Ch. – 5 Political Parties Extra Questions and Notes

By | September 29, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

Civics

Chapter- 5 Political Parties

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts.

WHY DO WE NEED POLITICAL PARTIES

Very Short Answers:-

1.What is a Political Party?

Or

State the meaning of a political party.                                                         

Ans. A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.

2.State the three components of political party.

Or

 Mention the three components of a political party.                                             

Or

What are the components of a political party?                                                          

Ans. A political party has three components — the leaders, the active members and the followers.

3.What is considered to be most important function of a political party?

 Ans. To contest election and hold power in the government.

4.Name the countries where two party systems exist.

Ans. The United States of America and the United Kingdom.

5.What kind of party system, we have in India?

Ans. In India, we have Multi-Party System.

6.Which kind of political system shows lack of democracy?

Ans. Single Party System

 Short Answers:-

1.What is meant by a political party? Describe the three components of a political party

                                                                                          Or

What is a political party? State its components.                                    

Or

State the components of political parties.                                                              

Or

Analyze the three components of a political party.                                               

 Ans. (1) (i) A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.

 (ii) They agree on some policies and programmed for the society with a view to promote the collective good.

(iii) Since, there can be different views on what is good for all, parties try to persuade people why their policies are better than others.

 (iv) They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections,

(2)A political party has three components: (i) the leaders; (ii) the active member” and

 (iii) the followers.

2.Explain any three differences between ruling and opposition parties.

Ans.

 3.Why do we need political parties? Explain.

Or

Why do we need political parties? Give three reasons.

 Ans. We need political parties for the following reasons:

(1) They put forward different policies and programmed before the people.

(2) They play a decisive role in making laws for a country.

(3) They form and run the government.

 (4) They play the role of opposition to the parties in power.

(5) They shape public opinion. They raise and highlight the issue of utmost importance.

 (6) They provide people access to government-run machinery and welfare schemes.

4.Why are political parties a pre-condition for democracy? Explain any three reasons.

Ans. There are many functions in a democracy for which political parties are needed. But, their existence is a pre-condition because in absence of political parties:

(1) Every candidate in the elections will be independent. So, no one will be able to make any promise to the people about any major policy changes.

(2) The government ‘may be formed but its stability will remain ever uncertain.

(3) Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency for what they do in their locality. But, no one will be responsible for how the country will be run.

5.Critically examine the working of political parties in four points.

 Ans. (1) Lack of internal democracy: Most of the political parties do not practice democratic values within the party itself. They do not hold organizational elections regularly.

(2) Dynastic succession: It has been such that for years a family had overshadowed the party. Like kingship, the leadership of the party is also being transferred from one generation of a family to another.

 (3) Growing role of money and muscle power: The political parties give tickets to rich and powerful men. They use money and power to win elections.

(4) No material choice for the worker: The people are left with no choice. Almost all parties have more or less same policy and programmed.

 (5) Opportunistic politics: It has been seen in modern times that for their own benefit and other favors the parties, exchange their hands by throwing away their policies and the programmed.

 Long Answers:-

1.”Political parties play a major role in democracy.” Explain four points to justify this Statement.                                                                                 

Or

Why have political parties become so important and omnipresent in the modern democracy?

Or

 Explain the necessity of political parties in a democratic political system.

Or

 Explain the necessity of political parties in democratic politics.                                

Ans. Modern democracies cannot exist without political parties. They play significant roles in democracy. Following are the functions and importance of the political parties in a democracy

 (1) In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties.

(2) Parties put forward different policies and programmed and the voters choose from them. In a democracy, a large number of similar opinions have to be grouped together to provide a direction in which policies can be formulated by the governments. This is what the political parties do.

 (3) Political parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country.

(4) Parties form and run the governments. Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.

(5) Losing parties play the role of opposition to the parties in power, by voicing different views and criticizing government for its failure or wrong policies.

(6) Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight issues. Many of the pressure groups are the extensions of political parties.

 (7) Parties sometimes also, launch movements for the resolution of problems faced by people.

HOW MANY PARTIES SHOULD WE HAVE

Very Short Answers:-

1.Name the two types of political parties.

Ans. (1) National Parties; and            (2) State Parties.

2.What is meant by multi-party system?

Ans. If several parties compete for power, and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others, we call It a multi-party system.

3.Which was the major opposition party in the Lok Sabah during the UPA government?

Ans. Bhatia Ajanta Party (BJP) was the major opposition party in the Lok Sabah during the UPA government.

4.Which political party is leading the National Democratic Alliance?

