Ch. – 3 Nationalism in India Extra Questions and Notes

By | September 21, 2018

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Chapter- 3 Nationalism in India

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Very Short Answers:-

1.What was Mahatma Gandhi’s reaction on Rowlett act?

Or

Trace the reason because of which Gandhi started Satyagraha in 1919.                     

Ans. Gandhi decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlett Act

2.State the reason for the Satyagraha started by Gandhi at Champ ran in Bihar.

Ans. Gandhi started Satyagraha at Champ ran against the oppressive plantation system.

3.What did British do to repress the Rowlett Satyagrahis?                

Ans. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.

4.Why had Mahatma Gandhi wanted to join Khilafat issue?        

Or

Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to join Khilafat issue?                                          

 Ans. Mahatma Gandhi wanted to join Khilafat issue because he saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.

5.What decision was made in Congress Session at Nagpur in December 1920?

 Ans. Non-Cooperation programmed was adopted.

6.Who started the Khilafat Movement?                        

 Ans.  Muslim leaders  Muhammad Ali and Shauna Ali.

7.What resolution was passed at Calcutta Session of Congress, in September 1920?

Ans. To launch Non-Cooperation Movement

8.State one feature of Rowlett Act of 1919.                                        

Ans. The Rowlett Act (1919) allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two TS.

9.What does `Idea of Satyagraha’ mean?

 Ans. The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.

10.Describe the Knead Movement?

Ans. Peasants wanted relaxation in revenue as

11.Describe the Champ ran Movement.

Or

What was the thamparan Satyagraha’?

Ans. Champ ran Movement was against the of Bruisers.

12.Who wrote the book ‘Hind Sara’?

 Ans. Mahatma Gandhi

13.Where did Mahatma Gandhi first try the weapon of Satyagraha?           

Ans. Mahatma Gandhi first tried the weapon of Satyagraha in South Africa.

Long Answers:-

1.Describe the different events of National Satyagraha started by Gandhi against the Rowlett Act.                                                                                                                           

Ans. (1) Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a herbal on 6 April, 1919.

(2) Rallies were organized in various cities, workers went on strike in railways, workshops, and shops were closed down.

(3) A peaceful protest meeting was organized at Jallianwala Bag in Amritsar.

(4) Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.

(5) Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

2.What was the Khilafat Movement? Explain.

Or

Explain briefly the Khilafat Movement in India.                                                              

Ans. (1) In the First World War, at the end, Turkey was defeated. There were rumors that a harsh treaty is to be imposed on the Halifax, the spiritual head of the Muslims all over the world.

 (2) The aim of the Khilafat Movement was to defend the Halifax’s temporal powers. So, to defend Halifax’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.

(3) A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Mohammad All and Shauna Ali, consulted Gandhi for his support.

(4) Gandhi saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.

 (5) Gandhi gave his consent to support this movement at the Calcutta Session of the Congress.

3.Explain the impact of Jallianwala Bag incident on the people.                           

Or

What were the effects of the Jallianwala Bag massacre? Explain.                               

 Ans. (1) As the news of Jallianwala Bag spread, crowd took to the streets in many north Indian towns.

(2) There were strikes, clashes with the police.

(3) Attacks on government buildings were reported.

 (4) The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorize people.

(5) Since Dyer later himself declared that his object was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.

 (6) This gruesome tragedy earned wide-spread hatred among masses toward Bruisers.

(7) It disseminated the discontentment and gave rise to country-wide movement.            

4.Describe the different factors that shaped the political situation in the late 1920s.

Ans. (1) The movement against the Rowlett Act though widespread movement, but was still confined to cities and towns.

(2) Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India.

(3) But, he was certain no such movement could be organized without bringing the Hindus and Muslims together.

 (4) One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue, and use it as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.

(5)At the Calcutta Session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced the leaders over the need to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swami.

5.Explain the Khilafat Movement. Why did Gandhi consider it important to support the Khilafat Movement?

Or

Why did Gandhi decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlett Act, 1919? Explain.                                                                                            

Or

 Explain the issue behind the Khilafat Movement.                    

Ans. (1) The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey.

(2) There were rumors that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor — the spiritual head of the Islamic world the Halifax.

(3) ‘lb defend the Halifax’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.

(4) After the Rowlett Act, Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a wide-spread movement in India.

(5) lb bring the Hindus and Muslims closer, he felt, to take the Khilafat issue.

(6) Muslim leaders Muhammad Ali and Shauna Ali, began discussing with Gandhi the possibilities of a united mass action on the issue.

 (7) Later at Calcutta Session in September 1920, Gandhi convinced the leaders in Congress, to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat.

6.Explain the major facts about the new economic situation created in India by the First World War.                                                                                                                                              

Or

How did the First World War help in the growth of the National Movement in India ? Explain.

Ans.  The First World War led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.

(1) Custom Duties were raised and Income Tax was introduced.

(2) Through the war year’s price increased to double, leading to extreme hardship for the common people.

(3) Crop failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.

 (4) In the background of the First World War, the government took various coercive measures that set the stage for widespread agitations against the government in return.

(5) People’s hopes for the end of hardships after the war were razed.

(6) At this, new leadership emerged with a new mode of struggle.

(7) From the above development there spread the hatred and great discontent among masses.

 (8) This paved the way for the rise of nationalism in India.

7.What did Gandhi mean when he said Satyagraha is an active resistance ?

Or

 Explain the idea of Satyagraha according to Gandhi.                                                            

Or

Why did Gandhi decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlett Act, 1919? How was it organized? Explain.                                                                                      

 Ans. (1) According to Gandhi the idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.

(2) To him (Gandhi) it is a novel method of mass agitation, which he called Satyagraha.

 (3) His thought that without being aggressive, a Satyagrahi could win the battle through bon-violence.

 (4) This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.

(5) Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

8.According to Gandhi, what should be the various stages of the Non-Cooperation Movement?                                                

Ans. (1) It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded.

 (2) It should be followed by a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.

 (3) The extensive countrywide tours were made by Mahatma Gandhi and Shauna Ali to mobilize the popular support for the movement.

(4) There were speculations that the boycott of council election scheduled for 1920 might lead to popular violence.

(5) Amidst state of confusion at Nagpur in the Congress Session, in 1920 Non-Cooperation programmed was adopted.

