddhist missionaries introduced hand printing technology.

(4) Marco Polo brought woodblock printing from China to Italy.

(5) The invention of the printing press proved great miracle in spreading knowledge.

Long Answers:-

1.Write the main purpose of Print used in China in 16th century

Or

Mention any three characteristic features of the printed books in the late 17th century

Ans. In 16th century, China was the major producer of printing material. The main purpose of print was as follows:

(1) Textbooks for the civil service examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state.

(2) Merchants used print in their everyday life as they collected trade information.

(3) Rich women began to read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.

(4) Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtesan wrote about their lives.

(5) The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry and romantic plays.

2.Write a short note on Kayo.                                                                                       

Ans. (1) Iloilo’ is an art form used for depicting ordinary human experience especially urban ones.

(2) These prints travelled to contemporary US and Europe. It influenced artists like Mamet, Monet and Van Gogh.

(3) Publishers like Tutee Juzaburo identified subjects and commissioned artists who drew the theme in outline. Then, a skilled woodblock carver pasted the drawing on a woodblock and carved a printing block to reproduce the painter’s lines.

(4) In the process, the original drawing would be destroyed and only prints would survive.

(5) Kitagawa Tamara born in 1753 was widely known for his contributions to this art.

3.Which Asian country was the major producer of printed material in the 16th century and why ‘? Give two reasons.

 Ans. In 16th century the major producer of printed material was China that had the following reasons:

(I) From AI 594 onward, book in China were printed by rubbing. They kid made innovations in ink, block printing and movable clay type.

(2) The Chinese were the first to invent the art of printing. They made wooden blocks to Print letters. By seventeenth century the uses of print diversified. New reading culture developed. It accompanied i.e. new technology. Shanghai became the maul centre of the new Pant culture. It catered to the west with its mechanical expertise in printing.

4.Explain the five effects of print revolution.

 Ans. The main impacts of print revolution are as under:

(1) Printing reduced the cost of books. The time and labor required to produce each book came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.

 (2) Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas, and introduced a new world of debate and discussion.

(3) Print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the new ideas that led to the reformation.

(4) Print and popular religious literature stimulated many distinctive individual interpretations of faith even among little educated working people.

(5) Print culture created the conditions within which French Revolution occurred. The writings of the enlightened thinkers provided a critical commentary on tradition, superstition and despotism.

5.What was an “accordion book”? How was hand printing done in China? Who did the duplicating of books in China and how?

 Ans. (1) (i) As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘Accordion’ book was folded and stitched at the side. Accordion was invented to accommodate scrolls that had become unmanageable.

(2) (i) From AD 594 onwards books were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.

(ii) Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around AD 768-770.

(3) Superbly skilled craftsmen could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy, the beauty of calligraphy.

6.What were the chief characteristics of the earliest print culture in Japan? Explain any five.

Or

 Describe the progress/development of print in Japan.                          

Or

 Explain any three important characteristics of the Print Culture in Japan.

Ans. (1) Buddhist monasteries from China introduced hand printing technology into Japan.

(2) The oldest Japanese book printed in AD 868 is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra.

(3) In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published and books were cheap and abundant.

(4) Printing of visual materials led to increasing publishing practices. In the late 18th century, in the flourishing urban circles city at Edo (‘Inky), illustrated collections of paintings depicted urban culture involving artists, courtesans and tea-house gathering.

(5) Books on women, musical instruments, tea ceremony, flower arrangements, proper etiquettes were published.

7.Explain the different stages of development of printing technology in China.  

Ans. (1) From 594 A.D., the books were printed in China by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.

(2) The imperial court got many textbooks printed for the civil services examination and remained the largest user of printed books in China.

(3) By the 17th century, urban culture developed in China and it added merchants, wives of rich men, scholars and officials who not only started reading printed books but also began to write their autobiographies.

(4) In the late 19th century, the western powers established mechanical printing press in Shanghai and shifted to mechanical printing.

(5) Shanghai became the hub of the new print culture, catering to the western-style schools.

8.How did the uses of print diversify in China by the 17th century? Explain.

Or

 ‘By the seventeenth century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the use of print diversified’. Give any three facts to support the statement.                                                           

Or

How did a new reading culture bloom in China? Explain.                                              

Ans. (1) By the 17th century, an urban culture bloomed in China, the use of print diversified.

 (2) Print was no longer used only by scholars and officials.

(3) Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information. Reading became a leisure habit.

(4) Rich women also began to read and many of them began publishing their poetry and plays.

(5) Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives.

PRINT COMES TO EUROPE

Very Short Answers:-

1.Which city of Europe had the breakthrough of first printing press?                    

 Ans. At Strasbourg, Germany

2.Who developed the first printing press in 1430s?

 Ans. Johann Gutenberg

3.Which place (city) had the breakthrough of first printing press?

Ans. Strasbourg.

4.By whom was the art of woodblock printing introduced in Europe?                 

 Ans. Marco Polo.

5.How can we say that, Gutenberg’s press was too slow as compared to present press technology? Give one example.

 Ans. Gutenberg’s press was operated manually while today’s press technology 2 is automatic.

6.Name the person who brought the knowledge of printing to Europe.

 Ans. Marco Polo

7.Who invented printing press and when?

 Ans. Johann Gutenberg invented press in 1430s.

8.Despite introduction of print-culture, why were luxurious edition still handwritten?

Ans. Luxury editions were handwritten on very expensive vellum, meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries which scoffed at printed books as cheap vulgarities.

9.Despite the woodblock printing, what factor raised the demand of new technology in print?

Ans. There was a great need for quicker and cheaper reproduction of texts therefore; a new faster print technology was needed.

10.Which previous knowledge did Gutenberg draw to design his innovation in the form of a printing press?                          

 Ans. In his childhood, Gutenberg had seen wine and olive presses. He also learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith and acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets that helped him to design his new printing press.

Short Answers:-

1.Highlight any three contributions of Johann Gutenberg towards the printing press.

Ans. (1) Johann Gutenberg developed the first known printing press in the 1430$ at Strasbourg, Germany.

(2) Gutenberg learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets.

 (3) Gutenberg developed metal types for each of the 26 characters of the Roman alphabet and devised a way of moving them around so as to compose different words of the text.

(4) The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printer’ and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production. Gutenberg s Bible was the first printed book in Europe.                                                                                                                    

2.Describe any three difficulties in copying manuscripts.

Ans. The main three difficulties in copying manuscripts were as follows:

(1) The copying of manuscript was an expensive, laborious and time consuming business.

(2) There was one more problem. The manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle. They could not be easily carried around or read easily.

 (3) When scribes copied manuscripts, they also introduced small changes in word here and there. Repeatedly these changes made the text substantially different from the original.

3.What is vellum? What was its use in Europe?

Ans. Vellum refers to a parchment made from calf skin. This animal based vellum in its time, was the most valued kind of writing surface available.

 (2) In Europe, luxury editions were handwritten on very expensive vellum meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries which scoffed at printed books as cheap vulgarities.

(3) It was prepared for writing or printing to produce single pages scrolls or books.

4.Describe the drawbacks of handwritten manuscripts in comparison to printed material

Ans. (1) Handwritten manuscripts were highly expensive and fragile whereas printed materials were cheap and easy to carry.

(2) They had to be handled carefully and could not be carried around.

 (3) They could not be read easily as the script was in different styles so; they were not widely used in everyday life.

5.Why couldn’t the production of handwritten manuscripts satisfy the ever-increasing demand for books? Give any three reasons.

Or

Why did the production of handwritten manuscripts not satisfy the ever-increasing Europeans’ demand for books in the 16th century? Give three reasons.                                     