 Ans. Bhatia Ajanta Party (BJP).                                                                                

5.If all the decisions of a political party are made by a single family and all other members are neglected, then what challenge is being faced by that party?

Ans. Challenge of dynastic succession

6.What is meant by alliance?    

 Ans. When several parties in a multi-party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called an alliance or a front.

7.Which country has one-party system?

Or

Give an example of one-party system.

Ans. China.

Long Answers:-

1.What is meant by two-party system? Explain its two advantages and two disadvantages.

Or

Examine the merits and demerits of two-party system.                           

 Ans. (1) It is a party system in which power usually changes between two main parties. Several other parties may exist, contest elections and win a few seats in the national legislatures but, only the two main parties have a serious chance of winning majority of seats to form government. Such a party system is called two-party system. The United States of America and the United Kingdom are examples of two-party system.

(2) (i) Advantages : (a) The system leads to political stability in the country.

(b) The electorate has a very clear choice before them.

 (c) It is easier to secure balance in the political system.

 (d) Opposition behaves in a more responsible and dignified manner.

(ii) Disadvantages: (a) In the system, cabinet becomes somewhat despotic in nature.

 (b) The system lacks variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.

(c) The choice of alternative ideologies and policies is considerably limited in this system.

2.”About hundred years ago there were a few countries that had hardly any political party. Now, there are a few countries that do not have political parties.” Examine this statement.

Ans. (1) Political parties act as vehicles-of federal sharing of political power and as negotiators of social divisions in the arena of democratic politics.

 (2) Modern democracies cannot exist without political parties. The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies.

 (3) As societies have become large and complex, they also need some agency to gather different views on various issues and to present these to the government.

(4) They need some ways to bring various representatives together so that a responsible government could be formed.

 (5) They need a mechanism to support or restrain the government, make policies, justify or oppose them. Political parties fulfill these needs that every representative government has. In this way, we can say that parties are a necessary condition for a democracy.

3.Describe various ways of classifying the political system and the political parties.

 Ans. (1) Ways for classifying party system: The party system can be classified on the basis that how many parties are allowed to form, control and run the government. On this basis the party system can be classified into three categories :

(i)Mono-party system: In this system only one party is allowed to control and run the government. Example: China.

(ii) Bi-party system: In this system, however there may exist several parties but power is generally changed between only two major parties. Example: USA, UK.

(iii) Multi-party system: In this system several parties compete for power. Example: India.

 (2) Ways for classifying of political parties:

 (1) On the basis of presence: (a) National Parties: These parties operate their functions country-wide. They have their units in various states. But by and large, all these units follow the same policies, programmed and strategy that is decided at the national level.

 (b) State Party : These parties do not operate their functions nation-wide. They keep their activities to a region or few states.

(ii) On the basis of proportion of votes and seats :

 (a) National Party : A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in the Lok Sabah elections or Assembly elections in four states and win at least four seats in the Lok Sabah is recognized as a national party.

(b) State Party : A party that secures at least six per cent of total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognized as a state party.

4.State any two advantages of the multi-party system. In what way is an alliance different from a coalition government?                                                                                                                 

 Ans. Following are the advantages of the multi-party system:

(i)It allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.

(ii) People representing different interests and opinions learn to accommodate each other and share power when they form alliance or coalition.

(2)Alliance and coalition government are different from each other in the following ways:

 

 NATIONAL POLITICAL PARTIES AND STATE PARTIES

  Very Short Answers:-

1.To which state is Trinomial Congress connected

Ans. Trinomial Congress is connected with the state of West Bengal.

2.Name the alliance formed by Congress Party

Ans. The alliance formed by the Congress Party is the United Progressive.

3.Name any two state parties.

 Ans. Ashtray Ajanta Dale and Ashtray Lok Dale.                                  

4.What is the guiding philosophy of Bhatia Ajanta Party?

 Ans. The guiding philosophy of Bhatia Ajanta Party is to build a strong and modern India by drawing inspiration from India’s ancient culture and values.

5.Name any two regional parties of West Bengal.                                        

 Ans. (1) All India Forward Bloc (AIFI3); and (2) The All India Trinomial Congress (TMC).

6.When was the Communist Party of India (CPI) formed?

Ans. The Communist Party of India was formed in 1925.                                         

7.When was Indian National Congress founded?                            

 Ans. Indian National Congress was founded in 1885.

8.Write the full form of NCR                               

 Ans. The full form of NCP is Nationalist Congress Party.

9.Who is the founder of the Bahaman Samar Party?

 Ans. Mr. Kinship Ram

10.Write any one point of ideology of Communist Party of India.