9.Describe the Jallianwala Bag incident of 1919.                                            

Or

 Describe the incident of Jallianwala Bag which took place during the British Rule.       

Ans. (1) On 13th April, 1919, a crowd of villagers had gathered at Jallianwala Bag. They had come to Amritsar to attend an annual fair.

(2) They were unaware of the Martial Law imposed in Amritsar.

(3) General Dyer entered the area and blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd. Hundreds of people were killed.

(4) As the news spread out, there were strikes, clashes with the police.

 (5) The government responded with brutal repression by humiliating the people in many ways This resulted in the beginning of Non-Cooperation Movement by Gandhi.

10.How could Non-Cooperation become a movement? Explain with examples.  

Or

 What were the four features of the Non-Cooperation Movement? Explain.                  

 Ans. (1) Mahatma Gandhi thought that the British could establish its rule only with the co-operation of Indians.

 (2) It would collapse if Indians refused cooperation.

(3) Gandhi proposed that it should start in stages — first surrender of titles, second boycott of civil services, armies, police, courts and then a full civil disobedience.

 (4) Countrywide extensive tours were made by Gandhi and Shauna Ali mobilizing popular support for the movement.

11.Describe Gandhi contribution to the Indian Freedom Struggle.

Ans. (1) Mahatma Gandhi dominates the Indian polity since his arrival in 1915 in India.

(2) In 1916, he campaigned against the system of ‘indenture’ laborers.

(3) Under the doctrine of Satyagraha and Non-violence, he innovated the novel mode of movement against unjust rule.

(4) He channelized the people’s grievances into organized movements for independence.

(5) He was apostle of peace and universal brotherhood.

(6) He was the arch believer of equality and equal opportunity for all in the sphere of socio-political and economic domains.

12.Explain the effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front.

Ans. The effects of Non-Cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic:

(1) Foreign goods were boycotted.

 (2) Liquor shops were picketed.

(3) Foreign clothes were burnt in huge bonfires.

(4) The import of foreign goods and cloth was reduced to 50% between 1921-22.

(5) The value of foreign goods import reduced from 102 core to Z 57 core.

(6) Merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trades.

 (7) Production of Indian textile mills and handloom and Khaki went up.

13.Why and how did Mahatma Gandhi use Satyagraha to fight against injustice and denial of rights? Explain with the help of examples.

Ans. (1) Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a novel method of mass agitation, which he called Satyagraha.

 (2) The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.

(3) It suggested that if the cause was true and against injustice then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.

(4) He travelled to Champ ran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.

(5) Then in 1917, he organized a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Knead district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Knead could not pay revenue and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed.

14.What steps were taken by Colonial Government to suppress the growing nationalism in India? Explain.

Ans. Steps taken by Colonial Government to suppress the growing nationalism in India were as follows :

(1) In 1919, Imperial Legislative Council passed Rowlett Act. It gave enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trail for two years.

 (2) When it was opposed by the Indian nationalists, the British administration decided to clamp down on nationalists.

(3) Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.

(4) On 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations.

(5) Martial Law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

15.What was Satyagraha? Explain the three main Satyagrahas launched by Gandhi 111 India.                                                                                                                       Or

 Which three early Satyagrahas were organized by Mahatma Gandhi?

Or

Mention the three movements based on Satyagraha, organized by Mahatma Gandhi on his return to India from South Africa.                                                                        

Or

Which three early Satyagrahas were organized by Mahatma Gandhi                           

 Ans. (1) The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, the fight was against injustice then physical to’ nice was not necessary to fight against the oppressor.

 (2) Following are the three main Satyagrahas launched by Gandhi in India :

 (i) 1916 — Gandhi travelled to Champ ran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle’, against the oppressive plantation system.

 (ii) 1917 — Organization of Satyagraha Movement to support the peasants of Knead district of Gujarat.

(iii) 1918 — Organization of Satyagraha amongst Ahmadabad Cotton Mill workers.

16.What was Rowlett Act? How did the Indians show their disapproval towards this?

Or

What was the Rowlett Act? Why were the Indians outraged by it?                                 

Or

 How was Rowlett Act opposed by the people in India? Explain with examples.           

Or

What was Rowlett Act? Explain the reaction of Indians against the Rowlett Act.

Ans. (1) Rowlett Act was an oppressive Act introduced by the British government in 1919. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

(2) Indians disapproved this Act in the following ways:

(I) Rallies were organized in various cities, workers went on strike in railways, workshops and offices were closed down.

(ii) A peaceful protest meeting was organized at Jallianwala Bag in Amritsar.

(III)Gandhi started a herbal against this unjust law on 6th April, 1919.

(iv) Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Safi-us-din Kitchen were arrested.

 (v) Jallianwala Bag massacre occurred against the arrest of these leaders.

17.Describe the stages of the Non-Cooperation Movement.                                

Or

What were three proposals regarding Non-Cooperation Movement, as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi ?

Or

Mention any three main proposals with reference to Non-Cooperation Movement as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi.                                                                                                                 

Ans. Following were the important stages of Non-Cooperation Movement :

(1) Gandhi proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.

 (2) It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded.

(3) He proposed for boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods. be launched.

(4) If the government used any sort of repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would

(5) Finally, at the Congress Session at Nagpur in December, 1920, the Non-Cooperation Programmed was adopted.

(6) This movement came to halt in 1922 when violence took place at Chauri-Chaura in which the agitating people burnt the police station.

18.When and where was Khilafat Committee formed ? What was its objective?

Ans. (1) It was formed in March, 1919 in Bombay.                                                   

 (2) Objective of Khilafat Committee :

(i) lb defend the temporal powers of the Khakis of ‘fluky, the spiritual head of Islamic world.

 (ii) TO avert a harsh peace treaty (as was approached) which was to be imposed on the Ottoman empire.

19.Explain the ideas of Gandhi as he expressed in the famous book ‘Hind Sara’ regarding Non-cooperation.                                                                                                                             

 Ans. In his book “Hind Sara”, Gandhi gave reasons for the success of the British rule in India and how the Non-Cooperation Movement could make it to collapse.

(1) In his views, the British rule was established in India with the co-operation of Indians and had survived only because of this co-operation.

(2) If Indians refused to cooperate, the British rule would collapse within a year.

(3) The success of Non-Cooperation Movement would bring Sara for the Indian people.

