Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus
Chapter-6 Manufacturing Industries
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1.What is manufacturing? How does manufacturing lead to value addition of the raw material? Explain with the help of examples.
What is manufacturing industry?
Ans. (1) Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.
(2) (i) People employed in the secondary activities manufacture the primary materials into finished goods.
(ii) For example, paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane, iron and steel from iron ore, aluminum from bauxite, etc. Thus, raw materials are transformed into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value.
IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING
Very Short Answers:-
1.How do manufacturing industries help agriculture?
Ans. Manufacturing industries provide irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers.
2.How do manufacturing industries help in earning foreign exchange?
Ans. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings much needed foreign exchange.
3.Which people are engaged in the secondary activities?
Ans. Factory worker
1.What is manufacturing? Describe the importance of manufacturing.
Describe the importance of manufacturing industries in five points.
Ans. (1) Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.
(2) Importance of manufacturing:
(i) Manufacturing industries help in modernizing agriculture.
(ii) It reduces the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them Jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(iii) It eradicates unemployment and poverty from our country.
(iv) It also brings down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
(v) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
(vi) In manufacturing, raw materials are transformed into a wide variety of finished “do which are of higher value.
2.Agriculture’ and ‘industry’ are complimentary to each other.” Explain hotel fishier
“Agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other.” Support your answer by ovine any three arguments.
Ans. Agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other. They move hand in hand,
(1) The agro-based industries have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
(2) The agro-based industries depend on agriculture for raw materials. Manufacturing industries sell their products such as fertilizers, insecticides, irrigation pumps, PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers.
(3) Thus, development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has not only assisted agriculturists in increasing their production but also made production process very efficient.
3.Why do our industries need to be more efficient and competitive in the present day of globalization?
Ans. Our industries need to be more efficient and competitive in the present day globalization because:
(1) Our manufactured goods must be at par in quality with those in the international market.
(2) Only then we will be able to compete in the international market.
(3) India will have to develop its industries if it wants to be internationally developed.
4.The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.’ Give three arguments to support this statement.
Ans. The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.
(1) Industries provide jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors thus, reducing dependence of people on agricultural sector.
(2) Industrialization helps to eradicate poverty and unemployment.
(3) Export of manufactured goods brings in much needed foreign exchange.
(4) Industries transform the raw material into a variety of goods of higher value.
(5) Most of the developed nations such as Japan, USA are industrialized.
CONTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY TO NATIONAL ECONOMY
1.What is the contribution of industry to national economy of India? Compare it with the East-Asian countries. What is the desired growth and present position of industry in GDP?
Ans. (1) The contribution of manufacturing sector to national economy ha satisfactory for the last two decades. It has stagnated at 17 per cent of GDP out of a total of 27
(I) 2iC per cent for the industry which includes 10 per cent of mining, quarrying, electricity and gas:
(2) In comparison to India’s 17 per cent share in the GDP, the East-Asian countries have contributed to 25 to 35 per cent of GDR
(3) (i) The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12 per cent.
(ii) At present, growth rate is about 9 to 10 per cent and it is expected that we cap achieve the growth rate of 12 per cent by some efforts like setting up of the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC).
Very Short Answers:-
1.Which two factors do affect the location of industries?
Ans. (1) Availability of raw materials. (2) Power, market and cheap labor.
2.What are agglomeration economies?
Ans. Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centers known as agglomeration economies.
3.Which factor is considered as the most prominent one for the location of an industry in a region?
Ans. Availability of raw materials.
1.Describe five human factors responsible for the location of industries.
Name the factor which plays the most dominant role in the ideal location of an industry. Explain any four reasons in support of this factor.
Ans. (1) Availability of raw material: The factory needs to be close to the location of raw materials if they are heavy and bulky to transport. For example, iron and steel and cement industries are located near the source of raw materials. It cuts down the cost of transportation. ‘
(2) Labor: A large and cheap labor force is required for labor-intensive manufacturing industries. High-tech industries have to locate where suitable skilled workers are available.
(3) Power: Power supply is needed for working of the machines in a factory. Earlier industries were near to coalfields. Today, electricity allows more freedom.