 Ans. It believes in Marxism-Leninism, supports socialism, secularism and democracy and  opposes to the forces of secessionism and communalism.

11.In order to became a national party, what per cent of votes are required by a political party?

 Ans. A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in the Lok Sabah election or Assembly elections in four states and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabah is recognized as a national party.

12.What are the facilities offered by the Election Commission to a recognized political party?

Ans. The recognized parties are given a unique symbol — only the official candidates of that party can use that election symbol.

13.Name the oldest recognized political party in India.                            

 Ans. Indian National Congress

Short Answers:-

1.Highlight the ideologies and programmed of Indian National Congress.  

Ans. (1) Indian National Congress (INC) was founded in 1885. So, it is one of the oldest Parties of the world. It is a centrist party in its ideological orientation.

(2) This party supports secularism and welfare of weaker sections and minorities.

(3) It supports new economic reforms but with a human face. Currently, it is a leading op Position party against the Bhatia Ajanta Party (BJP) led coalition government at the Centre.

2.What is meant by a ‘national political party’? State the conditions required.

Ans. (1) A national political party is the party that has influence all over the country. It has its presence in many states.

(2)(1) Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission.

(ii) A party that secures at least 6% of the total votes in the Lok Sabah elections or Assembly elections in four states and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabah is recognized as a national party.

3.State the conditions as laid down by the Election Commission to recognize a ‘State Party’ and ‘National Party’.                                                                   

Or

State the conditions required for a political party to be recognized as a National Party.

Ans. (1) Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission. The Election Commission has laid down detailed criteria of the proportion of votes and seats that a party must get in order to be a recognized party.

(2) State Party : A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a state and wins at least two seats is recognized as a state party.

 (3) National Party : A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in the Lok Sabah election or Assembly elections in four states and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabah is recognized as a national party.

Long Answers:-

1.Which ‘National Political Party’ draws inspiration from the teachings of Mahatma Phyla? Write any four points related to its policy.  

Ans. (1) Bahaman Same Party draws inspiration from the ideas and teachings of Shaun Maharaja, Mahatma Phyla, Perilya Ram swami Necker and Babasaheb Ambedkar.

(2) The following are the main policies of the party:

(i) Seeks to represent and secure power for the Bahaman same which includes the davits, radians.

 (ii) Stands for the cause of securing the interests and welfare of the davits and oppressed people.

(iii) To work as a revolutionary social and economic movement of change with a view to realize the supreme principles of universal justice, liberty, equality and fraternity enunciated in the Constitution of India

 (iv) To instill consciousness among not only the davits, but also among those belonging to other backward groups.

2.Name the six ‘National Political Parties’ in India in a chronological order.

Ans. (1) Indian National Congress (INC) : Popularly known as the Congress Party. One of the oldest parties of the world founded in 1885.

 (2) Communist Party of India (CPI) : It was formed in 1925. The party believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy. This is against the forces of secessionism and communalism.

(3) Communist Party of India—Marxist (CPI-M) : It was founded in 1964. The party believes in Marxism-Leninism. It supports socialism, secularism and democracy and opposes imperialism and communalism.

(4) Bharatiya Ajanta Party (BJP) : It was founded in 1980 by reviving the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Singh. It wants to build a strong and modern India by drawing inspiration from India’s ancient culture and values. Cultural nationalism (or ‘Hindustan’) is an important element in its conception of Indian nationhood and politics. vases, OBCs and religious minorities.

(ii) Stands for the cause of securing the interests and welfare of the davits and oppressed people.

(iii) To work as a revolutionary social and economic movement of change with a view to realize the supreme principles of universal justice, liberty, equality and fraternity enunciated in the Constitution of India

(iv) To instill consciousness among not only the davits, but also among those belonging to other backward groups.

3.Name the six ‘National Political Parties’ in India in a chronological order.

 Ans. (1) Indian National Congress (INC) : Popularly known as the Congress Party. One of the oldest parties of the world founded in 1885.

(2) Communist Party of India (CPI) : It was formed in 1925. The party believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy. This is against the forces of secessionism and communalism.

(3) Communist Party of India—Marxist (CPI-M) : It was founded in 1964. The party believes in Marxism-Leninism. It supports socialism, secularism and democracy and opposes imperialism and communalism.

(4) Bharatiya Ajanta Party (BJP) : It was founded in 1980 by reviving the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Singh. It wants to build a strong and modern India by drawing inspiration from India’s ancient culture and values. Cultural nationalism (or ‘Hindustan’) is an important element in its conception of Indian nationhood and politics.