Ans. Handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the ever-increasing demand for books because:

(1) Copying was an expensive, laborious and time-consuming business.

(2) Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle.

(3) It could not be easily carried around or read easily.

6.Who was Marco Polo? What was his contribution to print culture?

 Ans. (1) Marco Polo was a great Italian explorer.

(2) Contribution of Marco Polo to print culture: (i) In 1295, Marco Polo returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China.

(ii) He brought the knowledge of woodblock printing with him.

 (iii) Now in Italy, books started to be produced with woodblocks and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.

Long Answers:-

1.Describe any five factors that helped in the rise of print culture in Europe.

Ans. Print culture in Europe was spreading very fast. (1) Hand written manuscript could not satisfy the ever increasing demand for books.

(2) Copying was an expensive, laborious and time consuming business.

 (3) The circulation of manuscript was limited because they were fragile.

 (4) By the early fifteenth century woodblocks were used for printing but even this could not cater to the ever increasing demand for print materials.

(5) These factors show that there was clearly a great need for even quicker and cheaper reproduction of books. These helped the print culture to expand.

2.How far did the new printing technology displace the existing art of producing books by hand? Explain.             

Ans. (1) In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route. Paper made possible the production of manuscripts carefully written by scribes.

 (2) With the growing demand for books, woodblock printing gradually became more and more popular. By the early 15th century, woodblocks were being widely used in Europe to print playing cards, religious pictures with simple, brief texts.

 (3) Johann Gutenberg developed the first known printing press in the 1430s.

(4) By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them.

 (5) By the standards of the time, this was fast production. However, the new technology did not entirely displace the existing art of producing books by hand. Still, in the 16th century about 200 million copies of printed books were flooding the markets in Europe. The shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution.

3.Who was Gutenberg? Describe his contribution in the field of printing.

Ans. (1) Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agricultural estate.

(2) Development of the art of printing: (i) From his childhood Gutenberg had seen wine and olive presses. Then he!militias art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets.

 (ii) Drawing on this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. Casting metal types for the letter of the alphabet.

(iii) The olive press provided the mould for the printing press and moulds were used.

(iv) By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them.

4.Which was the first book printed by Gutenberg? Explain any four unique features of it.

Or

 Explain the main features of the first printed Bible?                                                

Or

Describe any three main features of the first printed Bible.                   

Or

 Write three features of the first book printed by Gutenberg.

Ans. (1) The first book printed by Gutenberg was the Bible.

(2) Main features of the printed Bible are as follows: (i) It closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout.

 (ii) The types of metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten style.

(iii) Borders of the Bible were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns.

(iv) Printing of books for elites and the commons was different.

5.In which way did the early printed books closely resemble the manuscripts? Explain.

Or

Give three ways in which early printed books closely resembled manuscripts.

Or

In the written manuscripts? Which three ways the first printed books closely resembled                                                                                                           

 Ans. (1) Early printed books were technically printed but those were not very different from manuscripts.

(2) There were many kinds of same features available in similar books which made printed books closely resembling with manuscripts.

(3) Both printed books and manuscripts looked similar because metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten style.

 (4) Like handwritten manuscripts, borders of printed books were also illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns and illustrations were painted.

(5) In the books printed for rich people, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed pages.

 (6) Each buyer could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.

6.How did print come to Europe from China? Explain.

Or

 How did the knowledge of wood-block printing come to Europe? Explain.

Ans. (1) In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe from China through silk route. Paper made possible the production of manuscripts carefully written by scribes.

(2) In 1295, Marco Polo, a great explorer, returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China.

(3) The Italians began producing book with woodblocks.

(4) Soon the technology spread to the other parts of Europe.

 (5) Religious preachers like Buddhist Monks were also helpful in spreading this knowledge from China to Europe. 

THE PRINT REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT

Very Short Answers:-

1.Why were Martin Luther’s Theses a challenge to Church in Europe?

 Ans. This is because; Martin Luther’s Theses criticized many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.

2.Why was transition from hearing public to reading public difficult in Europe?

Ans. As books could be read only by the literate and the rate of literacy in Europe was rye low, therefore, transition was difficult.

3.Who was Martin Luther?

 Ans. Martin Luther was a religious reformer.

4.”Printing is the ultimate gift of C.c. -A and the greatest one.” Who said these words?

Ans. Martin Luther said these words.

5.Name the Italian who reinterpreted the message of Bible?

 Ans. Menocchio reinterpreted the message of Bible.

Short Answers:-

1.What was Protestant Reformation?

Ans. (1) In 1517, religious reformer Martin Luther wrote `Ninety-Five Theses’ criticizing any practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. A printed copy of this was pasted t a Church door in Witten erg. It challenged the church to debate his ideas.

(2) Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read widely.

(3) This led to a division within the Church and this was the beginning of the Protestant deformation’.

2.Who was Menocchio? Mention any two contributions of him in the field of print culture in the sixteenth century.

Or

 Who was Menocchio? Why was he executed?                                                      

Ans. (1) Menocchio was a miller in Italy.

(2) He reinterpreted the message of Bible.

(3) He formulated a view of God and Creation that enraged the Roman Catholic Church.

(4) Menocchio was hauled two times and ultimately executed.

3.What is meant by the print revolution? Explain its significance.

Or

What was print revolution?                                                                     

Ans. Print revolution: The shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution. Significance of print revolution:

(1) It transformed the lives of people, changing their relationship to information and knowledge and with institutions and authorities.

(2) It influenced popular perception.

 (3) It opened up new ways of looking at things.

4.Who was Erasmus? What were his ideas on the published books that were coming out?

Ans. (1) Erasmus was a Latin scholar and a catholic reformer.

 (2) (i) He criticized the printing book.

 (ii) He thought that most of the books are stupid, ignorant, slanderous, irreligious and seditious.

 (iii) According to him, such books devaluate the valuable books.

5.”With the printing press, a new public emerged in Europe”. Justify the statement

Or

 How did access to books create a new culture of reading? Examine.

Ans. (1) Access to books created a new culture of reading.

 (2) Earlier, reading was restricted to the elites while common people relied only on oral culture i.e., knowledge was transferred orally but now books were available easily.

(3) It transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to information and knowledge and with institution and authorities. It influenced popular perception and opened up new ways of looking at things.

Long Answers:-

1.Why were many people apprehensive to the newly printed books entering into the market? Explain the reasons.

Or

Why were many people fearful to the newly printed books entering into the market? Plain the reasons.                                                                                                                     

Ans. (1) Everybody did not welcome the printed books but those who did also had fears out it.

(2) Many were apprehensive of the effects that the easier access to the printed word and idler circulation of books could have on people’s minds.

(3) They feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read then rebellious id irreligious thoughts might spread.

(4) If that happened the authority of `valuable’ literature would be destroyed.

(5) Expressed by religious authorities and monarchs; as well as many writers and artists, its anxiety was the basis of widespread criticism of the new printed literature that had begun ‘circulate.

2.Give examples to show that the ideas of scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the common people through print.

Or

 To what extent did the print create conditions for the spread of revolutionary ideas before ‘ranch Revolution of 1789? Explain.                                                            

 Ans. (1) Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas and introduced a new world of scientists and philosophers to the common people through the printed message they would persuade of people to think differently and this had significance in different spheres

(2) For example in 1517, the religious reformer, Martin Luther wrote ‘Ninety Five Theses’ criticizing many rituals and practices of Roman Catholic Church. Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read widely. Luther’s translation of the New Testament sold 5,000 copies within a few weeks.

 (3) Several scholars in fact, think that print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the new ideas that led to the reformation.

