Class-10 Ch. – 7 Outcomes of Democracy Extra Questions and Notes

By | February 23, 2019

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Chapter-7 Outcomes of Democracy

HOW DO WE ASSESS DEMOCRACY’S OUTCOMES?

  VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What is the most basic outcome of democracy?

 Ans. The most basic outcome of democracy is that it produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.

2. What should be the basis of evaluating democracies for their expected outcomes?

Ans. The basis of evaluating democracies for their expected outcomes includes regular. Free and fair elections, open public debate on major policies and legislation. Elitism right to information about the government and its functioning.

3. What does democratic government ensure

 Ans. Democratic government ensures free and fair elections, political and encourages debate or discussion.

4. What is the political aspect of democracy?

Ans. There should be regular elections and power be vested in the hands of elected representatives of the people.

5. How many countries of the world have a democratic set-up of government?

Ans. Over a hundred countries of the world today claim and practice some kind of democratic government.

6. Mention any two political outcomes of democracy.              

 Ans. Democracy promotes equality among citizens and enhances the dignity of the individual.

7. Mention any one characteristic of democracy.                             

 Ans. A democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law and ripens’ rights.

 LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Describe the political outcomes of democracy.

 Ans. (1) The most basic outcome of democracy is that it produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.

(2) Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation.

(3) The democratic government may take more time to follow procedures before arriving at a decision. But, because it has followed procedures, its decisions may be both more acceptable to the people and more effective. So, the cost of time that democracy pays, is perhaps worth it.

(4) Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on norms and procedures. So, a citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making. This is known as transparency.

 (5) Democratic government is a legitimate government. It is the people’s own government.

2. On what basis you support democracy in your respective country? Explain.       

 Ans. On the following basis people support democracy in their respective countries:

(1) A democratic government is a better government because it is a more accountable form of government. Democracy is better than any other form of government in responding to the needs of the people. A non-democratic government may and can respond to the people’s needs, but it all depends on the wishes of the people who rule.

 (2) Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings. This reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions. Thus, democracy improves the quality of decision-making.

(3) In any society, people are bound to have differences of opinions and interests. Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts. In a diverse country like India, democracy keeps our country together.

 (4) Democracy is based on the principle of political equality, on recognizing that the poorest and the least educated have the same status as the rich and the educated. Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens.

 (5) In a democracy, mistakes cannot be hidden for long. There is a space for public discussion on these mistakes. And, there is a room for correction. Either the rulers have to change their decisions, or the rulers can be changed. Finally, democracy is better than other forms of government because it allows us to correct our own mistakes.

3. State any three merits of democracy.

Or

 Why is democracy considered a better form of government? State any three reasons.

Or

 Why is democracy preferred to any other form of government? Give reasons.

Ans. Democracy is considered a better government in comparison to other forms of government in the following ways :

(1) It is a more accountable form of government and responds to the needs of the people.

(2) Democracy is based on consultation and discussion which reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions and improves the quality of decision-making.

(3) In any society people are bound to have differences of opinions and interests and democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts.

(4) Democracy is based on the principle of political equality which recognizes that the poorest and the least educated have the same status as the rich and the educated and enhances the dignity of citizens.

(5) Democracy is better than other forms of government because it allows us to correct its own mistakes.

4. How is a democracy a better form of government in comparison to other forms of governments? Explain.

Or

“Democracy is a better form of government than any other form of government.”

Or

How are democratic governments better than the other forms of government?     

Or

Why a democratic government is considered better than dictatorship? Explain any three resents.                                                                                   

 Ans. Democracy is considered a better form of government for the following reasons :

(1) It improves the quality of decision-making by following a set procedure and giving participation to the representatives of the people in this process.

 (2) It protects the rights of the people and takes care of the dignity of the individuals.

 (3) Democracy believes in the principle of the common good. It provides methods and avenues to resolve conflicts among different sections of society.

(4) It promotes equality among citizens by providing them with equal opportunity for development.

(5) If a mistake has been committed, there is always a room to correct it in a democracy.

5. “Democracy is seen to be good in principle but felt to be not so good in practice.” Justify the statement.