(4) Capital: This is the money that is invested to start the business. The amount of capital will determine the size and location of the factory
(5) Transport: A good transport network helps to reduce costs and made the movement of raw materials and finished goods easier.
(6) Market: An accessible place to sell the products is essential.
(7) Government policies: Industrial development is encouraged in some areas and restricted in others. Industries that are located in deprived areas may receive financial incentives and assistance from the government in the form of low rent and tax rebates.
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Very Short Answers:-
1.Classify industries on the basis of ownership.
Ans.(1) Public sector,
(2) Private sector,
(3) Joint sector; and
(4) Cooperative sector.
2.Name an industry that is run jointly by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
Ans. Oil India Limited
3.Mention the name of an industry which is owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
Ans. Private Sector Companies e.g. Dabber India Limited.
4.Name the industry if the capital investment in it is more than one core.
Ans. Large scale industry
5.Which industry expanded to several parts of the country after the Green Revolution?
Ans. Fertilizer Industry
6.What are basic industries?
Ans. Industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other gads e.g., iron and steel.
1.Classify industries on the basis of source of raw material. How are they different from each other?
Ans. (1) Agro Based Industries: Cotton, jute, silk, woolen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industries are based on agricultural raw materials.
(2) Mineral Based Industries: Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries. Iron and steel, cement, aluminum, machine tools and petrochemicals are the examples of mineral-based industries.
2.Distinguish between joint and co-operative industries with examples.
Ans. Joint Industries _
(1) Joint industries are jointly run by the owned and group of operated by the producers or suppliers of individuals.
(2) Raw material providers do not get any profits or losses proportionately.
(3) For example, Oil India Ltd. (OIL).
(1) Cooperative sector industries state and individuals or raw materials, workers or both.
(2) They pool in the resources and share the share in the profit made by the industry.
(3) For example, sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.
3.Classify industries into two categories on the basis of capital investment. Give two examples of each category.
Ans. On the basis of capital investment, the industries are classified into two categories:
(1) Small scale industries: If the investment is up to one core rupees.
Examples: Manufacturing of electric bulbs, watches, etc.
(2) Large scale industries: If the capital investment is more than one core rupees.
Examples: Cotton textiles, iron and steel industries, etc.
AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES
Very Short Answers:-
1.Name the city of Karnataka which has woolen textile industries.
2.Name the leading centre of woolen textile industry in Punjab.
3.Name the industry which acts as a nodal industry for synthetic textiles.
Ans. Petroleum refineries
1.Differentiate between agro based industry and mineral based industry.
Ans. Agro based industries
(1) Industries which are dependent on agriculture to obtain their raw materials are called agro based industries.
(2) For example, cotton textiles, jute textiles, sugar industry, etc.
Mineral based industries
(1) Industries which are dependent on mineral resources to obtain their raw materials are called mineral based industries.
(2) For example, iron and steel industry, cement industry, aluminum industry,etc.
2.Why is textile industry second largest after agriculture in India? Explain the reasons
textile industry occupies a unique position in Indian economy.” Support the statement with appropriate arguments.
Ans. Textile industry is the second largest after agriculture due to the following reasons:
(1) Textile industry contributes significantly to industrial production (about 14 per cent).
(2) It generates more employment (35 million persons directly).
(3) Its foreign exchange earnings are about 24.6 per cent.
(4) It contributes 4 per cent to our GDP.
(5) It is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant.
3.”Many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel manufactures have to import fabric.” Explain this statement with appropriate reasons.
Ans. Many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel manufactures have to import fabric due to the following reasons:
(1) In India only spinning sector has received a lot of attention.
(2) The weaving, knitting and processing units have not been able to use high quality yarn that is produced in the country
(3) Our modern factories have to be upgraded to use this high quality yarn.
(4) We have to improve our weaving sector for manufacturing high quality fabrics.
4.Describe any five problems faced by cotton textile industries in India.
Ans. (1) A major loophole is its huge fragmentation in industry structure, which is led by small-scale companies.
(2) The industry veterans portray the present productivity of factories at half to as low as one-third of levels, which might be attained.
(3) Machinery is obsolete. It needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors in particular.