3.What were the advantages of printing press?

 Ans. There are many advantages of printing press:

(1) It reduced the cost of the books.

 (2) The time and labor required to produce each book came down.

 (3) Printing press could produce multiple copies with ease and in fewer amounts.

 (4) Printing had made the books available to the most common people. Earlier, reading was restricted to elites. Now, the books had reach to a wider section of people.

(5) Readership too increased due to revolution in printing press.

4.”The Roman Catholic Church had to face many dissents from mid-16th century onwards.” Justify the statement in three points.

 Ans. Following were the impacts on religion:

(1) Martin Luther wrote ‘Ninety Five Theses’ in 1517 and pasted it on the doorstep of a Church in Wittenberg which marked the beginning of the Protestant Revolution.

(2) Menocchio in the 16th century began reinterpreting the message of Bible which enraged the Church.

(3) The Church brought out an ‘Index of Prohibited Books’ in 1558 to present the spread of anti-Christian ideas.

(4)The Enlightenment thinkers used the print technology to spread their critical comments on superstitions and illogical practices.

(5) Print created awareness among common people about religion and religious rituals.

5.How did the hearing public and the reading public become intermingled? Exam

Or

Highlight any three circumstances that led to the intermingling of the hearing culture and the reading culture.                                                                                                                 

 Ans. (1) Printers began publishing popular ballads and folk tales with pictures.

(2) These books were sung and recited at gatherings in villages and in taverns in towns.

(3) Thus oral culture entered print and printed material was orally transmitted.

 (4) The line that separated the oral and reading cultures became blurred.

 (5) Now the hearing public and reading public became inter-mingled.

6.”Oral culture and print culture were complimentary to each other.” Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments.

Or

How did print bring the reading public and hearing public closer? Explain.

Ans. (1) Earlier, reading was restricted to the elites.

(2) With the printing press, books could reach out to wider sections of society. If earlier, there was a hearing public, now a reading public came into being.

(3) Publishers had to keep in mind the wider reach of the printed books. Even those who did not read, could enjoy listening to the books being read out.

 (4) So, printers began publishing popular ballads and folk tales and such books would be profusely illustrated with pictures.

 (5) These were then sung and recited at gatherings in villages and in taverns in towns.

7.Why did the Roman Catholic Church begin to keep an index of prohibited books from the mid 16th century?

Or

Why did the Roman Church begin to maintain an Index of Prohibited books from 1558?

Ans. (1) Menocchio, a miller in Italy reinterpreted the message of Bible and formulated a view of God and Creation and enraged the Roman Catholic Church.

 (2) When the Roman Church began its inquisition to repress heretical ideas, Menocchio was hauled up twice and ultimately executed.

(3) The Roman Church troubled by such effects of popular readings and questioning of faith, imposed severe controls over publishers and booksellers and began to maintain an Index of Prohibited Books from 1558.

8.Explain the role played by print in the spreading of Protestant Reformation.  

Ans. (1) Martin Luther, a religious reformer, wrote ‘Ninety Five Theses’ criticizing many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. A printed copy of this was pasted on a Church door in Wittenberg.

(2) Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read widely.

 (3) This led to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

(4) Luther’s translation of the New Testament sold 5,000 copies within a few weeks and a second edition appeared within three months.

(5) Print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the new ideas that led to Reformation.

9.Martin Luther remarked “Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one”. Explain this remark in the light of the religious reforms that took place in Europe in the 16th century.

Or

 How did Martin Luther’s writings bring reforms in religious field? Explain.

Or

“Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one”. Who said this? How did print help to promote Protestant Reformation?

Or

 How did the printing technology benefit the religious reformers in Europe during the 16th century? Explain.                                                                                                                 

 Ans. (1) Martin Luther wrote ‘Ninety Five Theses’ criticizing the malpractices in the Roman Catholic Church.

(2) He pasted a printed copy of it on the door of a Church in Wittenberg.

(3) Luther’s writing immediately became popular through printed copies and was widely read. 5000 copies of Luther’s translation of the New Testament were printed and sold in one week.

 (4) All this led to a religious debate and marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation Movement.

(5) Thus, we see that Martin Luther had rightly remarked that printing technology played a key role in bringing about religious reforms in the 16th Century.

10.How did the printing press bring changes in reading culture?

Or

 How did a reading public emerge with the printing press instead of a hearing public? Explain.

Or

 How did a new reading public emerge with the printing press? Explain.

Or

 How did printing press create a new reading public? Explain.

Ans. (1) Printing reduced the cost of books, which made the books available even to common people.

(2) Time and labor required to produce each book came down and multiple copies could be produced, which reduced the gap between demand and supply.

 (3) Books flooded the market and reached out to an ever-growing readership.

(4) Earlier reading was restricted to the elites. But now books could reach to the wider sections of people.

 (5) Those that could not purchase the books could go to the library.

11.Explain the role played by print in bringing about a division in the Roman Catholic Church.

Or

 How did print help to spread new ideas that led to the Reformation in Europe?

Ans. Printing press greatly affected all civilizations, because print played a role in the field of knowledge, rationality, thinking and new information.

(1) In 1517, Martin Luther wrote ‘Ninety Five Theses’ criticizing many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.

(2) A printed copy of this was pasted on a Church door in Wittenberg that challenged the Church to debate on his ideas.

(3) Luther’s writings were reproduced in vast numbers and read widely which led to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

THE READING MANIA

Very Short Answers:-

1.What were Chapbooks?

 Ans. A term used to describe pocket size books that are sold by travelling peddlers called chapmen.

2.How did Louise Sebastian Mercier interpret the printing press?                    

 Ans. He declared that “The printing Press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away.”

3.How Biliotheque Blue was different from Chapbooks?

Ans. In England, penny chapbooks were published and sold for a penny while in France, low priced small books were printed on poor quality papers and bound in cheap blue cover and were called ‘Biliotheque Blue’.

Short Answers:-

1.How did the print popularize the ideas of the enlightened thinkers? Explain.

 Ans. (1) The writings of enlightened thinkers provided a critical commentary on tradition, superstition and despotism.

 (2) They argued for the rule of reason rather than custom, and demanded that everything be judged through the application of reason and rationality.

(3) They attacked the sacred authority of the church and the despotic power of the state, thus eroding the legitimacy of a social order based on tradition.

2.What was the contribution of scientists in the development of popular literature?

Or

Describe the contribution of scientists and philosophers in the development of popular literature.

Ans. (1) The ideas of scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the common people.

(2)Ancient and medieval scientific texts were compiled and published, and maps and scientific diagrams were widely printed.

 (3) When scientists like Isaac Newton began to publish their discoveries, they could influence a much wider circle of readers with scientific bent of mind.

3.Explain the common conviction of people in and print culture the mid-18th century about the books

Or

`By the mid-eighteenth century, three was a common conviction that books are means of spreading progress and enlightenment. Support the statement with examples.

Ans. (1) By the mid-eighteenth century, there was a common conviction that books were a means of spreading progress and enlightenment.

(2) Many believed that books could change the world, liberate society from despotism and tyranny, and herald a time when reason and intellect would rule.

 (3) Louise-Sebastian Mercier, a novelist in France declared, “The printing press is Inset powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away

4.How did new forms of popular literature appear in print targeting new audience Is the 18th century? Explain with examples.

Or

What were the new forms of literature introduced in Europe to attract the new readers? Mention any three of them.                                                                                                                                        

Or

Describe some of the new printed books which were sold by the peddlers in villages in the eighteenth century Europe.                                                                                                                                      

Ans. (1) There were almanacs along with ballads and folk-tales.