 Ans. For the following reasons, it is true to say that democracy is seen to be good in principle but felt to be not so good in practice :

(1) Democracy is responsive and accountable but it often frustrates the needs of the people and often ignores the demands of a majority of its population.

(2) If democracies are expected to produce good governments, then it is not fair to expect that they would also product development. Evidence shows that in practice, many democracies did not fulfil this expectation.

(3) When we see many developed, underdeveloped and developing countries throughout the world, overall, we cannot say that democracy is a guarantee of economic development.

(4) It is expected in a democracy that there will be a just distribution of goods and opportunities. In actual life, democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.

(5) In democracies, all individuals have equal weight in electing representatives. Parallel to the Process of bringing the individual into the political arena on equal footage, one can see! rowing economic inequalities. Rich people are becoming richer and among the poor, poverty is increasing:

6. What outcome can one reasonably expect of democracies?

Or

What are the expected outcomes of democracy? Explain.                                                   

 Ans. The following outcomes one can reasonably expect of democracy:

 (1) In the political sphere, it has been provided to the people, in general, the Right to vote and contest elections. In this way, people can participate in the government.

(2) In the economic sphere, democracy takes a welfare view and works for the common good. It 4  true that democracy has minimized economic inequalities.

(3)Innu the social sphere, it has taken care of underprivileged and downtrodden people. Ital protection to women, SCs, STs and OBCs.

7. Explain the necessary conditions required for democracy.

Or

 Define the term democracy. Explain any four features of democracy.                  

Or

What is meant by democracy? Explain any two characteristics of democracy.

Ans:-Democracy: Democracy is the form of government which rulers have elected the woe to take all the major decisions.

 (2) Following are the features of a good democracy:

(i) Unlike dictatorship or kingship, in a democracy, rulers are elected by the people. As rulers, they are representatives of the people and are authorized to take decisions on behalf of the people.

 (ii) A good democracy provides its people with an equal opportunity to get elected as representatives or elect their representatives.

(iii) Free and fair elections in a democracy give an opportunity and choice to the people to elect their representatives.

(iv) A good democracy protects the rights of the people.

(v) A good democracy works for the common good of the people and provides them with equal opportunity for development.

ACCOUNTABLE, RESPONSIVE AND LEGITIMATE GOVERNMENT

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. How can we say that a democratic government is a legitimate government?     

 Ans. A democratic government is a legitimate government because it is the people’s own government.

2. In today’s world, which type of democratic governments are most popular?     

Ans.  Representative democratic governments.

3. How do the poor get a voice for a better share in a democratic nation?

Ans. The poor get a voice for a better share in the democratic nation when it is given proper representation and chances to participate in decision-making.

4. What is meant by transparency in government?                             

 Ans. Citizen has the right to know whether a decision taken by the government was taken through the correct procedures and has the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making.

5. Which one does not need to provide in a democracy?

Ans. Religious alternatives

6. How does democracy produce a responsive government?

Ans. Democracy produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and ..,..excitations of the citizens.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Describe any five factors that are responsible for the successful working of democracy in India.

Or

 Explain the factors that denote the successful working of democracy in India.           

Ans. (1) Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity. Perhaps, it is the recognition that makes ordinary citizens value their democratic rights.

 (2) There have been regular, free and fair elections in India during almost 70 years of independence. (3) There has been an open public debate on major policies and legislation. In this way, it has improved the quality of decision-making.

(4) On the economic front also, we have achieved remarkable success.

(5) We have great expectations from democracy in our country. Expectations from democracy also function as the criteria for judging any democratic country. What is most distinctive about democracy is that its examination never gets over. As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more. It shows that people have developed awareness and the ability to expect.

2. Democratic government is attentive to the need and demands of the people and is largely free of corruption.” Support your answer with arguments.

Or

How is democracy accountable and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens? Analyze.                                                                                                                                         

 Ans. (1) Democracy is better than any other form of government in responding to the needs of the people.

 (2) People will have the right to choose their rulers and people will have control over the rulers. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens are able to participate in decision-making, that affects them all. That is why, democracy produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.