(4) There is stiff competition with the synthetic fiber industry which is available comparatively in a cheaper rate.
(5) Power supply is erratic.
5.Why have the demands of jute products increased internally as well as globally? Explain any two reasons.
Ans. (1) The demands of jute products increased internally due to the Government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
(2) The demand of jute products has also increased globally due to environment friendliness.
(3) The global concern for environment friendly, biodegradable materials has opened the opportunity for jute products.
6.Describe any three problems which are being faced by the jute industry in India.
Highlight any three challenges faced by jute industry
Ans. The three major challenges before jute industry of India are as follows:
(1) Stiff competition with Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand in the International market.
(2) There is competition with synthetic fiber that is cheaper.
(3) To stimulate demand, the products of jute have to be diversified.
(4) There is also a concern about increasing productivity and improving the quality of jute products.
7.Why is jute textile industry mainly concentrated in Hugh basin? Explain three reasons for the same.
Why is jute industry concentrated in West Bengal? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. Jute textile industry is mainly concentrated in Hugh basin because:
(1) Jute producing areas are nearer to Hugli basin.
(2) There is good network of rivers which provide inexpensive water transport and abundant water supply for jute processing.
(3) Good network of railways and roadways facilitate the supply of raw materials to the mills and finished goods to the market.
(4) Cheap labor is available from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Odessa and Uttar Pradesh.
(5) Kolkata is a large urban centre which provides banking, insurance and port facilities for the export of jute goods.
8.How has the great importance of the cotton textile industry for the Indian economy? Explain with examples.
How does the cotton textile industry occupy a unique position in the Indian economy? Explain with any three examples.
Ans. (1) Cotton textile industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers and cotton boll puckers.
(2) It also supports workers engaged in ginning, spinning, and weaving, dyeing, designing packaging, tailoring and sewing.
(3) The industry by creating demands support many other industries, such as chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packing materials and engineering works.
9.Why is cotton textile industry concentrated in Maharashtra and Gujarat? Give any three reasons.
Ans. (1) Maharashtra and Gujarat states have the maximum extent of cotton textile growth.
(2) Reasons for the concentration of cotton textile industry in these states are:
(i) Availability of raw materials: Due to the favorable soil type and other climatic conditions, cotton is grown in a vast area in these states. So, raw materials are available in plenty
(ii) Transport: These states are well-connected to the rest part of the country by rail and mad. Also, they have many large ports from where the textile products can be easily exported.
(iii) Market: Though, they have locally available big markets, they also enjoy good transport facilities that enable their reach to the national and international markets.
(iv) Labor: Although, they have locally available cheap labor force, they are supported by migrant laborers from the northern states.
(v) Moist climate: For cotton textile, moist climate is a must. These states have favorable climatic conditions.
10.What challenges are faced by the jute textile industry in India? Mention the mien objectives of National Jute Policy, 2005.
Mention the various measures taken by the government to boost the production of jute goods.
Ans. (1) Challenges faced by the jute industry in India:
(i)There is stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
(ii) Competition from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
(2) Steps taken by the government to stimulate the demand of jute:
(i ) The government’s policy of mandatory use of jute in packaging increased the internal demand.
(ii) National Jute Policy 2005, was formulated with the objective of increasing productivity, improving quality, ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing yield per hectare.
11.Write any five characteristics of sugar industry of India.
Ans. (1) India stands second in the world as producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of guru and khan sari.
(2) In 2010-11, there were over 662 sugar mills in the country
(3) These mills were located in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat along with Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.
(4) This industry is seasonal in nature.
(5) In recent years, there is a tendency for the mills to shift to southern and western states.
(6) The sucrose content is higher in the sugarcane of south India.
(7) The cooler climate of southern India also ensures a longer crushing season.
(8) Most of the mills of south India are in cooperative sector.
12.Highlight any three challenges faced by sugar industry.
Ans. Three major challenges faced by sugar industry in India are :
(1) The seasonal nature of the industry
(2) Old and inefficient method of production.
(3) Transport delay in reaching cane to the factories.
(4) Need to maximize the use of biggest.
13.’Give reasons as to why the ideal location of sugar mills is near sugarcane producing areas.’ Support the statement with reasons.