(2) In England, Chapbooks were carried by petty peddlers known as Chapman and sold for a penny.

(3) Biliotheque Blues were low priced books sold in France.

 (4) There were the romances printed on four to six pages.

(5) Also, substantial `Histories’ were published which were the stories of the past.

5.What was the “Reading Mania”? What was its impact on children, women and workers?

Ans. (1) Unprecedented growth in literacy and so many schools and production of books spread reading mania.

(2) Children’s press was set up in France in 1857.

(3) New works and old fairy tales and folk tales were published. Women became important readers as well as writers.

(4) Penny magazines were especially written on behavior and house-keeping.

(5) Lending libraries emerged for workers. Working classes started writing for themselves.

Long Answers:-

1.Explain any five efforts made to popularize reading of books in Europe.

 Ans. (1) Printers and publishers came up with now strategies to sell books. They started publishing serialized novels which became popular among readers who eagerly waited for the publication of next editions of the novels.

(2) Low cost books were published so that they become accessible to all sections of people.

(3) To popularize reading, publishers published books and journals of various interests such as folk-tales, fairy tales, novels, history, romance, etc.

(4) New forms of popular literature appeared in print targeting new audiences. Book sellers employed peddlers who roamed around villages carrying little books for sale. There were allowances or ritual calendars along with ballads and folktales.

 (5) The periodical press developed from the early eighteenth century combining information about current affairs with entertainment. Newspapers and journals carried information about wars and trade as well as news of developments in other places.

2.How did reading become a mania in Europe in the eighteenth century? Explain with examples.

 Ans. (1) Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries literacy rates went up in most parts of Europe. Churches of different denominations set up schools in villages, carrying literacy to peasants and artisans. By the end of the eighteenth century, in some parts of Europe, literacy rates were as high as 60 to 80 per cent.

 (2) New forms of popular literature appeared in print targeting new audiences. There were almanacs or ritual calendars, along with ballads and folk-tales. In England, penny chapbooks were sold for a penny so that even the poor could buy them.

 (3) The periodical press combined information about current affairs with entertainment.

(4) Newspapers and journals carried information about wars and trade, as well as news of developments in other places.

 (5) The scientists like Isaac Newton began to publish their discoveries; they could influence a much wider circle of scientifically minded readers.

3.How did booksellers try to promote sale of books during eighteenth century in Europe? Explain.

Or

 What techniques were adopted by booksellers to increase the sale of books during seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Europe?                                                                         

 Ans. At first, printing press itself acted as revolutionary invention in the field of circulation of ideas and making public opinion. After the increase in the literacy rate, the demand for books also increased automatically. But, some efforts were also made by publishers to promote the sale of books.

(1) Publishers kept in mind the wider reach of printed work.

(2) They published popular ballads.

(3) They published folk-tales.

(4) Booksellers employed peddlers who roamed around villages carrying little books for sale.

 (5) Low-priced small books like ‘Chapbooks’ and ‘Biliotheque Blue’ were printed by publishers.

4.Print culture created conditions within which the French Revolution occurred’. Give any three arguments to support this statement.

Or

 Was print able to shape the minds of people of France directly?

Or

How had the print culture created the conditions within which French Revolution occurred?Explain,                                                                                                            

Or

How far is it right to say that the print culture was responsible for the French Revolution?

Or

How did print construct the way for French Revolution?

Ans. (1) Print popularized the ideas of the enlightened thinkers. They argued for it rules of reason rather than custom. Everything should be judged through reason and rationality. Power of Church and state was also challenged.

(2) A new culture of dialogue and debate was created by print. Aware public had re-evaluated all norms and institutions which brought new ideas of social revolution coming into being.

(3) Through literature royalty was criticized by the writers. They questioned the existing social order where monarchy remained absorbed only in sensual pleasure while common people suffered immense hardships. The awakening had come through literature circulated underground.

5.”Print played a vital role in the French Revolution.” Analyze the statement.

Or

Evaluate the role played by the print culture in bringing about the French Revolution.

Ans. Role of print in the French Revolution:

Arguments for: (i) Print popularized the ideas of the thinkers like Voltaire, Jean Jacques Rousseau, etc. By reading their works, people started thinking and questioning.

 (ii) Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. All values, norms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed. People became aware of the power of reason.

 (iii) By 1780s, there was a large volume of literature that criticized the royalty.

Arguments against: (i) Some scholars argue that people did not read only one kind of literature. If they had access to the ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau, they were also aware of the monarchial and Church propaganda.

(ii) People were not completely influenced by what they read; they accepted some and rejected a few. They interpreted things in their own way. Thus, print did not directly shape their minds.

6.How did the ideas of scientists and philosophers become more accessible to common people after the beginning of print revolution in Europe?

Or

Give examples to show that the ideas of scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the common people through print.                                      

 Ans. (1) Ancient and medieval scientific texts were compiled and published, and maps and scientific diagrams were widely printed.

(2) When scientists like Isaac Newton began to publish their discoveries, they could influence a much wider circle of scientific minded readers by his scientific logic.

 (3) The writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau were also widely printed and read.

 (4) Those who read these books, saw the world through new eyes, eyes that were questioning, critical and rational.

(5) There was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticized their morality.

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

Very Short Answers:-

1.Mention any one characteristic feature of an offset press.

 Ans. The offset press could print up to six colors at a time.

2.Which brothers of Germany contributed in compiling the text for children?

Ans. Grimm Brothers

3.How did publishers sustain market during the Great Depression? Give one measure.

Ans. To sustain market during Great Depression, publishers brought out cheap paperback edition.

4.Mention one major contribution of Richard.

Ans. Hoe in developing printing press.              

5.Name two best known women novelists of Europe who re-defined the picture of women in society.

Ans. Jane Austen and Bronte sisters, George Eliot.

6.Who compiled folk-tales in Germany ?

Ans. The Grimm Brothers.

Long Answers:-

1.What motivated a large number of children, women and workers in Europe to become readers? Support your answer with examples.

 Ans. (1) As primary education became compulsory from the late 19th century, children became an snewortant category of readers.

(2) A children’s press, devoted to literature for children alone, was set up in France in 1857 This press published new works as well as old fairy tales and folk-tales.

(3) The Grimm brothers in Germany spent years compiling traditional folk-tales gathered from peasants.

(4) Women became important as readers as well as writers. When novels began to be written in the nineteenth century, women were seen as important readers. Some of the best-known novelists were women : Jane Austen, the Bronte Sisters, George Eliot.

(5) In the 19th century, lending libraries in England became instruments for educating White-collar workers, artisans and lower middle class people.

2.”As primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century, children became an important category of readers.” Explain the statement with suitable example.

Ans.  (1)As primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century, children became an important category of readers. 

(2) A children’s press devoted to literature for children alone was set up in France 1857. This press published new works as well as old fairy tales and folk-tales.

(3) The Grimm Brothers in Germany compiled traditional folk-tales which were published ju a collection in. 1812.

 (4) Anything that was considered unsuitable for children or would appear vulgar to the elites, was not included in the published vc-sion.

(5) The best women novelists were Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, George Eliot. Their writings became important in defining a new type of woman: a person with will, strength of personality, determination and the power to think.

3.Explain the strategies that were adopted by the publishers and printers to sell their products in the 19th and 20th century England.

 Ans. Strategies adopted by publishers and printers were as under:

(1) Publishers and printers developed new strategies to sell their products.

 (2) Periodicals, serialized novels gave birth to a particular way of writing novels.

 (3) In England, popular works were sold in cheap series, called the Shilling series.

 (4) The dust cover or the book jacket was innovated.

(5) At the beginning of the Great Depression, publishers brought out cheap paperback editions.