(3) Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on norms and procedures. So, a citizen who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedure can find this out. This is known as transparency.

(4) Democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable and mechanism for citizens to take part in decision-making whenever they think fit.

 (5) Democracies have had greater success in setting up regular and free elections and in setting up conditions for open public debate.

3. ‘A democratic government is efficient and effective.’ Analyse the statement.

 Ans. (1) Some people think that democracy produces less effective government on the following grounds :

(i)Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation which makes democratic government inefficient.

(ii) Non-democratic rulers do not have to bother about deliberation in assemblies or to worry about majorities and public opinion. So, they can be very quick and efficient in decision-making and implementation.

(2) (i) In contrast, the democratic government will take more time to follow procedures before arriving at a decision. As it has to follow procedures, its decisions may be both more acceptable to the people and more effective. The cost of time that democracy pays is perhaps worth it.

 (ii) Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on norms and procedures. Democracy produces a government that follows procedures and is accountable to the people. The democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable and mechanisms for citizens to take part in decision-making whenever they think fit.

4. Why is a democratic government called a legitimate government?

Ans. The following arguments support that democratic government is a legitimate government :

 (1) “Democratic government is people’s own government that is why there is overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.

(2) People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them.

(3) They also believe that democracy is suitable for their country.

(4) Democracy has the ability to generate its own support which itself is an outcome that not be ignored.

 (5) Provides people with the option to choose their own rulers.

5. When is democracy considered as successful? Explain.

 Ans. (1) The examination that democracy has to undergo never comes to an end. One examination is passed, another begins. This is due to the expectation that people have from democracy.

(2) As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more and want to make democracy even better. When people are asked about the way democracy functions, they always come up with more expectations. This denotes the success of democracy.

 (3) Increasing expectations from and many complaints against democracy are routine observations. The fact that people are complaining is itself a testimony to the success of democracy.

 (4) People have developed awareness and the ability to expect and to look critically at power holders and the high and the mighty. This signals democracy’s success.

(5) A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the democratic• project.

(6) People’s thinking that their votes make a difference to the way the government is run and to their own self-interests.

6. Explain any five aspects of democratic government and politics.                     

 Ans. The three important aspects of democratic government and politics include —accountability, responsiveness and legitimacy.

(1)Accountability : (i) Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on established norms and procedures. So, a citizen who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedure can find this out.

(ii) In a democracy, citizens have the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making.

(iii) It is right to expect democracy to produce a government that follows procedures and is accountable to the people.

 (iv) Democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable and mechanisms for citizens to take part in decision-making whenever they think fit.

(2) Responsiveness : (i) People expect their needs and demands be fulfilled.

(ii) It is reasonable to expect from a democracy to be attentive and responsive to the needs and demands of the people at the earliest.

(iii) Democracy is expected to be corruption-free.

(3) Legitimacy : (i) Democratic government is a legitimate government.

(ii) Democratic government is people’s own government.

(iii) That is why there is overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.

7. How do people take part in decision-making in a democracy? Explain.

 Ans. Following are some ways in which people take part in decision-making in democracy :

(1) Decisions are made by the representatives elected by the people. These representatives represent the ideas and opinions of those voters who have elected them to take decisions on their behalf.

(2) In a democracy, people want to know if a decision was taken through correct procedures, can find this out. In this way, they have some degree of control over the whole process of decision-making.

(3) In a democracy, people have the right and means to examine the process of decision-making.

(4) Sometimes, important issues are put forward by the government for public debate before a decision is taken.

 (5) Demonstration, movement, pressure groups, etc. provide means in the hands of people to influence decision-making.

8. How has corruption become a serious problem for Indian democracy? Explain with examples.

Ans. Following are the ways in which corruption has become a serious problem for Indian democracy :

(1) Use of money for winning an election: It has now become an accepted fact that leaders use the money to win the favour of the voters. This lessens the very spirit of democratic values.

(2) The increasing influence of rich people in political parties: There is an ever-increasing tendency among the political parties to give tickets to those who are rich. The parties think that they could win not only their own seats but also help the party monetarily.