Ans. (1) The raw material used in sugar industry i.e., sugarcane is bulky, weight losing and perishable.
(2) If there is a delay in transportation, its sucrose content reduces.
(3) To minimize the transportation cost.
14.Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states in India? Explain any three reasons.
“In recent years, there has been a tendency to establish sugar industry in Southern states instead of Northern states.” Give any three reasons.
Ans. There is a tendency for the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states of India due to the following reasons :
(1) The sugarcane produced in the southern and western states has a higher sucrose content.
(2) The cooler climate ensures a longer crushing season.
(3) Most of the sugar mills of the area are under the cooperative sector. Regular supply of raw material is available here. Moreover, cooperatives are more successful in these areas.
(4) More government attention for sugarcane production.
(5) Better port facility in southern and western states.
MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES
Very Short Answers:-
1.Which mineral is used to harden steel during its manufacturing?
2.What is the rank of India in the production of crude steel in the world?
3.In what ratio are iron ore, coking coal and lime-stone required to make steel.
Ans. 4: 2: 1
4.Name the core raw materials of cement industry.
Ans. Limestone and gypsum
5.Where was the first cement plant established in 1904?
1.Name the electronic capital of India. Write any four characteristics of IT and electronic industry of India.
Ans. (1) Bangalore is the electronic capital of India.
(2) Characteristics of IT and electronics industry are as under:
(i) A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation. It is encouraging to know that 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women.
(ii) This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years because of its fast growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector.
(iii) The continuing growth in the hardware and software manufacturing is the key to the success of IT industry in India.
(iv) The electronic industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, radars, computers, etc. and many other equipments required by the telecommunication industry.
(v) Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pane, Chennai, Kolkata, Luck now and Coimbatore are important centers for electronic goods.
2.’Development of iron and steel industry is very important for India’s development.’ Support this statement with three arguments.
“Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development.” Examine the statement.
Ans. Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of Fineries development due to the following reasons:
(1) Development of various industries depends on iron and steel industry.
(2) If the production and consumption of steel is more in the country, it becomes clear that our industrial development is taking place.
(3) Since, it is a basic industry; all other industries depend on it.
(4) Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods.
(5) The goods needed for construction industry, medical, telephone etc. is also made from steel.
3.Why has the ‘Chhotanagpur Plateau Region’ the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? Analyze the reasons.
Ans. iron and steel tell plants are concentrated in the Chhotanagpur plateau reduce the transportation cost of iron ore to the industries.
(2) High grade raw materials in proximity: Other bulky raw materials like, coking coal, limestones are also available in proximity.
(3) Availability of cheap labor: From the adjoining areas of Bihar, Jharkhand and Odessa cheap labor is available in abundance.
(4) Dense transport network: Being an industrial region, there is a dense network of roads and railways.
(5) Port facility: Kolkata port provides facilities for export of goods.
(6) Vast growth potential in the home market.
4.Iron and steel industry is called ‘basic and heavy industry’. Explain the reasons with arguments.
Ans. (1) The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all other industries depend on it for their machinery.
(2) Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods.
(3) Construction material, defense, medical, telephone, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods also depend upon iron and steel industry.
5.Distinguish between integrated steel plant and mini steel plants stating three points of distinction.
Ans. Integrated steel plants––(1) Integrated steel plants need large. investments
(2) These steel plants handle everything from putting iron and sometimes, steel ingots supplied by together raw materials to steel-making, integrated steel plants.
(3) These plants manufacture all types of steel of given specification.
Mini steel plants- (1) Mini steel plants need less investment.
(2) These steel plants use steel scrap, sponge in one single complex —rolling and shaping.
(3) These plants produce only mild alloy steel.
6.Where should the steel plants be ideally located and why?
Ans. Steel plants should ideally be located in the following conditions:
(1) There is low cost of iron ore, since huge amount of raw material is required to run the industry.
(2) High grade raw materials should be in proximity so that transportation cost will not be very high.
(3) Cheap labor is available since huge manpower is required to run the machines.
(4) There should be vast growth potential in the home market.
(5) The place should have good transport facilities i.e. well-developed rail and road transport.