4.Highlight any three innovations which have improved the printing technology from nineteenth century onwards.

Or

“There were a series of further innovations in printing technology; during 19th century” Elucidate with examples.                                                                                                

Or

 Describe any three innovations in printing technology during the 19th century.          

Ans. In the late 19th century, there were series of innovations in printing technology.

(1) Power driven cylindrical press was perfected. Offset press was developed which could print up to six colors at a time.

 (2) Cylindrical press was capable of printing 8000 sheets per hour. This press was useful for printing newspapers.

(3) From the turn of the twentieth century electrically operated presses accelerated printing operations. Methods of feeding paper improved better plates, automatic paper reels and photo-electric controls of the color improved printing.

5.”Printing technology gave women a chance to share their feelings with the world outside.” Support the statement with any five suitable examples.

Ans. (1) Women became important as readers as well as writers.

 (2) Penny magazines were especially meant for women as were manuals teaching proper behavior and house-keeping.

(3) When novels began to be written in the nineteenth century, women were seen as important readers.

(4) Some of the best-known novelists were women: Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, George Eliot.

(5)Their writings became important in defining a new type of woman: a person with will, strength of personality, determination and the power to think.

6.How did print culture affect women in 19th century Europe? Explain.

Ans. (1) Women became important as readers as well as writers.

 (2) Penny magazines were especially meant for women as were manuals teaching proper behavior and house-keeping.

 (3) When novels were written, they defined a new type of woman, as a person with will strength of personality, determination and the power to think.

 (4) The novels depicted women as assertive and aware of their rights.

 (5) Many of the women writers wrote about the lives that women were leading. This made them aware of what was happening outside.

7.”The 19th century saw vast leaps in mass literacy in Europe bringing in large numbers of new readers among children, women and workers.” Support the statement with examples.

Or

 Explain any three reasons which created a large number of new readers in the 19th century,

Or

 Explain any five reasons for bringing in large number of new readers among children, women and workers during the late 19th century.

 Ans. Unprecedented growth in literacy, schools and production of books in Europe created a love for reading :

Children : (i) Primary education became compulsory. (ii) Children became an important category of readers.

(iii) Production of school textbooks became critical for the publishing industry

(iv) A children’s press was set up in France.

 (v) The Grimm Brothers in Germany compiled folk tales from peasants and published a collection in 1812.

(2) Women : (i) Women became important as readers and writers.

(ii) Penny magazines were meant for women as well as manuals teaching proper behavior and house-keeping.

(iii) Some of the best known novelists were women.

 (iv) A new type of women was defined as a person with will, strength of personality, determination and the power to think.

Workers: (i) Lending libraries in England became instruments for educating white color workers, artisans and lower middle class people.

(ii) Workers wrote political tracts and autobiographies.

INDIA AND THE WORLD OF PRINT

Very Short Answers:-

1.Mention the technique of preserving the manuscript in India.

Or

Mention any one technique of preserving the manuscript in India.                        

 Ans. To preserve the manuscripts in India, they were pressed between wooden covers or sewn together.

2.When did the first printing press come to India?

Ans. Printing press came to India in mid-sixteenth century.

3.Name the first weekly that appeared in India.

Ans. Bengal Gazettes

4.Who started to edit the Bengal Gazette weekly in 1780?

Ans. James Augustus Hickey started to edit the Bengal Gazette weekly in 1780.

Short Answers:-

1.What is manuscript? Mention any two limitations of it, during nineteenth century

Ans. (1) Manuscripts are handwritten copies.

(2) Manuscripts were highly expensive and fragile.

 (3) They had to be handled carefully and they could not be read easily as the scripts were written in different styles.

2.Highlight any three limitations of hand written manuscripts in India.

Or

 Write any three limitations of ancient Indian manuscripts.

Or

 Write any three limitations of handwritten manuscripts in India.

Or

Explain any three limitations of handwritten manuscripts in India.

Ans. (1) Manuscripts were highly expensive and fragile.

(2) They had to be handled carefully.

(3) They could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles.

 So, manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life.

3.How were manuscripts written in India before the age of print? Mention any two drawbacks of manuscripts.

Or

 Explain any three features of hand written manuscripts in India before the age of print.

Ans. (1) (i) Manuscripts were written in Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian as well as in various vernacular languages.

(ii) Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper.

(iii) Pages were sometimes, beautifully illustrated. They would be either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation.

Difficulties in using manuscripts:

(i) Manuscripts was highly expensive and fragile.

(ii) They had to be handled carefully and they could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles.

4.”The Bengal Gazette was a commercial paper open to all, but influenced by none.” Justify the claim of James Augustus Hickey.                                                                                            

Or

Describe the history of Bengal Gazette weekly magazine.

Or

Why did James Augustus Hickey claim that the Bengal Gazette was “a commercial paper open to all, but influenced by none”? Explain.        

 Ans. (1) Bengal Gazette was a private English weekly magazine in India, independent from colonial influence.

 (2) Hickey not only published a lot of advertisements including the import and sale of slaves but also published lots of gossips about the company’s senior officials in India.

 (3) His activities led to his execution by the Governor General, Warren Hastings.

5.Trace the history of print revolution in India.

Or

 What was the role of missionaries in the growth of press in India?

Or

When did printing press come to our country? Describe the various languages in which books were printed.                                                                                                                      

Or

Examine the role of missionaries in the growth of press in India.            

Or

 When did the first printing press come to India and write a brief story of its 80 growth.

Ans. History of print revolution in India: (1) The printing press first came to Goa with the Portuguese missionaries in the mid-16th century.

(2)Books were printed in Konkani and Kannada languages.

 (3)Catholic priests printed the first Tamil book in 1579 at Cochin.

 (4) By 1710, Dutch Protestant missionaries had printed 32 Tamil texts; many of them were translations of older works. Press

(5) By 1780, James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly.

(6) By the close of the 18th century, a number of newspapers were published by Indians.

6.What were the three defects in copying manuscripts? Mention any two uses of printing

Or

Which three difficulties are faced in copying manuscripts? Mention any two.

Ans. (1) Defects: (i) Copying manuscript was expensive.

(ii) It was laborious and time-consuming.

(iii) Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle.

 (2) Uses: (i) It enabled people to provide books at greater speed.

(ii) The production of books in large numbers created a new culture of reading.

Long Answers:-

1.Briefly describe the history of print revolution in India.  

Ans. (1) India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscript in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and vernacular languages but manuscript could not be used widely so the printing press entered India through Goa with Portuguese missionaries in mid-sixteenth century

 (2) By 1674 about 50 books had been printed in the Konkani and in Kannada language.

 (3) Dutch Protestant missionaries had printed 32 Tamil texts; many of them were translations of older works by 1710.

 (4) From 1780 James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly magazine.

(5) By the close of eighteenth century, a number of newspapers and journals appeared in print.

(6) Many Indians also began to publish Indian newspapers. The first was the weekly Bengal Gazette brought out by Gangadhar Bhattacharya.

2.Describe the manuscripts in India before printing press actually came to our country.

Ans. (1) India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts in Sanskrit Arabic, Persian as well as vernacular languages.

 (2) Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper.

(3) Pages were sometimes, beautifully illustrated.

(4) They were either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation.

 (5) Manuscripts, however, were highly expensive and fragile.

3.Write a short note on James Augustus Hickey.                                  

Ans. (1) James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette from 1780.

(2) It was a weekly magazine that described itself as ‘a commercial paper open to all, but influenced by none.’

(3) It was private English enterprise proud of its independence from colonial influence that began English printing in India.

(4) Hickey published a lot of advertisements including those that related to the import and sale of slaves.

