Class-10 Ch. – 8 Novels, Society and History Extra Questions and Notes

By | September 29, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

History

Chapter- 8 Novels, Society and History

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts

THE RISE OF THE NOVEL

Very Short Answers:-

1.Name any two nineteenth century English novelists who focused on the terrible condition of the urban life during the period of industrialization in their novels.                       

Ans. (i) Charles Dickens (ii) Emile Zola

2.Which problem of the society was focused in the novel ‘Hard Times’ written by Charles Dickens?

 Ans. In ‘Hard Times’ Hardy focused on the greed for profits by industrialists and the ideas that reduced human being into simple instruments of production

3.Name the novel written by Henry Fielding.

Ans. Tom Jones.

4.What is meant by serialized novels?

 Ans. In literature like novels, a serial is a printed format by which a single larger work, often a work of narrative fiction is published in sequential installments.

5.In which novel would you find the character named ‘Friday’?

Ans. Robinson Crusoe

6.Who was Walter Scott?

Ans. Walter Scott was a Scottish novelist.

7.Which novel explores the life of miners’ in Europe?

Ans. ‘Germinal’ explores the life of miners’ in Europe.

8.Who wrote ‘Jungle Book’?

Ans. Rudyard Kipling wrote ‘Jungle Book’.

9.Name the two countries where novels were first published.

Ans. England and France.

10.By whom was the novel ‘Treasure Island’ written?

Ans: AIM ‘Treasure Island’ was written by R.L. Stevenson.

11.Who wrote the novel ‘Oliver Twist’?

Ans. Charles Dickens

12.Which novel was the first to be serialized in a magazine?

Or

Which novel was serialized in a magazine in 1836?                          

 Ans. In 1836 Charles Dickens’ Pickwick Papers’ was serialized in a magazine.

13.Under which pen-name did Sarah Chauncey Woolsey write the novels?

Ans. Sara Chauncey Woolsey’s pen name was Susan Coolidge.

14.Which was the first serialized novel in English?                 

Ans. In 1836 Charles Dickens’ Pickwick Papers’ was serialized in a magazine.

15.Which fictitious town is described by Charles Dickens in his novel `Hard Times’?

Ans. In ‘Hard Times’, Charles Dickens describes takedown’ as a fictitious industrial town.

16.Which English novel reflects the rebellion nature of females in society?

Ans. Charlotte Bronte’s ‘Jane Eyre’,

17.Who wrote the novel ‘Pamela’?

 Ans. Richardson.

18.Which major themes were taken up by the women in then novels?

Ans. Women novelists in their novels dealt with women who broke established norms of society before adjusting to them.

19.Who is the author of the novel “Pride and Prejudice”?

Or

By whom was the novel ‘Pride and Prejudice’ written?                                    

 Ans. Jane Austen

20.Who was the writer of the novel ‘hard Times’?

Or

The novel ‘Hard Times’ was written by whom?

Or

Who wrote hard Times?

 Ans. Charles Dickens.

Short Answers:-

1.Why were vernacular novels popular in the 19th century? Explain.

Ans. (1) In 19th century vernacular novels were very popular. As the common people had .acted taking interest in novel reading, writing in vernacular language had become popular.

(2) By coming closer to the different spoken languages of the people, the novel produces the nose of a shared world between diverse people in a nation.

(3) Novels also draw from different styles of languages. A novel may take a classical gauge and combine it with the language of the streets and make them part of the! Macular that it uses. Like the nation, the novels bring together many cultures.

2.Describe the theme of Charlotte Bronte’s novels, giving an example.

Ans. (1) The main theme of Charlotte Bronte’s novels was based on the women who broke abolished norms of society before adjusting to them. Such stories allowed women readers to empathize with rebellious actions.

(2) In her very famous novel ‘Jane Eyre’ published in 1847, young Jane is shown as dependent and assertive. While girls of her time were expected to behave well. Jane at the often protests against the hypocrisy of her elders with startling bluntness.

 (3) She tells her aunt who is always unkind to her: People think you a good women but you are bad… you are deceitful! I will never call you aunt as long as I live’.