7.”India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world, yet we are not able to perform to our full potential.” Explain the reasons.
Evaluate the factors responsible for poor performance of our iron and steel industry.
Ans. (1) High cost and limited availability of coking coal: As the amount of coal is limited, its cost in India is high and so iron and steel industry face difficulty in buying it.
(2) Low productivity of labour: The labours are less productive.
(3) Irregular supply of energy: There is an irregular supply of electricity in India, so the work becomes more difficult.
(4) Poor infrastructure: The technological developments in India are comparatively loss compared to other countries.
(5) Research and development: There is a need to allocate resources for research and development to produce steel more competitively to raise their standards to meet international levels.
8.Interpret the main characteristics of aluminum. Name the products in which aluminium is used as raw material. Describe the role of bauxite in aluminum smelting.
Ans. (1) Characteristics of aluminum:
(i) Aluminum is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat and malleable.
(ii) It becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals.
(iii) It is used as a substitute of steel.
(2) Products in which aluminum is used as a raw material:
(i) It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.
(ii) It has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
(3) Role of bauxite in aluminum smelting:
(i) Bauxite is a very bulky, dark reddish colored rock.
(ii) Regular supply of electricity and an assured source of bauxite at minimum cost are the two prime factors for the location of this industry
9.Why is aluminum smelting industry close to power sector? Describe other important factors for location of aluminum smelting. Why is this industry gaining importance? Give reasons.
Ans. (1) (i) Aluminum smelting industries is generally located at the place where there is regular supply of electricity.
(ii) Aluminum industry needs a lot of electricity. It needs 18,600 kWh electricity per ton of ore.
(2) Since, bauxite is a very bulky, dark reddish colored rock; the industry is located near the source of raw material.
(3) (i) Aluminum is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat. It is used for manufacturing aircrafts, utensils and wires.
(ii) It has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
10.Give a brief description of the present scenario and necessity of cement Industry.
Ans. (1) It is essential for construction activities — buildings, bridges, etc.
(2) It requires bulky and heavy raw materials like — limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.
(3) Coal and electric power are also required apart from cheap rail transportation.
(4) At present 128 large plants and 332 mini plants are there in India.
(5) This industry is doing well in terms of production as well as export.
11.Mention any two factors that have contributed to a healthy growth of the automobile
Ans. (1) (i) Liberalization brought in many new and contemporary models, industry in India. Name two centers where this industry is located demand for vehicles in the market.
(ii) Entry of Foreign Direct Investment.
(iii) Introduction of new technology.
(iv) The alignment of the industry with global developments.
(2) Centers where automobile industry is located :
(i) Delhi (ii) Gorgon (iii) Mumbai (iv) Pane
(vi) Kolkata (vii) Luck now (v) Chennai (viii) Indore
(ix) Hyderabad (x) Jamshedpur (xi) Bangalore
12.Explain the importance of automobile industry in India.
Examine the impact of liberalization on automobile industry in India.
Ans. (1) With the development of automobile industry in India, trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are being manufactured at various centers.
(2) They provide quick transport of goods and passengers.
(3) After the liberalization, the coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market which led to the healthy growth of industry including passengers cars, two and three-wheelers.
(4) This industry had experienced a quantum leap in less than 15 years.
(5) Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.
13.What are software technology parks? State any two points of significance of Information Technology industry in India?
How is IT industry contributing in the field of employment and foreign exchange in India? Explain.
Ans. (1) Software technology parks provide single window service and high data communication facility to software experts.
(2) Significance of Information Technology industry in India: (i) A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation.
(ii) It is encouraging to know that 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women.
(iii) This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years because of its fast growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector.
(iv) The continuing growth in the hardware and software is the key to the success of IT industry in India.
14.Describe any three main features of chemical industry.
Explain the significance of chemical industry in the development of Indian economy.
Ans. The main features of chemical industry are as follows:
(1) The chemical industry in India is fast growing and diversifying.
(2) It contributes approximately 3 per cent of the GDP.
(3) It is the third largest in Asia and occupies the twelfth place in the world in term of its size.
(4) It comprises both large and small-scale manufacturing units.
(5) Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors.
15.Why is fertilizer industry is almost widespread throughout the country? Give three refit-sons.