(3) Frequent scams: Now, scams by leaders and governments have become a routine tale in Indian democracy. Many of the popular leaders are facing trials for corruption charges against them.

(4) Favouritism: It has been seen that the words of the prominent leaders of a political party easily get tickets for elections. The party workers keep serving for years but seldom get the ticket.

 (5) Dynastic succession: It has now become a tradition in many of the popular political parties that the chair is inherited. All these are enough to convince that democracy is not free from the evil of corruption which has become a serious problem for Indian democracy.

9. “Democracies produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government.” Support the statement with three suitable examples.

Or

 How does democracy produce a legitimate, accountable and responsive government?

Or

 Why is democracy considered to be an accountable, responsible and legitimate government? Give reasons.                                                                                         

Ans. (1) Democracy is an accountable government because citizens have the right to choose their leaders and control over them, i.e., it is a representative government. Citizens have the rights and means to examine the process of decision-making.

(2) Democracy is a responsive government because it promotes the formation of public opinion and cares about the opinions, needs and expectations of the citizens.

 (3) Democracy is a legitimate government as it is elected by people themselves through elections at regular intervals.

10. Explain any three demerits of democracy.

Or

 Why a democratic government is considered less efficient? Give any three reasons.

Or

 Why does democracy lead to a delay in decision-making? Explain.                       

 Ans. Democratic governments are less efficient for the following reasons:

 (1) Deliberations and discussions in the legislature consume a lot of time.

 (2) The fear of majority and public opinion is a big obstacle in the efficient working of the government.

(3) Once a decision is made, there come many socio-politico and socio-economic issues in item way during implementation. It destroys the very essence of a decision and renders fie Way less efficient.

ECONOMIC OUTCOMES OF DEMOCRACY

 VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. In which neighbouring country more than half of the population is poverty stricken?

Ans. In Bangladesh, more than half of the population is poverty-stricken.

2. In which one area does democracy fail to achieve in contrary to other forms of trivalent?

Or

 In which area does democracy fail to achieve the same results as in dictatorship?  

Ans. Democracy fails to achieve higher economic development.

3. In which field the achievement of dictatorship is better than that of democracy?

Ans. In the economic field, the achievement of dictatorship is better than democracy i.e., a higher rate of economic growth.

 LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Explain the economic outcome of democracy.                                

Ans. (1) The economic development of a country depends on several factors: the country’s population size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, economic priorities adopted by the country, etc.

(2) The difference in the rates of economic development between countries with dictatorships and democracies is worth mentioning.

(3) In democratic countries there exists a high degree of inequalities. The 20 per cent of the population controls the larger share of the national income. Countries like Denmark and Hungary are much better in this respect.

(4) A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes. Not only that, their share in the total income of the country has been increasing.

(5) Those at the bottom of the society find it difficult to meet their basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, house, education and health. It is expected from the democratic government to reduce economic disparities.

2. Establish the relationship between democracy and development.

Ans. Democracy and development : (1) Democracies are expected to product development; but the rate of development may be slow as compared to dictatorship.

 (2) Development depends upon many factors like the size of the population, global situation, cooperation from other countries, etc.

(3) In democracies, time is taken on discussion and reaching a decision. So, it is slow, but it is not too behind.

3. How far can democracy prove to be a better form of government regarding the economic growth of a country? Explain.

Ans. (1) It is true that during the last 50 years dictatorships have shown a slightly higher rate of economic growth in comparison to many of the democracies.

(2) But, we all know that there are many other factors that determine the economic growth of a country like-population size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, economic priorities adopted by the country, etc.

 (3) So, even when there is a nominal difference in the rate of economic growth between countries under dictatorship and democracy, it is better to prefer democracy as it has several

Adler positive outcomes.

(i) It enhances the dignity and freedom of the citizens which dictatorship and other forms of government do not believe in.

(ii) It accommodates various social divisions.

(iii) It leaves space and scope for correction of the mistakes that might be committed.

(iv) It provides an accountable, responsible and legitimate government.

 (v) It is the people’s own government.

(vi) Most of its decisions are taken keeping in mind their acceptability to the people.

 (vii) It provides transparent norms and procedure of decision-making.