 (5) He also published a lot of gossip about the company’s senior officials in India.

4.”India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts” Explain the statement with examples.  

 Ans. (1) Really, India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts in Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persians as well as in various vernacular languages.

(2) Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper.

(3) Pages were sometimes beautifully illustrated. They would be either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation. Manuscripts continued to be produced till well after the introduction of print, down to the late 19th century.

(4) Manuscripts were highly expensive and fragile. So, manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life.

 (5) Even though pre-colonial Bengal had developed an extensive network of vine. primary schools, students very often did not read texts. Many thus became literate wiener ever actually reading any kinds of texts.

5.Give a brief account of manuscripts of India.

Ans. (1) Manuscript refers to a very old book or document that was written by hand.

 (2) India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, as well as in various vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper.

 (3) Pages were sometimes beautifully illustrated.

(4) These hand written documents provide information on the existence of different civilizations and emphasize on the importance of their survival. They continued to be produced till well after the introduction of print, down to the late 19th century

(5) Manuscripts, however, were highly expensive and fragile. They had to be handled carefully and they could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles. So, manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life.

6.Write a brief note on the development of print culture in India.

Or

How did the print culture develop in India? Explain

Ans: (1) By 1674, about 50 books had been printed in the Konkani and in Kannada languages.

(2) By 1710, Dutch Protestant missionaries had printed 32 Tamil texts; many of them were translations of older works.

(3) From 1780, James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly magazine.

(4) By the close of the eighteenth century, a number of newspapers and journals app( in print. There were Indians, too, who began to publish Indian newspapers.

 (5) The first to appear was the weekly Bengal Gazette, brought out by Gangadhar Bhattacharya

7.How did the Indians manage before the age of print? When and how did the technique begin in India?

Or

Describe the coming of print technology in India.

Or

How did the printing technique begin in India? Describe.

AIM. (1) (I) Before the age of print in India, ideas and information were written by hand in the form of manuscripts.

(ii) The manuscripts were copied and illustrated on palm leaves sewn together or on hand-made paper.

(2) (i) The printing technology was first introduced in Goa, India by the Portuguese missionaries in the mid-16th century.

(ii) By 1674, about 50 books had been printed in vernacular languages.

(iii) The English printing press as compared to vernacular language press came out late.

(iv) Indians themselves contributed. Gangadhar Bhattacharya published the English newspaper, weekly Bengal Gazette.

                                                         RELIGIOUS REFORM AND PUBLIC DEBATES  

Very Short Answers:-

1.Name the first edition of the Indian religious text published in vernacular languages

Ans. Catholic priests printed the first Tamil book on Indian religion in 1579.

2.Who was the publisher of Sambaed Kumauni in 1821?

Ans. The publisher of Sam had Kumauni was Ramous Roy.

 Short Answers:-

1.Why did the Muslim Mama in India want to introduce religious reforms in Islam? Give any three reasons.

 Ans. (1) In north India, Muslim! Manias wore anxious about the collapse of Mush° Dynasties. So to counter the fear of conversion, U lamas wanted to introduce religious rah in India.

(2) The fatwa’s were issued as Lamas feared that colonial rulers would change the Muslim personal laws.

(3) To save the Muslims from the influence of colonial rulers thousands upon thousands of fatwa’s telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives, and explaining the meanings of Islamic doctrines, were issued.

2.How did print encourage the reading of religious texts among the Hindus? Explain.

Ans. (1) Among Hindus, print encouraged the reading of religious texts especially in vernacular languages.

(2) The first printed edition of the Ramcharitmanas of Topsides — a sixteenth century text came out from Calcutta in 1810. After this, mid-nineteenth century cheap lithographic editions flooded north Indian markets.

(3) Religious texts, therefore, reached a very wide circle of people encouraging reading, debates and discussions among different religions.

3.”With the coming of print, the Lamas were deeply anxious about the colt lapis setoff l\ides dynasties and feared that colonial rulers would encourage conversion.”                      

 Ans. (1) Lamas feared that colonial rulers would encourage conversion. To counter this, they used cheap lithographic presses, published Persian and Urdu translations of Holy Scriptures and printed religious newspapers and tracts.

 (2) The Disband Seminary published fatwa’s telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives, and explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines.

 (3)A number of Muslim sects and seminaries appeared, each with a different interpretation of faith, each keen on enlarging its following and countering the influence of its opponents.

Long Answers:-

1.Explain the impact of print culture on the religious reforms in India during nineteenth century.

 Ans. The impact of print culture on the religious reforms in India during 19th century was as follows:

(1) Print led to intense controversies between social and religious reformers and Hindu orthodoxy over matters likes widow immolation, monotheism, brahmanical system, priesthood and idolatry.

 (2) With the coming of print, Lamas feared that colonial rulers would encourage conversion. To counter this they used cheap lithography presses. They published Persian and Urdu translation of Holy Scriptures and printed religious newspapers and tracts.

(3) Ramona Roy published the `Sambaed Kumauni’ from 1821 and Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the `Sam char Chandrika’ to oppose his opinions.

(4) In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated circulating a variety of arguments.

 (5) A number of Muslim sects and seminaries appeared each with a different interpretation of faith, each keen on enlarging its following and countering the influence of its opponents.

2.”Print led to intense controversies between social and religious reformers and Hindu orthodoxy.” Support this statement with examples.

Ans. (1) Print led to intense controversies between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, brahmanical priesthood and idolatry

(2) In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated circulating a variety of arguments.

(3) To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday, spoken language of ordinary people.

(4) Ramona Roy published the ‘Sambaed Kumauni’ from 1821 and the Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the ‘Sam char Chandrika’ to oppose his opinions.

(5) From 1822, two Persian newspapers were published, `Jam-I-Johan Name’ and ‘Shamus Akbar’.

3.How did religious communities in India make use of printing technology tell their ideas? Explain.

 Ans. Religious communities in India used print to spread their religions.

 (1) In Bengal, `Sam char Chandrika’ was published by Hindu orthodoxy.

(2) In North India, the Lamas, fearing the loss of Muslim culture, used lithographic press to publish Persian and Urdu translation of Holy Scriptures.

 (3) Hindus published religious texts like Ramcharitmanas in vernacular language from Calcutta.

(4) Naval Inshore Press and Sheri Venkateshwar Press also started printing religious books.

 (5) Persian and Gujarati papers were printed for the common people.

4.Explain the role of print in the religious reforms in India.

Or

 Explain how print culture contributed to religious reforms and public debates.

Ans. (1) From the early nineteenth century there was intense debate around religious issues. Different groups confronted the changes happening within colonial society in different ways and offered a variety of new interpretations of the beliefs of different religions.

 (2) To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday’s spoken language of ordinary people. Ramona Roy published the `Sambaed Kumauni’ and the Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the `Sam char Chandrika’ to oppose his opinions.

 (3) The first printed edition of the Ramcharitmanas of Topsides came out from Calcutta in 1810.

(4) The Naval Inshore Press at Luck now and the Sheri Venkteshwar Press in Bombay published numerous religious texts in vernaculars.

(5) From 1822, two Persian newspapers were published `Jam-i-Johan Name and `Shame, Akbar’.

5.How did print help connect communities and people in different parts of India? I explain with examples.                                                           

Or

 “Print did not only stimulate the publication of conflicting opinions among communities, but it also connected communities and people in different parts of India.” Support the statement with examples.                          

Or

Evaluate the role of print in connecting the various communities in different Part of India.

Or

 Print not only stimulates the publication of conflicting opinions among communities Si people in different parts of the India. Explain.