(5) Bahaman Same Party (BSP) : It was formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kinship game. It seeks to represent and secure power for the Bahaman Same which includes the davits, advises, OBCs and religious minorities.

 (6) Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) : It was formed in 1999 following a split in the Congress Party. It espouses democracy, Gandhi an secularism, equity, social justice and federalism.

4.Why are symbols allotted to political parties in India? Explain the reasons.

Ans. In India, every party has to register with the Election Commission.

For the Commission, all parties are equal but it offers some special facilities to large and established parties.

 The symbol allotted by the Commission shows that : (1) the party is large and established.

 (2) it has a well-organized presence in a large area.

 (3) only the official candidate of the party can use this symbol.

(4) the party which gets it, is recognized by the Commission.

 (5) the party is either a national or a state party.

5.State the necessary conditions required by a party to be recognized as a regional/ state party.                        

 Ans. Following are the necessary conditions required by a party to be recognized as a regional/state party.

 (1) A party is recognized as state/regional party by the Election Commission when it gets certain proportion of votes and certain number of seats in an election to the State Assembly. Only then any party becomes a recognized party.

 (2) To become a recognized regional party, it has to secure at least six per cent of the total vote cast in a state election.

(3) Also, the party has to win at least two seats in that election.

6.Differentiate between Bharatiya Ajanta Party and Indian National Congress in three points.

Or

 Differentiate between the ideologies of Indian National Congress and Bharatiya Kanata Party                                                                                                                                         

Ans.

7.Differentiate between national and regional parties. Write any four points.

Or

How are National Parties different from the Regional Parties? Explain.

Ans. Difference between National Party and Regional Party are as follows:

 

 

CHALLENGES TO POLITICAL PARTIES

Very Short Answers:-

1.What is meant by offering the meaningful choice to the voters by political parties?

 Ans. In order to offer meaningful choice, parties must be significantly ideologically different.

2.Write any one challenge to political parties in India.                           

 Ans. Challenge of growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during, elections.

Short Answers:-

1.How do money and muscle power play an important role in elections explain.

Ans. (1) There is a great challenge about the growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections.

(2) Since parties are focused only on winning elections, they tend to use short-cuts to win elections. They tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise lots of money.

(3) Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party. In some cases, parties support criminals who can win elections.

2.How is dynastic succession the major challenge for political parties in India? Explain.

Or

What is meant by dynastic succession in politics? Explain with examples.

Ans. The dynastic succession is a major challenge for political parties in India and 5 it affects the functioning of the political parties adversely in the following ways :

 (1) The dynastic succession does not allow political parties to practice open and transparent procedures for their functioning. And, there is a limited scope for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party.

 (2) In such a party, the leaders are in a position to favor the people close to them or even their family members.

 (3) The top positions in the party are always controlled by members of one family which is unfair to other members of that party.

(4) There is concentration of power in one or few leaders at the top.

(5) People who do not have adequate experience or popular support come to occupy positions of power.

Long Answers:-

1.Explain any five challenges which the political parties face.                  

Or

 Explain in four different manners that political parties are still in the grip of some serious challenges.                                                                                                                                

Or

 Highlight the main challenges faced by political parties.                                     

 Ans. (1) Lack of internal democracy: (i) All over the world there is a tendency in political parties towards the concentration of powers. in one or few leaders at the top.

 (ii) Parties do not keep membership registers, do not hold organizational meetings and do not conduct internal elections regularly.

(2)Dynastic succession: (i) Most political parties do not practice open and transparent Proceeds for their functioning.

(ii) The senior members of the party are in a position of unfair advantage to favor people Close to them or even their family members.

(3)Use of money and muscle power: (i) Parties use money and muscle powers especially during elections. They tend to use short-cuts to win elections.

(ii) Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties, tend to have influence on the Policies and decisions of the party.

(4) Absence of meaningful choice : (i) Very often parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters. (ii) In our country, the differences among all the major parties on the economic policies have reduced. Those who really like different policies, have no option available to them.

2.What is meant by lack of internal democracy within parties? Explain.

Or

“Lack of internal democracy within parties is the major challenge to political parties all over the world.” Analyze the statement.                                                                                   

Or

 “Lack of internal democracy within parties is a challenge to political parties.” Explain.

Ans. (1) There is the concentration of power in the hands of one or few leaders at the top.

(2) Parties do not keep membership registers, do not hold organizational meetings and do not conduct internal elections regularly.

 (3) Ordinary members of the party do not get sufficient information on what happens inside the party.

(4) They do not have means or the contacts needed to influence the decisions.

(5) As a result, the leaders assume greater power to make decisions in the name of the party.