(viii) It honestly tries to reduce inequality and poverty.

REDUCTION OF INEQUALITY AND POVERTY

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. How can you say that democracies are based on political equality?

 Ans. This is because all individuals have equal weight in electing representatives.

2. What is meant by political equality?

Ans. Political equality refers to the political system where all individuals have equal opportunity and equal weight in electing representatives.

3. What is meant by economic inequality?

 Ans. Economic inequality means inequality of wealth and incomes among citizens of the country.

4. Which type of regime can handle social differences, divisions and conflicts in a better way?

Ans. The democratic regime.

5. Who are the real rulers in a democracy?

Ans. The voters.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. How is poverty a major challenge to democracy? Explain.

Ans. (1) Evidence shows that in practice, democracies could not produce expected development. The inability of democracy to achieve higher economic development worries us.

(2) If we consider all democracies and all dictatorships for the fifty years between 1950 and 2000, dictatorships have a slightly higher rate of economic growth.

 (3) Within democracies, there is a very high degree of inequalities. A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes. Those at the bottom of the society have very little to depend upon. Yet, democratically elected governments do not appear to be keen to address the question of poverty.

2. Explain the role of political equality in a democratic political system.  

Ans. Democracy is based on a fundamental principle of political equality which ensures each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.

 (1) Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens. As democracy is based on the principle of Political equality, on recognizing that the poorest and the least educated have the same status as the rich and the educated.

(2) People are not subjects of a ruler, they are the rulers themselves. Even when they make mistakes they are responsible for their conduct.

(3) The principle of Universal Adult Franchise has now come to be accepted almost all Tat world. Yet, there are many instances of denial of equal right to vote.

(ii)In Saudi Arabia, women do not have the right to vote.

 (ii) Estonia has made its citizenship rules in such a way that people belonging to R minority find it difficult to get the right to vote.

 (iii) In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of an indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian-Fijian.

3.”Do democracies lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunities? your answer by three suitable arguments.

Or

Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.” Describe the statement with five relevant facts.

Or

 “Democracy has failed to reduce economic inequality and poverty.” Do your arguments in support of your answer.

  Ans. No, usually democracies do not lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunity due to the following reasons :

(1) A small number of ultra-rich people enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and income.

(2) The poor are becoming poorer so much, that they are unable to meet their basic necessities like food, clothing, housing, education, health, etc.

(3) The poor who constitute a large proportion of voters is not provided with opportunities on an equal footing.

(4) The democratically elected governments do not appear to be as keen to address the question of poverty.

(5) In Bangladesh, more than half of the population lives in poverty. People in several countries are now dependent on rich countries even for food supplies.

4. How has democracy been able to reduce inequality and poverty in India? Explain with examples.

Or

How is democracy helpful in the reduction of inequality and poverty? Explain.                    

 Ans. (1) So far as India is concerned, the success achieved in the arena of political equality to the individuals could not be achieved in the economic field also. We observe increasing inequalities.

(2) A small number of ultra-rich people enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes.

(3) Not only that, their share in the total income of the country has been increasing.

 (4) Those at the bottom of the society have very little to depend upon. Their incomes have been declining.

(5) Sometimes, people from the lower level of the social ladder find it difficult to meet their basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, house, education and health.

So, it can be said that, in actual life, the democratic government in India does not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.

ACCOMMODATION OF SOCIAL DIVERSITY

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What do you understand by rule by majority?

 Ans. Rule by majority means that in case of every decision or in case of every election, different persons and groups may and can form a majority.

2. Which system can reduce the possibility of tensions and conflict between different groups of society?

 Ans. Democracy can reduce the possibility of tensions and conflicts between different groups of society.

3. Which system is best suited to negotiate the differences?

Ans. Democracy is best suited to negotiate the differences.

4. What is meant by harmonious social life?                               

 Ans. Harmonious social life refers to the social life in which there are no tensions and conflicts between different groups of society i.e., people have the ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts.

 LONG ANSWERS:-

1. “Democracy provides a method to resolve conflicts.” Justify the statement.

Ans. (1) Democracies usually develop a procedure to conduct their competition. For example, election to choose their representatives. This reduces the possibility of tensions becoming explosive or violent.