                                                     DIFFERING STRANDS WITHIN THE MOVEMENT

Very Short Answers:-

1.Which movement of Andhra Pradesh joined Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement?

 Ans. The peasant movement of Andhra Pradesh joined Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement.

2.State one demand of peasants in Awadhi.                                                         

Ans. (1) Reduction of revenue and

 (2) Abolition of begat. (any one)

3.How had plantation workers of Assam reacted to Non-Cooperation Movement call?

Ans. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed towards their home.

4.State one impact of reduction of imports during Non-Cooperation Movement.

Ans. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922.

5.State any one feature of ‘Inland Emigration Act’ of 1859.

 Ans. Plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.

6.What was main incident related to Chauri-Chaura Movement?

 Ans. At Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur, in Uttar Pradesh, a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned violent and mob killed twenty policemen.

Short Answers:-

1.Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadhi in the days of bells-Cooperation Movement.

Ans. (1) In Awadhi the talukdars and peasants had to pay exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cusses.

(2) Peasants had to do beggar and work at landlords’ farms without any payment.

(3) As tenants, they had no security of tenure, being regularly evicted so that they could acquire no right over the leased land.

2.Describe the role of the plantation workers of Assam in the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Ans. (1) For plantation workers in Assam, Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement was a medium to oppose the Bruiser’s operative rule.

(2) Thousands of workers had defied the authorities.

(3) They left the plantation and headed to their house however, never reached their destination, stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.

 (4) But plantation workers fully supported the Non-Cooperation Movement.

3.Describe the contribution made by Allure Sitar am Raja to the Non-Cooperation Movement in Andhra Pradesh.                                         

Ans. (1) Raja talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement.

(2) He persuaded people to wear Khaki and give up drinking.

(3) He paradoxically asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence.

(4) He led the Guide Movement and attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving saran.

4.Explain any three features of the peasant movement organized in Awadhi in the second decade of the 20th century.

Or

What were the main demands of the peasants of Oudh

Ans. (1.) In tat, the peasant movement organized in Awadhi in 1920 demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

 (2) In many places local leaders told peasants that the Gandhi had declared that no taxes were to be paid and land was to be redistributed among the poor.

(3) The name of the Mahatma was being invoked to sanction all actions and aspirations.

5.Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slowed down in the cities? Give three reasons.

Or

 Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement slow down in cities? Explain.                 

Ans. The Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slowed down in the cities due to following reasons :

(1) Khaki cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.

(2) For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of British ones.

(3) These were slow to come up. So, students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back their work in government courts.

6.How did the peasants of Awadhi use different methods to achieve their goal? Explain.                                                                                                                                 Or

 What were the methods used by peasants of Awadhi to achieve their goal? Explain.

                                                                                           Or

Describe the peasant movement in Awadhi.                                     

Or

Describe the Awadhi Peasant Movement.

Ans. (1) The peasants of Awadhi had denied began

(2) The peasants organized Panchayats to deprive landlords of services of even barbers and washer men.

(3) The peasants in several villages stopped paying taxes and demanded security of tenure while working on farms.

 (4) Demand for reduction of revenue was also raised by the peasant movement.

Long Answers:-

1.Describe the militant guerrilla movement of Andhra Pradesh.

 Ans. (1) The militant guerrilla movement was led by Allure Sitar am Raja, the follower of Mahatma Gandhi.

(2) The colonial government had closed large forest areas to prevent people from entering the forest to graze their cattle, to collect firewood and fruits. This enraged the hill people as it affected their livelihood and traditional rights.

(3) The government began forcing them to contribute began for mad building, the hill People revolted.

(4) The rebels proclaimed Raja as an incarnation of God as he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people.

(5) The Guide rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on  guerrilla warfare for achieving Sara.

2.How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside?

Ans. (1) Non-Cooperation Movement drew into its fold the struggles of peasants and tribal’s.

(2) In Awadhi, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra, (an indentured labor from Fiji) against the talukdars and landlords churning high rent from peasants.

(3) The peasants rose their voices against beggar and work without any payment.

 (4) In 1920, Oudh Kinas Sabah was set up, headed by Jawaharlal Nehru and Baba Ramchandra.

(5) At Guide Hills in Andhra Pradesh a parallel guerrilla movement was started by Allure Sitar am Raja.

(6) It was against the punitive measures adopted by the Bruisers to prevent the forest, tribal’s to enter the forest enclosures.

3. Describe the rise of peasant agitation under the leadership of Baba Ramchandra and Jawaharlal Nehru in Awadhi.

Ans. (1) In June 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru began going around the villages in Awadhi, talking to the villagers, and trying to understand their grievances.

 (2) By October, the Oudh Kinas Sabah was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others.

(3) Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the villages around the region.

(4) When the Non-Cooperation Movement began the following year, the effort of the Congress was to integrate the Awadhi peasant struggle into a wider struggle.

(5)As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted, and grain hoards were taken over.

4.How did Gandhi convert the national movement into a mass movement?

 Ans. Gandhi personality and lifestyle had a great impact on the minds of the people that helped to convert the national movement into a mass movement.

(1) His simple and saintly life and his style of convincing the masses made him popular.

(2) His undisputed leadership and magnetic personality played great roles.

(3) His policy of non-violent Satyagraha was appreciated.

(4) Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements had mass effects.

 (5) Hay programmed of social reforms like, fighting against un touchability were highly appealing,

 (6) His commitment to Hindu-Muslim unity gave force and shape to the national ibevoment.

5.Describe the contribution of Baba Ramchandra.

Or

 What were the causes of the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement ? Explain.

Ans. Peasants of Awadhi were led by Baba Ram Chandra, a Santali. The movement was against talukdars and landlords.

(1) The talukdars and landlords demanded exorbitantly high rents and other cusses.

(2) Tenants, the farmers Wad, no security of tenure. They had to do beggar and work at landlords’ farms without any payment.

(3) The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

(4) In many places, nay-dhobi bands were organized by Panchayats to deprive land-lords of the services of barbers and washer man.

 (5) Oudh Kinas Sabah was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ram Chandra and few others.

(6) Within a month, over 300 branches were set up in villages.

 (7) In 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over.

TOWARDS CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE

Very Short Answers:-

1.Highlight the demand of the Congress Party at the Lahore Session in 1929.

Ans. Puma Sara’ or full independence.

2.Who formed Sara Party ?