Ans. Fertilizer industry is almost widespread throughout the country because :
(1) Chemicals required in fertilizer industry are available throughout India.
(2) Introduction of Green Revolution has helped to increase production which increases demand of fertilizers.
(3) Government has taken initiatives for the expansion of this industry.
(4) There is high demand of chemical fertilizer in national and international market.
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
1.Explain any three effects of ‘Noise Pollution’.
How are industries leading to noise pollution? What are its effects on human beings Explain.
Ans. (1) Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipments, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills make noise pollution.
(2) (i) Noise pollution results in irritation and anger.
(ii) It can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.
2.How are industries responsible for polluting underground water? Explain.
Ans. (1) Industries are responsible for polluting underground water.
(2) Water pollution is caused by industrial wastes and effluents discharged into water bodies.
(3) This contaminated water percolates into the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the ground water gets contaminated.
(4) There are industries which discharge their untreated water into drains which further percolates into the soil.
(5) Pumping out of this contaminated water causes various diseases.
3.Explain how industries are responsible in causing air pollution? Mention its consequences.
Ans. (1) Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases such as sculpture dioxide and carbon monoxide.
(2) Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays, mist and smoke.
(3) Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories.
(4) They ignore pollution norms.
(5) Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long term effects. Bhopal gas tragedy is an example.
(6) Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.
4.Explain any three types of pollution caused by industries.
Explain any three main causes of environmental pollution created by industries.
Ans. Various types of pollution caused by industries are:
(1) Air pollution: It is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sculpture dioxide and carbon monoxide. Air-borne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays, mist and smoke.
(2) Water pollution: It is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluent discharged into rivers. The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, salts, acids, into the water bodies.
(3) Thermal pollution: Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained out into rivers and ponds before cooling.
(4) Nuclear pollution: Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production factories cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. It also renders soil useless, pollutes and contaminates water bodies.
(5) Noise pollution: It is created by industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipments, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills. It causes hearing impairment, increased heart beat, blood pressure, etc.
CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
Very Short Answers-
1.What is needed to face the challenge of sustainable development?
Ans. Economic development with environmental development.
1.State any five measures to control environmental degradation caused by industries.
Suggest any three steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused by the industrial development in India.
Ans. (1) Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
(2) Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
(3) Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers.
(4) Pollution check certificates should be made compulsory
(5) Eco-friendly fuel like CNG should be used in automobiles instead of diesel or petrol.
2.How can the industrial pollution of fresh water be reduced? Suggest any three measures.
Ans. (1) Minimizing use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
(2) Harvesting of rain water to meet water requirements.
(3)11-eating hot water and effluents before releasing them into rivers and ponds.
(4) Overdrawing of ground water reserves by industry where there is a threat to groundwater resources need to be regulated legally.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
1.”Although, industries are considered to be the backbone of the economy but they cause degradation of the environment also.” Justify the statement. Suggest some ways to minimize environmental degradation.
Ans. (1) (i) Industries not only help in modernizing agriculture but reduce the heavy dependence people on agriculture sector by providing those jobs in other sectors.
(ii) Industrial development eradicates unemployment and poverty and expands trade and commerce.
(2) (i) The smoke emitted from the industries pollute the air. , GO Industrial effluents discharged into the rivers and (glair water bodies pollute water heavily,
(3) (1) Industrial wastes should be properly treated prior to its discharge into the rivers and other water bodies.
(ii) Industrial smoke can be minimized by using oil or gas in place of coal.
(iii) Advanced machinery should be used to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
2.Mahatma Gandhi laid emphasis on spinning yarn and weaving Khaki. What do you think which values he wanted to promote?
Ans. (1) Self-reliance: Gandhi laid emphasis on yarn and weaving Khaki so that more and more people of the country could be employed. In this way, they could be economically self-reliant.
(2) Patriotism: Gandhi wanted to raise the feeling of nationalism among the people of India in the struggle of freedom movement.
(3) Women empowerment: The majority of people engaged in spinning yarn and weaving Khaki were women. So, he wanted economic and social upliftment of the women by creating opportunities to earn money by them. He also wanted to bring women in the mainstream of the nation.