(2) Democracies accommodate various social divisions. They make us learn to respect the differences and to evolve mechanisms to negotiate the differences. Democracy is best suited to produce this outcome.

(3) Non-democratic regimes often turn a blind eye to or suppress internal social differences. Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is thus, a definite plus point of democratic regimes. But, democracy remains democracy only as long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point in time.

2. Describe the social outcome of democracy.

 Ans. Democracy produces a peaceful and harmonious life among citizens and accommodates various social divisions.

 (1) Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is the basic outcome of democracy.

 (2) Non-democratic regimes often turn a blind eye to or suppress internal social differences.

 (3) No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups but democracy evolves mechanisms to negotiate the differences.

(4) Democracies usually develop a procedure to conduct their competition. This reduces the possibility of tensions becoming explosive or violent.

 (5) Democracy provides the only peaceful solution to this problem. In a democracy, no one is a permanent winner. No one is a permanent loser. Different groups can live with one another peacefully. In a diverse country like India, democracy keeps our country together.

3. What are the demerits of non-democratic governments?                             

Or

Write any three demerits of non-democratic governments.                                       

 Ans. The demerits of non-democratic governments can be illustrated in the following ways :

(1) A non-democratic government may and can respond to the people’s needs, but it all depends on the wishes of the people who rule.

(2) Rulers are not elected by the people and the people can not choose or change their rulers.

 (3) The people have no say in the decision-making process.

 (4) This enhances the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions.

(5) The non-democratic government does not allow correcting its own mistakes. There is no s Pace for public discussion on these mistakes and there is no room for correction.

(6) The non-democratic government does not enhance the dignity of citizens.

4. How does democracy lead to a peaceful and harmonious life among citizens? Explain.

Or

 “Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens.” Support your answer with three appropriate arguments.                                                                                        

 Ans. Democracy leads to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens as it gives to its citizens a sound political system based on social equality.

 (1) It provides a conducive political environment to citizens for their popular participation in politics.

(2) Every citizen has the right to vote and the right to contest elections.

(3) It stands for equal economic status to all citizens.

 (4) It helps by accommodating various social divisions and providing social equality to its citizens.

 (5) Democracies reduce possibilities of tension becoming explosive and violent. It has a mechanism to negotiate the differences.

(6) In a democracy, the majority always needs to work with the minority so that government functions could represent the general view.

DIGNITY AND FREEDOM OF THE CITIZENS

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Why do democracies lay emphasis in providing dignity and freedom to the individual?

Ans. This is because, democracies are governed by the people, of the people and for the people.

2. Why is there overwhelming support to democracy all over the world?

Ans. There is overwhelming support to democracy all over the world because a democratic government is people’s own government.

3. Why do most individuals feel that every vote makes a difference in a democracy?

Ans. Since a public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the democratic project, most individuals today believe that their votes make a difference to the way the government is run and to their own self-interest.

4. What is meant by the dignity and freedom of the citizens?

Ans. Dignity and freedom of the citizens refer to the respect from fellow beings, equal treatment of all citizens and individual freedom in the society.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. How does democracy; maintain the dignity of women? Explain.                       

 Ans. (1) The respect to and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society.

(2)Actually, women are always not treated with respect. But, once the principle is recognized, it becomes easier for women to wage a struggle against what is now unacceptable legally and morally.

(3) In a non-democratic set-up, this unacceptability would not have a legal basis because the principle of individual freedom and dignity would not have the legal and moral force there. In this way, democracy has maintained the dignity of women in the country.

2. How is the dignity of individual promoted in a democracy? Explain.

 Ans. (1) Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings arise among individuals because some feel that they are not treated with due respect. While the passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy.

 (2) For societies which have been built for long on the basis of subordination and domination, is not a simple matter to recognize that all individuals are equal. In such a situation, democracy tides much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual.

(3) Most societies across the world were historically male-dominated societies. Long struggles by women have created some sensitivity today that respect to and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society. Similarly, democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the discriminated castes for equal status.