Or

Name the leader who formed the Saran Party within the Congress Party.           

Or

 By whom was the Sara Party formed?

 Ans. C.R. Das and Motile Nehru

3.Which name was given by Gandhi to the davit or the oppressed?

Ans. Harriman

4.Which party was formed under the leadership of C.R. Das and Motile Nehru with the Congress Party ?

 Ans. Sara Party

5.Which was the most important demand that Gandhi put forth in his letter to Viceroy Irwin?  

 Ans. Abolishing salt tax

6.Which movement was called off before 5th March 1931 by Gandhi?

 Ans. Civil Disobedience Movement

7.In which year Waa the Civil-Disobedience Movement called off?

Ans. 1931

Short Answers:-

1. Bring out the attitude of the Congress towards the Davits.

Ans. (1) Many upper caste Hindus were active in the Congress. So, the Congress did not give importance to the demand of the davits.

(2) The davits organized themselves.

 (3) They demanded separate electorates for them. They believed that political empowerment would resolve the problems of their social disabilities.

2.Who organized the Depressed Classes Association and what were the aims of this association ?                                                                                                                       Or

 Who organized the Depressed Classes Association and with what aims?           

Ans. (1) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organized the Depressed Classes Association.

(2) The main aims of this association were:

(i) Reserved seats in educational institutions.

 (ii) Separate electorate that would choose davit members for legislative councils.

3.Critically examine any three efforts made by Mahatma Gandhi to get Harridans their right.

Ans. (1) Mahatma Gandhi declared that Sara would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called `untouchables’ harridan, or the children of God.

(2) He organized Satyagraha to secure their entry into temples, and access to public wells, mss, roads and schools.

(3) He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the Bhang and persuaded upper castes to change their heart and give up the sin of `untouchability’.

4.”Dali participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement.” Examine the statement. ,

Ans. (1) Dali participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement because many davit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community.

 (2) They began organizing themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions Nuka_ separate electorate that would choose davit members for legislative councils. ,. They believed political empowerment, would resolve the problems of their social

Long Answers:-

1.Why did Mahatma Gandhi send eleven demands in his letter to Lord Irwin?

Ans. On 31st January 1930, Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin in which he mentioned two types of demands:

(1) One was of general interest and the others were specific demands of different classes from industrialists to peasants.

(2) The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign.

(3) The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the Salt Tax.

 (4) Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food.

(5) The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, as Gandhi declared, revealed the most oppressive face of the British rule.

2.Which social groups participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement and why ?

Ans. (1) The rich peasants were enthusiastic supporters as they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.

 (2) During the World War I, Indian businessmen made huge profits hence, keen on expanding further, they reacted against the colonial policies that restricted business activities.

(3) The poor peasantry found it difficult to pay their rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlords be remitted.

(4) The industrial working classes selectively adopted Gandhi an programmed, like boycott of foreign goods as part of their own movements against low wages, poor working conditions.

(5) The women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty.

3.Who was Simon? Why was Simon Commission sent to India ? Why did it fail ?

 Ans. (1) Sir John Simon was the head of a Statutory Commission set up by Tory government in Britain.

(2) The Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. ;

(3) The Commission did not have any Indian as its members. All its members were the British. Therefore, it was opposed in India.

 (4) When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan “Go back Simon”.

(5) Congress, Muslim league and all other political parties opposed the Simon Commission.

4.Describe the main features of Lahore Congress Session of December 1929.

Or

Highlight the importance of the Lahore Session of Congress, 1929.                          

Ans. The main features of Lahore Congress Session of December 1929 were as follows :

(1) In December 1929, under the Presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalized the demand of ‘Puma Sara’ or full independence for India.

 (2) It was declared that 26th January 1930, would be celebrated as the Independence Day. ,

(3) On this day, people were asked to take a pledge to struggle for complete independence. But, the celebration attracted very little attention. ,

(4) In such a situation, Gandhi tried to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more concrete issue of everyday life.

 (5) This came in the form of famous Civil Disobedience Movement.

5.Why did the industrial working classes not participate in Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers?

Ans. (1) The industrialists and businessmen like Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla had profusely supported the Civil Disobedience Movement. This prevented workers to come close to Congress and movements initiated by the party.

(2) The working class, except from the Nagpur, did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

 (3) But inspire of that, some workers adopted Gandhi an ideas of boycotting foreign goods as a part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.

(4) Also, Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demands as part of its programmed of struggle.

(5) As this could have countered industrialists’ demands and as a result, it would have alienated them from active participation.

6.Explain the contribution of Mahatma Gandhi to eliminate the untouchability.

Or

 In what way did Mahatma Gandhi give recognition to Talks’? Explain.

Ans. (1) Mahatma Gandhi wanted to eliminate untouchability.

(2) Mahatma Gandhi declared that Sara would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called ‘untouchables’ harridan, or the children of God.

(3) He organized Satyagraha to secure their entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.

(4) He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the Bhang (The Sweepers) and persuaded upper castes to change their heart and give up the ‘sin of untouchability’.

 (5) He believed that separate electorate will slow down the process of their integration into society.

7.”The merchants and industrialists made a significant contribution to the Civil Disobedience Movement.” In the light of the above statement, explain their role in the movement.

Ans. (1) Indian merchants and industrialists had seen huge profits from the economic boom during the First World War. As soon as the boom was replaced by the depression, their business got hit and losses became regular.

(2) They now reacted against the colonial policies that restricted business activities.

(3) They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods. They wanted such a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.

(4) They organized Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and established the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.

(5) They supported the Civil Disobedience Movement as they considered Sara as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.

8.Why did rich peasants communities join Civil Disobedience Movement?

Or

Why did the rich peasant communities become active in the Civil Disobedience Movement?

Or

Explain any five reasons for the rich peasant communities being active in the Civil Disobedience Movement.                                                                                                                       

 Ans. The rich peasant communities- Patinas of Gujarat and Jets of Uttar Pradesh participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement due to the following reasons:

 (1) These rich peasants used to produce commercial crops. As the prices fell and trade depression occurred, their income lowered very much.

 (2)As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay government’s revenue demands.

(3) They had to sell their raw materials at arbitrary prices.

(4) Government refused to reduce the revenue demand.

(5) This enraged the rich peasants and they became active in the Civil Disobedience Movement as they thought that fight for Sara was a struggle against high revenue.