Ans. print medium gave a new platform for expressing and getting end info tin. Print media was also cheap and easy way to commune communities in these ways:

 (1) Newspapers conveyed news from one place to the other creating pan-Indian identities.

(2) Newspapers also reported the problems of different parts of India by which people of India thought that their enemy is the same.

(3) Religious texts reached a wide circle of people encouraging debates, discussions, within and among different religions.

(4) Printed tracts and newspapers not only spread the new ideas, but they shaped the nature of the debate too.

(5) A wider public could now participate in these public discussions and express their views.

NEW FORMS OF PUBLICATION

Very Short Answers:-

1.Who wrote Gulamgiri, which criticized the injustice of caste system?

 Ans. Jyotiba Phyla wrote Gulamgiri which criticized the injustice of caste system.

2.Name the autobiography of Rashsundari Devi.   

Ans. The name of the autobiography of Rashsundari Devi was ‘Amax. Jib an’.

3.Name the book by Kashibaba that had detailed the experiences of poor workers in India.

Ans. Kashibaba wrote and published ‘Chute Aura Bade Ka Sewall’ in 1938 on the poor workers of factories.

4.Which book of Jyotiba Phyla focuses on the injustices of caste system in India?

Ans. Jyotiba Phyla wrote about the injustice of the caste system in his book ‘Gulamgiri’ in 1971.

Short Answers:-

1.Name any three women writers in India with their books.

Ans. (1) Rashsundari Devi: She wrote her autobiography ‘Amor Jib an’ which were published in 1876. It was the first full length autobiography published in the Bengali language.

(2) Hannah Mullins: She was the author of Warne 0 Pulmonary Bib ran% She wrote this novel in 1852. She tells her readers that she wrote in secret.

 (3) Rekey Hussein: She wrote a satiric fantasy in English called ‘Sultana’s Dream 1905 which shows a topsy-turvy world in which women take the place of men. ISOIS’

Long Answers:-

1.Describe the new forms of publications that came out at the end of the mil’ tenth century and in the beginning of the 20th century

 Ans. (1) By the end of nineteenth century, a new visual culture was taking shape. With the setting up of an increasing number of printing presses, visual images could be easily reproduced in multiple copies.

(2) Cheap prints and calendars were easily available in the market. Even poor were buying these and decorating the walls of their houses.

(3) These prints began shaping popular ideas about modernity and tradition religion and politics as well as society and culture.

 (4) Caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and newspapers, commenting on social and political issues.

 (5) Some caricatures ridiculed the educated Indian’s fascination with western clothes and taste, while other expressed the fear of social change.

2.Analyze the impact of print culture on industrial workers in India during 19th and 20th centuries.

 Ans. (1) During 19th and 20th centuries industrial workers in factories were too over worked and lacked the education to write much about their experiences.

(2) But Kashibaba, a mill worker wrote and published ‘Choate Aura Bade ka Sewall in 1938 to show the links between caste and class exploitation published his collection of poems called ‘Sac chi

(3) Another Kanpur worker wrote and   Kavitayen’ under the name of ‘Sudarshan Chakra’ between 1935 and 1955. By 1930s Bangalore cotton mill workers set up libraries to educate themselves following the example of Bombay workers them to bring literacy and sometimes, to propagate the message of nationalism.

These were sponsored by social reformers who tried to restrict excessive drinker of nineteenth century.

3.Explain the characteristics of the new visual culture that was taking shape

Ans. Printing presses also started producing visual arts. In these periods-

 (1) With the setting up of an increasing number of printing presses, visual images Some key features for visual arts are s could painters also emerged who helped to shape the visual culture be easily reproduced in multiple copies.

(2) Painters like Raja Ravi Varna produced image for mass circulation.

(3) Cheap prints and calendars were easily available in bazaar.

(4) These prints began shaping popular ideas about modernity and tradition, religion and politics, and society and culture.

(5) Caricatures and cartoons began to be published in newspapers, commenting on social and political issues.

4.Write a brief note on the works of women writers.

Ans. (1) Rashsundari Debi, a young married girl in a very orthodox household, learnt to read in the secrecy of her kitchen. Later, she wrote her autobiography ‘Amir Jib an’ which were up lashed in 1876. It was the first full length autobiography published in the Bengali langue e.

(2) Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting the experience of women—about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labor and treated unjustly by the very people they served.

(3) In the 1880s, in present-day Maharashtra, Arabia Shined and Pundit Arabia wrote with passionate anger about the miserable lives of upper-caste Hindu women, especially widow.

(4) A woman in a Tamil novel expressed what reading meant to women who were so greatly confined by social regulations: ‘For various reasons my world is small More than half my life’s happiness has come from books…’

(5) In 1926, Begum Rekey Sakhawat Hussein, an educationist and literary figure’ strongly condemned men for withholding education from women in the name of religion.

5.Describe the issue of caste as taken by the novelists in India wrote about

Ans. (1) Jyotiba Phyla, the Maratha pioneer of low caste protest movements, Yoro the injustices of the caste system in his Gulamgiri.

(2) In the twentieth century, B.R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E.V. Ramaswamy Nail in Madras wrote on caste and their writings were read by people all over India.

 (3) Local protest movements and sects also created a lot of popular journals and tracts criticizing ancient scriptures and envisioning a new and just future.

(4) Kashibaba, a Kanpur mill worker wrote `Chute Auto. Bade Ka Sewall’ in 1938 to show the links between caste and class exploitation.

 (5) The poems of Sudarshan Chakra were brought together and published in a collection called Sac chi Kavitayen.

6.From the late 19th century issues of caste discrimination began to be written about in many printed tracts and essays. Support the statement by giving examples.

Or

How did issues of caste discrimination begin to be written in many printed tracts and essays from the late nineteenth century? Explain with examples.

 Ans. From 19th century, issues of caste discrimination began to be written.

(1) Jyotiba Phyla wrote about the injustice of the caste system in his “Gulamgiri”.

(2) B.R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E.V. Ramaswamy in Madras wrote powerfully on caste. Local protest movements created journals.

(3) Workers were over–burdened and lacked in the education to write much.

 (4) Kashibaba, a mill worker wrote “Chute Aura Bade ka Sewall”.

(5) Bangalore cotton mill workers set up libraries to educate themselves.

7.What was the attitude of people in India in the nineteenth century towards women reading? How did women respond to this?

Or

What was the attitude of liberal and conservative Indians towards women’s reading during 19th century?                                                                                

Or

Why were women not educated in India in the early part of nineteenth century? Give any two reasons.                                                                                                                          

Or

What was the attitude of liberal and conservative Indians towards women’s reading? How did women like Kailashbashini Debi respond to this in their writings?

Ans. (1) Liberal husbands and fathers began educating their women folk at home and sent them to women’s schools when they were set up in the towns and cities.

 (2) Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed and Muslims feared that educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu romances.

 (3) Women rebelled a and denied such prohibitions.

 (4) Many women emerged as writers who wrote in various languages. They wrote their experiences and brought awareness by their writings. For example, Rashsundri D wry an autobiography Amir Jib an in Bengali.

 (5) In 1926, Begum Rekey Sakhawat Hussein, a noted educationist and literary figure strongly condemned men for withholding education from women in the name of religion.

8.How did the practice of reading and writing increase among women in India in that 19th century? Support your answer with the help of examples.

Ans. (1) Liberal fathers and husbands began educating their womenfolk. Many journals started advocating women’s education.

(2) Women in conservative houses began to learn reading, writing in secrecy.

(I) Rashsundari Debi learnt to read in secrecy of her kitchen and wrote her autobiography Ram Jib an’.