3. How are complaints treated as testimony to the success of democracy? Explain.

Or

How does the dissatisfaction of people show the success of democracy? Explain.

Ans. (1) Expectations from democracy also function as the criteria for judging any democratic country. The distinctive feature of democracy is that its examination never gets over.

(2) As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more and want to make democracy even better and ask about the way democracy functions, and many complaints.

(3) The fact that people are complaining is itself a testimony to the success of democracy. It shows that people have developed awareness and the ability to expect and to look critically at power holders and the high and the mighty.

(4) A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the democratic project: it transforms people from the status of a subject into that of a citizen.

(5) Most individuals today believe that their votes make a difference to the way the government is run and to their own self-interest.

4. Explain with examples, how the dignity and freedom of citizens are best guaranteed in a democracy.     

Or

 Do you agree that democracy has been truly successful in upholding the dignity and freedom of the individual? Justify your opinion with three suitable arguments.                                    

 Ans. Following are the ways in which democracy maintains the dignity of the citizens :

 (1) The principle of dignity and integrity of women are best guaranteed and protected in a democracy.

 (2) Democracy makes sure that people are enjoying fundamental rights as provided by the Constitution.

(3) The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. Democracies throughout the world have recognized this, at least in principle and have been achieved in various degrees in various democracies.

(4) Take the case of the dignity of women. Once this principle is recognized, it becomes easier for women to wage a struggle against what is unacceptable legally and morally.

 (5) Another instance is of caste inequalities. Democracy has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunities.

5. How can democracy adjust the dignity of women and caste discrimination in one system?

Ans. (1) Democracy promotes the dignity and freedom of the individual. The passion for respect and freedoms the basis of democracy. 

(2)Democracies throughout the world have recognized this and also this has been achieved in various degrees in various democracies.

(3) Most of the societies of the world were male-dominated. Long struggles by women have created some sensitivity today that respect to and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society.

 (4) Once the democracies have accepted this in principle, it became easier for women to wage a struggle against what is now unacceptable legally and morally.

(5) The same is true of caste inequalities. Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunities. No doubt, there are instances still of caste-based inequalities and atrocities, but these lack in the moral and legal sanction. These are the things that only democracies can provide.

6. Why is democracy considered much superior to any other form of government in promoting the dignity and freedom of the individuals? Give any three reasons.             

Or

 “Democracy stands much superior in promoting dignity and freedom of the citizens.” Justify the statement.                                                                                                                                      

Or

How is the dignity of individual promoted in a democracy? Explain.                                

Or

 How does democracy stand much superior to any other form of government in promoting the dignity and freedom of the individual? Explain with examples.                                                                

Ans. Democracy stands much superior to any other forms of government in promoting the dignity and freedom of the individual. It is evident from the following facts :

(1) Often conflicts arise among individuals because some feel that they are not treated with due respect.

(2) The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. Democracy throughout the world has recognized this, at least in principle.

(3) Most societies were male-dominated. The status of women was not satisfactory In democracies, equal treatment and respect to women have been accepted.

(4) Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunities.

VALUE-BASED QUESTION

1.”Democracy is a better form of government than other forms of governments.” Which values, you think, are represented by the democracy?

 Ans. (1) Equality: Democracy promotes equality among citizens. Every citizen of the country has equal rights before the law. In fact, political equality is the basis of democracy. All individuals have equal weight in electing representatives. It also reduces economic inequalities.

(2) Dignity and freedom of the individual: By giving its citizens equal rights, it enhances the dignity and freedom of an individual. Most societies were male-dominated. The status of women was not satisfactory. In democracies, equal treatment and respect to women have been accepted. Also, it has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunities.

 (3) Conflict management: It provides methods to resolve conflicts among citizens or states. It has sufficient scope to correct mistakes. It reduces the possibility of social tension which may become explosive or violent. So, it produces a harmonious social life.

 (4) Decision-making: It improves the quality of decision-making. This is because, in a democracy, there are open debates on major policy decisions.

 (5) Legitimacy: Democracies use to hold free and fair elections at regular intervals. So. they are always attentive and responsive to the needs of the people. Since democratic governments have the popular support of the voters, they are legitimate governments.

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