9.When was the Gandhi-Irwin pact signed? Name the provisions of the pact.

Ans. (1) Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed on 5 March 1931.

(2) By this pact Gandhi consented to participate in Round Table Conference. Congress had boycotted the First Round Table Conference in London.

(3) British Government agreed to release the political prisoners.

(4) In December 1931, Gandhi went to London for the Conference, but the negotiations broke and he returned disappointed.

 (5) Provisions of the pact : (a) Withdrawal of all ordinances and end of prosecution.

(b) Release of all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence.

(c) Permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops.

10.Trace the events that led to Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar. What was its impact on the Davits?

Or

 Why was ‘Poona Pact’ signed? Explain the reason.           

Or

Examine the background of the Poona Pact of 1932 in the light of differences between Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.                                                                   

Or

Examine the background of the Poona Pact of 1932.                          

Or

Explain. the provisions of the Poona Pact of September 1932.                     

 Ans. (1) The Congress had ignored the inclusion of untouchables or the Davits till 1930.

(2) Congress was feared of offending the dominated class the conservative huge caste,

(3) any Dali leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the munity.

(4) They believed political empowerment would resolve the problem of their social disability

(5) Ambedkar organized the Davits into the ‘Depressed Class Association’ in 1930 and demanded separate electorate at the Second Round Table Conference.

(6) The issue between Gandhi and Ambedkar over the separate electorate for Davits was resolved under the Poona Pact in September 1932.

(7) Mahatma Gandhi gave the name Harriman to Dali and advocated for better place in the society.

11.Mahatma Gandhi put a lot of efforts for the upliftment of Davits. Explain the statement.

Or

 How did Gandhi view the Davits? What did he do for them?               

Ans. (1) In spite of the fact that till 1930 Congress ignored the davits, Gandhi had sympathy for them.

(2) Mahatma Gandhi declared that Sara would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.

(3) He called the untouchables Harriman or the children of God.

 (4) He organized Satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.

(5) He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the Bhang (the sweepers).

12.Explain the role of the Dali leaders to solve the problems of their community.

Ans. (1) Many davit leaders were keen on a political solution to the problems of the community.

 (2) They believed political empowerment, would resolve the problems of their social disabilities.

 (3) They began organizing themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions.

(4) They demanded separate electorate that would choose davit members for legislate councils.

 (5) Prominent among them, B.R. Ambedkar emerged as the important davit leader.

13.Why did the new Tory Government in Britain constitute a Statutory Commission under’ John Simon? How was this Commission greeted in India and why?

Ans. (1) The reforms under the Government of India Act of 1919 did not satisfy the national aspirations of the Indians.

 (2) Agricultural prices began to fall, and the demand for agricultural goods fell and expo declined.

(3) By 1930, the countryside was in turmoil. 

(4) They believed political empowerment would resolve the problem of their social disability

(5) Ambedkar organized the Davits into the ‘Depressed Class Association’ in 1930 and demanded separate electorate at the Second Round Table Conference.

 (6) A countrywide demonstrations were staged against the Simon Commission.

14. Describe the role of merchants and industrialists in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Or

Explain the attitude of the Indian merchants and industrialists towards Civil Disobedience Movement.                                                                                   

Or

 How did the business classes relate to Civil Disobedience Movement?

Ans. (1) During the First World War, Indian merchants and industrialists had made huge profits.

 (2) Keen on expanding their business, they now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.

(3) They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio.

(4) To organize business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.

(5) They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.

15.Describe the main events leading to Civil Disobedience Movement. How it was different from Non-Cooperation Movement?

Or

Describe the various activities that took place during the first phase of the Civil Disobedience Movement. How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920?                                                                                                                 

 Ans. (1) After the Lahore resolution of complete independence, it was decided to launch a country-wide movement for freedom.

(2) No one knew better than Gandhi how to make people conscious of their hidden strength.

 (3) So; he had to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more concrete issues of everyday life.

 (4) He found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nations.

(5) So far as distinctions between Civil Disobedience Movement and Non-Cooperation Movement are concerned, people were asked not only to refuse co-operation with the British, but also to break colonial laws under Civil Disobedience Movement.

16.What are the limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Or

 Explain any four limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930.

Ans. The limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) :

( I) The inclination of untouchables or Delfts to Depressed Class Movement and their indifferent attitude towards this movement.

 (2) Indifferent or partial co-operation of traders and businessmen due to growing influence of socialism in India.

 (3) Lukewarm response of Muslim political organization.

(4) Industrial workers stayed aloof.

(5) Indifferent attitude of peasants after Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931. ,

17.When was Civil Disobedience Movement launched? How was it different from the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Or                                                     

How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Or

 Explain any two differences between Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedient Movements.

Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement, in the following ways:

(1) Non-Cooperation Movement was launched between 1920 to 1922 while the Civil Disobedience Movement continued between 1930 to 1934.

(2) The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched because of the anger of Jallianwala Bag tragedy and the Civil Disobedience Movement was launched against the arrival of the Simon Commission.

(3) Sara or self-government was the aim of the Non-Cooperation Movement but complete independence or Purina Sara was the aim of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

 (4) The Non-Cooperation Movement was supported by almost all sections of the society whereas in the Civil Disobedience Movement, the Davits did not fully participate.

18.Explain the reasons for Gandhi to start an indefinite fast against the policy of separate electorate for the davits.

Ans. (1) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who organized the davits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the ‘Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorate for davits.

 (2) When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhi began a fast unto death.

(3) He believed that separate electorates for davits would slow down the process of their integration into society.

(4) Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.

(5) It gave depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

19.Why did Mahatma Gandhi choose ‘Salt Tax’ to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement ? Explain three reasons.

 Ans. Mahatma Gandhi choose ‘Salt Tax’ to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement because :

 (1) Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food.

 (2) The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, as Mahatma Gandhi declared, revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.

(3) All classes within Indian society could identify with it and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign.

20.Why did Gandhi start the `Civil Disobedience Movement’? Explain any four features of Civil Disobedience Movement.

Ans. (1) (i) Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish Salt Tax.

(ii) Gandhi letter was an ultimatum to the colonial government.

(III)If the demands were not fulfilled, the Congress would launch a Civil Disobedience Movement.

(iv) Lord Irwin was unwilling to negotiate.