3.Describe the theme of Charles Dickens ‘Oliver Twist’.

Ans. (1) The main theme of Charles Dickens’s novel, Oliver Twist (1838) is the tale of a poor orphan who lived in a world of petty criminals and beggars.

(2) Brought in a cruel workhouse, Oliver was finally adopted by a wealthy man and lived happily ever after.

 (3) Dickens depicts that a hungry Oliver asks for more food while other children at the workhouse look on with fear.

4.Who wrote Hard Times? Explain any two features of the novel.

Ans. (1) Charles Dickens (1812-1870) wrote his masterpiece, ‘Hard Times’ in 1854.

(2) (i) ‘Hard Times’ describes Coke town, a fictitious industrial town, as a grim place full of machinery, smoking chimneys, rivers polluted purple and buildings that all looked the same. In this ways Dickens describes the terrible effect of industrialization on people’s lives and characters.

(ii) Dickens criticized not just the greed for profits but also the ideas that reduced human beings into simple instruments of production. In other novels too, Dickens focused on the terrible conditions of urban life under industrial capitalism.

5.Who was Henry Fielding? Give an example of a book written by him.

Ans. (1) Henry Fielding was a novelist of the early eighteenth century.

 (2) He claimed that he was ‘the founder of a new province of writing’ where he could make his own laws.

(3) Henry Fielding wrote ‘Tom Jones’ in 1749. Tom Jones was issued in six volumes priced at three shillings each which was more than what a laborer earned in a week.

6.State the meaning of Epistolary novel. Give two examples for this type of novel.    

 Ans. (1) Epistolary novels are written in the form of a series of letters to tell their stories.

 (2) Examples of Epistolary novel are as under: (i) Samuel Richardson’s ‘Pamela’.

 (ii) Anne Bronte’s ‘The Tenant of Wild fell Hall’ (1848)

(iii) Willkie Collins’ ‘The Moon Stone’ (1868) (Write any two)

7.What actions of Robinson Crusoe made him as a typical colonizer? Explain.

Ans. Following actions of Crusoe made him a typical colonizer:

(1) He was a slave trader.

 (2) His ship wrecked in an island and Crusoe treated local colored people as inferior.

(3) He takes on himself the role of civilizer of the native.

 (4) He favors the colonies and colonizing process.

(5) He admires the youngsters who participated in the colonizing missions.

 Long Answers:-

1.Describe the dark face of industrialization as highlighted by Charles Dickens in his novels ‘Hard Times’ and ‘Oliver Twist’.

Ans. (1) Charles Dickens wrote about the terrible effects of industrialization on people’s lives and characters. His novel ‘Hard Times’ (1854) describes Coke town, a fictitious industrial town, as a grim place full of machinery, smoking chimneys, rivers polluted purple and buildings that all looked the same.

(2) Here workers are known as hands, as if they had no identity other than as operators of machines.

(3) Dickens criticized not just the greed for profits but also the ideas that reduced human beings into simple instruments of production. In fact, he focused on the terrible conditions of urban life under industrial capitalism.

(4) His novel Oliver Twist (1838) is the tale of a poor orphan who lived in a world of petty criminals and beggars.

(5) Brought up in a cruel workhouse, Oliver was finally adopted by a wealthy man and lived happily ever after. Dickens depicts that a hungry Oliver asks for more food while other children at the workhouse look on with fear.

2.What were the reasons for women getting involved with novels?

Ans. The most exciting element of the novel was the involvement of women.

(2) In the eighteenth century, the middle classes became more prosperous. Women got more leisure to read as well as write novels.

(3) Novels began exploring the world of women- their emotions and identities, their experiences and problems.

(4) Many novels were about domestic life. In these novels women were allowed to speak with authority.

(5) They drew upon their experience wrote about family life and earned public recognition.

3.Highlight the social changes in Britain which led to an increase in women readers.

Ans. (1) The most interesting aspect of the novel in Britain was the involvement of women.