(6) Since one or few leaders exercise paramount power in the party, those who disagree with the leadership, find it difficult to continue in the party.

 (7) More than loyalty to party principles and policies, personal loyalty to the leader becomes more important.

HOW CAN PARTIES BE REFORMED

Very Short Answers:-

1.Give one difference between United Progressive Alliance and National Democratic Alliance.

Ans. The National Democratic Alliance is a centre-right coalition of political parties led by Bharatiya Junta Party, while United Progressive Alliance is a coalition of centrist and left political parties led by Indian National Congress.

2.How can we ensure an adequate participation of women in political parties? Give one suggestion.                                                                                         

 Ans. It should be made mandatory for political parties to give a minimum number of tickets, about one-third, to women candidates and there should be a quota for women in the decision making bodies of the party.

3.What is meant by state funding of election?                                                    

 Ans. The government should give parties money to support their election expenses. This support could be given in kind: petrol, paper, telephone etc. and cash to some extent.

4.Explain the meaning of defection.                                                                         

Or

Define ‘defection’.                                                                                                       

Ans. Changing party allegiance from the party on which a person got elected (to a legislative body) to a different

Long Answers:-

1.State any three functions of the Election Commission of India.

 Ans. (1) For the conduct of independent body in the form Commissioner and such other co arty fair and impartial election the constitution provides for an of Election Commission which consists of Chief Election.’ missioners.    

 (2)It performs the following functions: (i) It prepares electoral rolls for the election of Parliament, state legislatures as well as local bodies.

(ii) It supervises and controls the election machinery throughout the country, lays down general rules for election and issues notification of dates and schedules of election.

(iii) It allots symbols and accords recognition to political parties.

(iv) Election Commissioner implements the Code of Conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violets it.

2.Suggest any five measures to reform financial position of political parties in India.

Ans. (1) It should be mandatory for political party to submit its audited annual financial statement.

 (2) It is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of his/her property and criminal cases pending against him.

 (3) There should be state funding of elections. The government should give parties money to support their election expenses.

(4) The financial accounts of every political party should be made public. These accounts should be examined by government auditors.

 (5) Citizens should be encouraged to give more donations to parties and to political workers. Such donations should be exempted from Income Tax thereby reducing the importance of big business houses in politics.

3.Suggest any five political reforms to strengthen democracy.                              

Or

Give any four suggestions on how you will reform the political parties.

Or

Suggest and explain any five measures to reform political parties.                          

Or

 Suggest any five measures to reform political parties and their leaders in India.

Ans. Following reforms can be advised to strengthen parties so that they may perform their functions well :

 (1) To prevent defection, the law has been made so that if any MLAJMP changes his/her party, he/she will lose his/her seat in the legislature.

(2) It has been made mandatory by the Supreme Court that every candidate who is contesting an election, has to file an affidavit giving details of his/her property and criminal cases pending against him/her.

(3) The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organizational elections and file their Income Tax Returns.

 (4) A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties. e.g. , following constitution, maintaining register of its members, holding internal elections.

(5) It should be made mandatory for the parties to give one-third of their party tickets to women candidates.

(6) In each party, there should be quota far women in the decision-making bodies of the party.

 (7) There should be state funding of elections. The government should give parties money to support their election expenses.

4.What is defection? What measures have been taken to curb it?

 Ans. (1) In order to gain some favor or power or money, it has been seen that and MPs change their parties. This changing of party by an elected representative is defection.

(2)Following are the measures taken to curb defection: (i) If any MLA/MP changes his/her party, he/she will lose the seat in the legislature.

(ii) This new law has helped bring defection down.

 (iii) At the same time, this has made any dissent even more difficult.

(iv) MPs and MLAs have to accept whatever the party leaders decide.

5.Suppose, you are going to form a political party. What idea orgies would you like to keep in mind? Explain.

 Ans. (1) Aim and objectives: Secularism, patriotism, no place for castes, welfare of women, upliftment of weaker sections and minorities and above all economic development would be the basis of our party.

(2) Internal democracy: We would promote internal democracy. There would be routine organizational meetings. We would have open lists of our members. We would held internal elections for various party posts.

(3) Democratic process of succession: In many parties, the most important post is held by the member of a particular family and it takes inheritable nature. This negates the rights of other leaders and damages democratic values. Our party would choose the leader for top posts through internal election.

 (4) Ideal candidates: There would be no place for money and muscle power to win election. We would provide ideal candidates for elections through proper screening.

(5) People’s participation: We would include those policies in our manifesto that would encourage people’s participation in the political system.

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