(v) So, Mahatma Gandhi started his famous Salt March and violated the law by manufacturing salt at Dandy. This marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.

(2) Four features of Civil Disobedience Movement:

(i) Thousands of people in different parts of the country broke the Salt Law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.

(ii) Foreign cloth was boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed.

(III)Peasants refused to pay revenue and Chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned.

 (iv) In many places forest people violated forest laws going into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.

21.State any two important differences between the Congress and the Muslim league.

Ans. Two differences between the Congress and Muslim League :

Congress Muslim League

(1) The members of the Congress belonged to different communities. Some Muslims were also the members of the Congress, such as Mauling Azad.

 (2) Congress was struggling to achieve Sara.

(1) The members of the Muslim League belonged only to Muslim community.

(2) Members were concerned mainly about their representation in the government or in Central Assembly.

22.Analyze the circumstances which led Gandhi to choose abolition of Salt Tax as the ‘nest important demand of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Or

 Explain any four factors which gave rise to the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930.   

Ans. The following events took place leading to the Salt March or the Civil Disobedient Movement in March, 1930:

 (1) Worldwide economic depression: As a result of worldwide economic depression, agricultural prices began to fall in India. The demand for agricultural goods declined and export decreased. The peasants could not sell their harvest and it became difficult for them to pay their revenues.

(2) Simon Commission : In 1928, Simon Commission was constituted to look into the functioning of constitutional system in India and suggest reforms. However, as no Indian member was appointed, it was opposed by all political parties by holding demonstrations.

(3) Announcement of Lord Irwin in October, 1929: Lord Irwin announced in October, 1929 that ‘dominion status’ would be granted to India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future Constitution would take place.

(4) Declaration at the Lahore Congress Session, 1929 : At the Lahore Congress session under the President ship of Jawaharlal Nehru, resolution for ‘Puma Sara’ i.e., total independence for India was passed. Gandhi was authorized to start a movement for the achievement of ‘Puma Sara’. Thus ‘Salt March’ was started.

23.Explain the contribution of the various social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Or

 Various classes and groups of Indians participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement for different reasons. Choose any four classes and explain their reason to participate in the movement.

Or

“Diverse groups and classes participated in the freedom movements with varied aspirations.” Justify the statement.                                                                                                                 

Ans. Following are the contributions of various social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement :

(1)Rich peasants : Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. As the government refused to reduce revenue demands, they in great numbers participated in the boycott programmers. For them, the fight for Sara was a struggle against high revenues.

 (2)Women : The women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty.

(3)Business class : A large number of merchants and industrialists supported this movement. They reacted against colonial policies that restricted their business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.

(4)The industrial working class : The industrial working class did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers except in Nagpur. They selectively adopted some of the ideas of Gandhi an programmed, like boycott of foreign goods, as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.

24.What were the solutions suggested by B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi to improve the conditions of the untouchables in India ? What is the significance of the Poona Pact in this regard ?

Or

What was the issue of clash between Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar ? How was it resolved ? Explain it.                                                                                                                 

Ans. Following were the solutions suggested by B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi to improve the conditions of untouchables in India :

1.R. Ambedkar : (i) He formed an organization called Depressed Classes Association.

 (ii) He believed that political empowerment could resolve the problem of their social disability.

 (iii) He demanded separate electorates for Davits.

2.Mahatma Gandhi : (i) He wished to eliminate untouchability.

(ii) He called the untouchables, Harridans.

(III)He organized Satyagrahas to secure for them, the entry into temples and use of public wells, roads, schools etc. He himself cleaned toilets to show respect to the work of sweeper.

 (iv) He believed that separate electorate will slow down the process of their integration into society.

3.The Poona Pact : (i) Ambedkar finally accepted Gandhi position. In 1932, the Poona Pact, was signed.

(ii) According to this Pact, seats were reserved in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils for Davits. But, they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

25.Critically examine the main aspects of Indian National Movement during the period between 1920 and 1935.                                                                                                                       

 Ans. Following are the main aspects of the Indian National Movement between 1920-1935 : (1) Beginning of mass movements after Jallianwala Bag massacre.

 (2) Application of Satyagraha to mass movements.

 (3) Emergence of new methods to protest; boycott, picketing, renunciation of titles and non-payment of taxes.

(4) People of different sections and parts shared a common bond of resistance, united in their hatred against the British rule.

(5) Industrialists led by Purushottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla criticized colonialism.

26. Why did the poor peasants join the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) ? Why could not the Congress give full support to their demands ?                                 

Or

Explain any five reasons for the rich peasant communities being active in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Ans. (1) The peasants joined the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) for the following reasons :

(i)Poor peasantry were not just interested in lowering of the revenue demands.

(ii) Many had rented land. They could not pay rent because of the depressions and dwindling cash income.

(iii) They wanted the unpaid rent to landlords be remitted.

(2)Congress could not give full support because : (i) They thought rich peasants and landlords would be upset.

 (ii) It was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns in most places. So, the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.

27.What was the role of the women in the Civil Disobedience Movement ? Explain by Bluing any three points.   Or

Describe the role of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement.                              

Or

Evaluate the role of women in Civil Disobedience Movement.                                     

Or

 Woman played a very important role in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain.

 Ans. The role of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement :

 (1) Women participated in large numbers.

(2) They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

(3) Many women went to jail.

(4) They began to see the service to the nation as a sacred calling.

28.Assess the role of Mahatma Gandhi in the nationalist movement with special reference to the methods adopted by him.                                

Ans. Gandhi played a leading role in the Indian National Movement between 1916 to 1948. Because of his contribution during this period is known as Gandhi an era.

 (1) He successfully involved the masses in the Satyagraha Movements at Champ ran, Knead and Ahmadabad.

 (2) He organized important nationwide mass movements like Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience and later Quit India Movement.

 (3) He took the causes of depressed classes and called them Harridans. He signed the Poona Pact with Dr. Ambedkar and protested the division of Hindus on caste lines.

(4) Gandhi fought the mighty British with the unique method of Satyagraha based on truth and non-violence.

(5) His method included boycott of all British Institutions (legislative councils, law courts, schools, colleges, etc.) picketing the shops selling foreign goods, renunciation of foreign titles awarded by the British, non-payment of tax, etc.

29.Describe the main features of the ‘Salt March’.  