(ii) Kailashbashini Debi wrote books about painful experiences how women had to gab through in their families.

(iii) Arabia Shined and Pundit Arabia wrote about the miserable lives of widows upper-caste Hindu families.

 (3) Women’s world was small and books became their best companions.

9.What was the impact of printed books on women in India in the 19th century? Explain.

Or

 Evaluate the impact of print culture on Indian women.

Or

Explain with examples the impact of print culture on Indian women.

Or

Explain any three impacts of printed books on women in India in the nineteenth century

Ans. (1) Print enabled women to read in silence, discuss and debate among the like-minded persons.

(2) It provided a pivotal role in women’s self-improvement, self-expression by shaping their ideas.

(3) It helped to connect women of different parts — whatever be their caste, class urn religion.

(4) Many turned writers e.g., Kailashbashini Debi of Bengal. They represented a new type of women — a woman with the power to think and the ability to act with determination-

(5) Many liberal husbands and fathers were convinced by the writings and reformers began educating their women folk.

10.What was the impact of print culture on the poor people of India during the 19th century?

Or

 What were the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in 19th century Sit Describe?

Ans:- Impact of print culture on the poor people of India during the 19th century:-

(1) Very cheap or low Cost book encouraged and allowed poor people to bur theme to

(2) Issue a caste discrimination became a subject of wry g. JOON% Pale , Ilrulannprit, Dr, O.K. Ambedkar and Partier (KV Rama Swami Necker) wrote pawitauw caste and their writings attracted people all over India

(3) Kashibaba, a Kanpur mill worker wrote and published `Chute Aura Bade Ka Sewall’ to show the links between caste and class exploitation.

(4) Social reformers sponsored libraries to educate the mill workers.

 (5) There was an effort to bring literacy to curb the social evils and to propagate the message of nationalism.

PRINT AND CENSORSHIP

Very Short Answers:-

1.How did Governor General William Bentinck react to the petition filed by editors of English and vernacular newspapers?

 Ans. Governor-general Bentinck agreed to revise press laws in 1835.

2.Who agreed to revise Press Laws in 1835?

 Ans. William Bentinck

3.Name the newspaper started by Bal Gangadhar Tikal in India in 19th century

Ans. Cesar

4.What was Vernacular Press Act?                                

Ans. The Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878 under the Governor Generalship and Viceroyalty of Lord Lytton, for the better control of Indian language newspapers.

5.How did the Vernacular Press Act strengthen the British government in India?

Ans. Vernacular Press Act, 1878 provided the British Government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials.

Long Answers:-

  1. Analyze the colonial influence on printing in India with the help of examples.

Ans. (1) Printing in India has a great influence on colonial rule. Despite repressive measures, nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India.

(2) These newspapers reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities. Attempt to throttle nationalist criticism provoked militant protest.

(3) When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907, Balgangadhar Tikal wrote with great sympathy about them in his Cesar.

 (4) Sometimes, government found hard to find candidates for editorship of loyalist papers. When Sanders, editor of the Statesman that had been founded in 1877, was approached, he asked rudely how much he would be paid for suffering the loss of freedom.

(5) The Friend of India, refused a government subsidy fearing that this would force it to be obedient to government commands.

2.What steps were taken by the British to curb the freedom of press?

Ans. (1) After the revolt of 1857, the attitude to freedom of press changed.

(2) Enraged Englishmen demanded control on the vernacular press as they were becoming nationalists.

(3) In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed allowing rights to censor reports.

(4) Now, the government kept regular check on the vernacular newspapers published in different provinces.

(5) When a report was judged seditious, the newspapers were warned, if warning was ‘-nrinrsa ti-n morale would be seized.

3.Why did British government curb the freedom of the Indian press after the revolt 1857

Ans. (1) (i) After the revolt of 1857, the attitude to freedom of the press changed. 911 activities. When Punjab revolutionaries were deported.

(ii) Tikal wrote with great sympathy began debating measures of stringent control.

(iii) As vernacular newspaper became assertively nationalist, the colonial

 (iv) In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed.

(2) Nationalist newspapers reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist

(ii) Enraged Englishmen demanded a clamp down on the native press. government about them in his Cesar.

4.Write note on Vernacular Press Act.

Or

Critically examine Vernacular Press Act of 1878.                             

 Ans. (1) After the revolt of 1857, enraged Englishmen demanded a clamp down on the ‘native’ press.

(2) Vernacular newspapers became assertively nationalist.

 (3) The colonial government wanted stringent control. So, in 1878 the Vernacular Press Act was passed.

 (4) It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in vernacular press.

(5) Government kept a regular track and seditious newspapers were warned. Sometimes, press was liable to be seized and the printing machinery confiscated.

5.Why did the British government pass the Vernacular Press Act in 1878? What powers did it give to the government?

Or

Why was Vernacular Press Act passed? Explain about this act.                                

Or

What led the colonial government to pass the Vernacular Press Act in 1878? How did it affect the vernacular newspapers?                                                       

 Ans. (1) (i) The Vernacular Press Act was passed because the vernacular newspapers were assertively nationalist.

(ii) They openly criticized and debated the government policies.

(2) (i) The Vernacular Press Act of 1878 was passed which empowered the government to censor reports and editorials.

(ii) Government kept a regular watch on vernacular newspapers. If a report was judged seditious, the newspaper was warned and if warning was ignored, actions were taken.

 (iii) In the case of violation of the Act was repeated, the press was seized and the machine’ were confiscated.

6.How did print culture contribute to the growth of nationalism in India?

Or

How did the print culture assist the growth of nationalism in India?

Or

 Print played a significant role in awakening sentiments of nationalism amongst the Indians. Explain the statement with examples.                                                                                                            

Or

 “Nationalism in India grew because of the contribution made by print culture.” Support the statement with suitable examples.                                                                                                 

Or

Explain how the print culture led to the growth of nationalism in India.                  

Ans. (1) Print culture played a vital role in the growth of nationalism in India. In the nineteenth century a large quantity of national literature was created. It tried to connect communities in different parts of India. Newspapers conveyed news from one place to another, creating pan-Indian identities.

(2) Bangalore cotton mill workers set-up libraries to educate themselves, following example of Bombay workers. They were sponsored by social reformers who tried to restrict excessive drinking among them and bring literacy and propagate the message of nationalism.

(3) Despite repressive measures, nationalist newspapers grew in number in all parts of India. They reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities. Attempts to throttle nationalist criticism provoked militant protest. This, in turn, led to a renewed cycle of persecution and protests.

(4) When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907, Balgangadhar Tikal wrote with great sympathy about them in his Cesar.

 (5) This led to his imprisonment in 1908, provoking, in turn, widespread protests all over India.

7.”Printing technology proved revolutionary during 18th-20th century”

 In the light of the above statement, mention how it was expected to bring enlightens and end despotism in the world.

Ans. (1) By spreading knowledge and information.

(2) By developing rational thinking and scientific outlook.

(3) By spreading liberalism and democratic ideas.

 (4) By criticizing colonialism and colonial powers.

(5) By spreading great ideas of philosophers, scientists, politicians, etc.

(6) By providing opportunities to the common people to express their views.

8.”In British India, the government tried to control the freedom of the press by passing acts and regulations.”

In the light of the above statement, what do you think how were the interests of the People and country affected due to press control?

 Ans. (1) Natural right to express ideas and opinions was affected.

 (2) Government could not be criticized for its administrative malpractices.

(3) It affected the process of integration of the people and Indian states as a country.

(4) Various nationalistic ideas were stopped from spreading.

(5)penlight The ideas the co m of Phimonlosopherpeopls, scientists, politicians and other thinkers could not reach to en e.

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