Or

 Describe the Dandy March.                                                                                  

Or

Describe the `Dandy’ March in brief.                                                         

Or

 Explain in brief the ‘Dandy March’.                                                                       

Ans. (1) Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

(2) The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, revealed the most oppressive face of British rule during the Salt March.

 (3) To defy tax on Salt, Gandhi led a march from Sabarmati Ashram to the seashore point ended at Dandy in Gujarat.

 (4) Gandhi assumed that salt was one of the most essential items of food and consumed by the rich and the poor alike.

 (5) The Salt March, indeed was the most significant symbol of resistance against colonialism.

                                                       THE SENSE OF COLLECTIVE BELONGING

Very Short Answers:-

1.Name the flag which was designed by Gandhi is 1921.

 Ans. Sara Flag

2.What were the colors of the tri-color flag designed during the Swedish Movement in Bengal ?

Ans. Red, green and yellow

3.The image of Bharat Math was created by which Indian patriot ?

 Ans. Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyay

4.who was the author of the famous novel ‘Anandmath’ ?

Ans. Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyay

5.Who was the writer of Tandem Mata ram’ ?

Or

Who wrote Tandem Mat ram’ ?

Ans.Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyay

6.What was the prime factor in the emergence of modern nationalism in India.

 Ans. Anti-colonial movement

Short Answers:-

1.Describe the first tricolor flag designed during the Swedish Movement.

Or

What type of flag was designed during the `Swedish Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.                                                                                               

 Ans. (1) During the Swedish Movement in Bengal, a tricolor flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.

(2) It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India.

(3) It had also a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.

2.Evaluate the contribution made by Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyay towards Swedish Movement.                                                                                                    

 Ans. Following contributions were made by Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyay towards Swedish Movement :

(1) The image of Bharat Mata was first created by Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyay.

(2) In the 1870s, he wrote Tandem Mat ram’ as a hymn to the motherland.

(3) Later it was included in his novel, `Anandamath’ and widely sung during the Swedish Movement in Bengal.

3.Which folk tales were published by Antes Astir ? Highlight the main point of his thinking.

Ans. (1) Antes Sartre published a massive four volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India.

(2) He believed that folklore was national literature. It was the most trustworthy manifestation of people’s real thought and characteristics.

 (3) Ideas of nationalism developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore. In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards.

4.”Reinterpretation of History created a feeling of nationalism.” Justify the statement m reference to India’s freedom movement.                               

Or

 How did reinterpretation of history create a sense of collective belongingness among different communities of India ?

 Ans. (1) By the end of the nineteenth century, many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently.

(2) The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves.

(3) In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements.

 (4) Many prominent writers wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, folklores, religion and culture, law and philosophy had flourished.

Swedish Movement, Non-Cooperation Movement, Khilafat Movement, Sara Movement were based on the rich past of our country.

5.What did the image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore portray ?

Ans. (1) Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure.

 (2) She is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.

(3) This mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

(4) Mother figure shown as dispensing learning, food and clothing.

6.Who designed Sara Flag in 1921 ? Mention any two features of this saran flag.  

Or

Which flag did Gandhi design in 1921 ? Mention its special features.         

Or

Who designed the Sara Flag ? What were the features of this flag ? How was it used as a symbol of defiance ?                                                                                                     

Or

 State any three features of the Sara Flag’ designed by Gandhi.                          

 Ans. (1) In 1921, Gandhi had designed the Sara Flag.

(2) It was given a tricolor (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhi an ideal of self-help.

(3) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

Long Answers:-

1.How did the movement to revive Indian folklore played an important role to develop the ideas of nationalism? Explain with examples.

Or

 How did idea of nationalism develop through a movement to revive Indian folklore? Explain.

Or

 Assess the role played by folklores in spreading the ideas of nationalism in India.

Ans. Nationalism developed through revival of the Indian folklore in the following ways :

(1) Nationalists gathered Indian folk tales sung by bards as well as legends.

 (2) They felt the need to preserve this folk tradition to discover national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.

 (3) In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths and led the movement for folk revival.

 (4) In Madras, Antes Castro published a massive four volume of Tamil folk tales, the `Folklore of Southern India’. He believed that folklore was national literature, it was most trustworthy of people’s thoughts and characteristics.

 (5) The nationalists travelled to villages to gather folksongs, folktales and legends and considered them to give a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by the outside forces.

2.How did Indian people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging ? Explain.              

Or

How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging during the freedom struggle ?                            

Or

How did the sense of collective belonging develop in India ? Explain the factors that created a congenial atmosphere for this.

Or

 How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in developing a sense of nationalism in India ? Explain with examples.

Ans. Through a variety of cultural processes people belonging to different communities, regions or languages developed a sense of collective belonging. Some of them are as follows :

(1) Images : Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. Bharat Mata was portrayed as an ascetic figure. She is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

 (2) Songs : In 1870s, Bunkum Chandra wrote Tandem Mata ram’ as a hymn to motherland. Later, it was included in his novel `Anandmath’. This song was widely sung during the Swedish Movement in Bengal.

(3) Folklore : The historians recorded folktales and folksongs giving the true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by the outside forces. In order to restore a sense of pride, their preservation was essential.

(4) Flags: During the Swedish Movement in Bengal, a tricolor flag (red, green, yellow) was designed. By 1921, Gandhi designed the Sara flag. Carrying the flag, holding aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

(5) Reinterpretation of history: The Indian historians wrote about the glorious development in ancient time when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, laws and philosophy, craft and trade had flourished. And now, all these declined due to the policies of the colonial government.

3.How did nationalism develop culturally in India? Explain five reasons.

Or

 Describe the cultural process through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.

Ans. (1) Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.

(2) There were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.

(3) On the first place Tandem Mata ram’ as a hymn was widely sung during the Swedish movement in Bengal.

(4) The famous image of Bharat Mata came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

(5) Folk traditions too inculcate nation’s identity and restore a sense of pride.

(6) Tricolor Flag as icon and symbol unified people and inspired a feeling of nationalism among masses.

4.Explain any four factors which were responsible for the growth of nationalism in the nineteenth century in India.

Or

 Explain the major factors which promoted the sense of nationalism in the Indians.

Ans. Following were the factors responsible for the growth of nationalism in nineteenth century in India:

(1).Result of colonial exploitation: Each walk of life in India reflected the signs of the colonial exploitation. The industrialists and traders had restricted opportunities. The rich Perasiantry was laden with revenue demand. The educated class stood in queues for jobs. The rill peasants had to pay many taxes. Laborers had low wages and bad working conditions. The leaders had limited opportunities to participate in the government. All these put an anger and dissent in the minds of the general people.

 (2) Understanding of the true nature of the British rule : By this time people knee well the exploitative and discriminative nature of the British rule. They became of the opinion that the colonial government is working here only for its self. It had nothing to offer towards the welfare of the Indian people in general.

(3) Racial discrimination : The colonial policy was based on the principle of racial discrimination. They believed Indians to be backward and primitive and incapable to run and share the government. This attitude of the colonial government made Indians to rethink about themselves.

 (4) Role of Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders : This was the scene when India saw the great leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. He took the weapon of Satyagraha. This experiment, as the people saw, was very successful in Knead, Ahmadabad, Champ ran, etc. The people had opportunity to gather behind the miraculous leadership of Gandhi who could give voice to their demands.

(5) Impacts of nationalist literature, songs, poems and folklores : The Indian historians wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished. And, how all these declined due to colonization.

5.’Some icons and symbols were used for unifying the people and sparking in them the feeling of nationalism.’ Give two evidences to support above statement.

Or

How did icons and symbols advocate nationalism? Explain.

Or

 How did figures or images help in developing nationalism? Explain.

Ans. Following are the two evidences:

(1) The image of Bharat Mata came to be identified with India, the motherland. She was first painted by Abanindranath Tagore as an ascetic figure—calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Later the image was painted by many other artists and acquired different forms. In one image Bharat Mata is shown with a trishaw, standing beside a lion and behind an elephant, both symbols of power.                                                                                                       

(2) The flag became a symbol of nationalism. During the Swedish Movement in Bengal a tricolor flag was designed with eight lotus flowers representing eight provinces of the British India and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. Gandhi also designed the Sara Flag in 1921.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1.Compare the movement against corruption, started today by many social activists with the movement initiated by Gandhi to bring freedom for our country and explain their its.

Ans. (1) Before Gandhi there was no political figure who could motivate a huge mass to struggle together to achieve Sara. Gandhi was the person who changed the national movement into a mass movement. Similarly, Anna Hazard raised the issue of corruption and involved the common man in his movement.

(2) As Gandhi had a support of common man, Anna Hazard too had a support of common man?

 (3) Gandhi as well as Anna Hazard’s movements spread nationwide.

 (4) Both of them used the non-violent means or ways like hunger strike to achieve their goals.

 (5) Gandhi movements were never liked by the colonial government. In the same way. Anna Hazard’s movement has never been favored by the government.

(6) Gandhi as well as Anna Hazard both of them started mass movement.

2.”Gandhi played distinctive role in winning freedom for India.” Which principles of Gandhi attract you the most?

Ans. (1) Non-violence (2) Truth

 (3) Passive resistance (4) Practicality

 (5) Simplicity (6) Mass-centric policy

(7) Accommodation for all (8) Tolerance

(9) Respect even for the opponents (10) Democratic value

Map Based Questions

————————————————————————————————————————————-

(Identification) Features by numbers are marked in the given political outline map of India. king’ these features with the help of following information and write their correct names the lines marked on the map.

1.The place/city where the Jallianwalla Bag incident/massacre took place.

Or

The place where Jallianwalla Bag is located.                                                     

2.The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in 1929.

Or

 The place where Indian National Congress adopted ‘Poona Sara’ as its goal.

Or,

The Congress Session where 26th January was declared as the day for ‘Nomad Sward

Or

The place where Indian National Congress made a call for complete independence.

3.The centre/place of calling off/withdrawing the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Or

The place where 22 policemen were burnt forcing Gandhi to call off the Non-Cooperate Movement.

4.The place from where the movement of Indigo planters was started.

Or

The place known for the movement of Indigo peasants during the British period.

Or

The place where a Satyagraha was launched against the oppressive Indigo plantation system by Gandhi.                                                                                                                       

Or

The place famous for the movement of Indigo planters.                          

Or

The place from where the movement of Indigo planters was started under the leadership of Gandhi.                                                                                                                       

Or

The place where Gandhi started Satyagraha in favor of peasants in Bihar.

5.The state from which the Jets, a rich peasants community actively participated in Civil Disobedience Movements.                                                                     

6.The Satyagraha of the cotton mill workers was held here.   

Or

 Place associated with cotton mill worker’s protest.

Or

 The place where the cotton mill Satyagraha was organized in 1918.               

Or

 The place where Gandhi started the Satyagraha in favor of cotton mill workers.

7.The place of peasant Satyagraha.

Or

The place where Gandhi organized a Satyagraha in support of the peasants of Gujarat in 1917.                                                                                

Or

The place from where a Satyagraha for peasants was launched by Gandhi in 1917.                                                                                                         

Or

 The place where peasant Satyagraha was organized by Gandhi.             

8.The place of the No Tax’ campaign.

                                                                                      Or

The place where a Satyagraha by Gandhi was launched for the relaxation in revenue collection.                                    

9.The place where ‘No Tax’ campaign was held.                               

Or

The place where ‘No Tax’ campaign was launched.                 

10.The place from where Civil Disobedience Movement/Salt Satyagraha started. (Most Imp.)

Or

 The place where Gandhi broke the Salt Law.                          

Or

The place where Gandhi violated the Salt Law.  

11.The place where session of Indian National Congress was held in December 1920.

Or

The place where Congress Session was held in December 1920.

12.The place where the Indian National Congress Session of September 1920 was held.

13.The State to which the Guide rebels belonged.

The place where Congress Session of 1927 was held.      

Or

 The place where Indian National Congress Session was held in 1927.

Or,

The place where the session of Indian National Congress was held in 1927.

Or

The place where Congress Session of 1927 was held.                                 

Ans. 1. Amritsar,                      2. Lahore,

3. Chauri-Chaura (UP),             4. Champ ran (Bihar),

5.Uttar Pradesh,                        6. Ahmadabad,

7.Knead (Gujarat),                     8. Barolo (Gujarat),

9.Dandy (Gujarat),                    10. Nag urn (Maharashtra),

11.Calcutta (Now, Kolkata),      12. Andhra Pradesh,

13.Mac Iris (Now, Chennai).

Note for students : Locating and labeling based questions are the same as above. Therefore, these questions are not being given.

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