(2) There was a huge readership of novels among women. The reason behind was that the middle classes became more prosperous in the 18th century. Women had leisure time to read as well as write novels.

 (3) Novelists had started exploring the world of women “ratify with’

 (4) Many novels were about domestic life, a theme which women were able to ‘ride

  (5) Women drew up their own experience, wrote about family life and their emotions. Identities, experience and problems.

4.Differentiate between the novels written by Charlotte Bronte and Jane Austen.

Ans. (1) (i) Jane Austen was an English novelist who gave us a glimpse of the world of women in genteel rural society in early nineteenth century Britain.

 (ii) Her novels make readers think about a society where women were encouraged to get engaged in good marriages and with rich and propertied husbands.

(iii) Her novels revolved round marriages and money emphasizing the social status of women.

2 (i) Charlotte Bronte too was an English writer whose novels delta with women who broke establishing norms of society before adjusting to them.

(ii) It projected women as rebellious and courageous to betray social norms that forced women to be submissive.

(iii) Her novels allowed women readers to sympathize with rebellious actions both novelists projected women in different spheres of life and objectives.

5.Explain any three changes in technology and society which led to an increase in readers of the novel in 18th century Europe.

 Ans. (1) In ancient times, manuscripts were handwritten. These circulated among very few people. In contrast, because of being printed, novels were widely read and became popular very quickly. Technological improvements in printing brought down the print of books and innovations in marketing led to expanded sales.

(2) People had easier access to books with the introduction of circulating libraries in 1740.

(3) At this time, big cities like London were growing rapidly and becoming connected to small towns and rural areas. Novels produced a number of common interests among their scattered and varied readers. Novels began to be written form the 17th century, but they really flowered from the 18th Century

 (4) For a long time, the publishing market excluded the poor. Initially novels did not come cheap. But with the expansion of printing press, novels became cheaper and in the reach of the poor people.

(5) The worlds created by novels were absorbing and believable. While reading novels, the reader was transported to another person’s world, and began looking at life as it was experienced by the characters of the novel.

6.Highlight any three contributions of novel to modern society.

 Ans. (1) Printing technology had brought a revolution in the world of novels which started in the seventeenth century. Novels made people aware of social, political and economic aspects of life.

(2) The stories of novels became a source of inspiration for the people to fight against injustice and discrimination. Especially in the context of Indian novelists who wrote against injustice and discrimination towards the low caste people and motivated them to fight for their rights. Novels also inspired people for freedom.

(3) Novels gave new ideas to the readers like liberalism, socialism, democracy, capitalism. Not only this but the circulation of printed books allowed people to amuse themselves in many new different ways. The vast majority of readers lived in the city.

7.Describe in brief the story of the novel ‘Mayor of Caster Bridge’ written by Thom Hardy. What does the author want to convey through this novel? Explain.

 Ans. (1) Thomas Hardy had written the famous novel ‘Mayor of Caster Bridge, in 1886.

(2) It is about Michael Hen chard a successful grain merchant, who becomes the mayor of the farming town of Caster bridge.

 (3) He is an independent-minded man who follows his own style in conducting business He can also be both unpredictably generous and cruel with his employees.

 (4) Consequently, he is no match for his manager and rival Donald Fanfare who rune his business-efficient managerial lines and is well-regarded far he is smooth and even tempered with everyone.

(5) Hardy mourns the loss of the more personalized world that is disappearing even as he is aware of its problems and the advantages of the new order.

8.What kind of entertainment did novels provide? Describe.                            

Or

 Highlight any five reasons for an increase in readers of the novel in eighteenth-century Europe.

Ans. (1) Novels created a world that was understandable and believable and seemingly real.

(2) The reader was transported to another world while reading the novel. They began looking at life as experienced by the characters of the novel. This was thrilling.

(3) Novels allowed private entertainment.

(4) In rural areas, people gathered in places and listened to stories being read aloud. These sessions were enjoyable.

 (5) With the introduction of serialized novels the popularity of the novels increased. In 1836, ‘Pickwick Papers’ by Charles Dickens were serialized.

(6) Serialization allowed the readers to relish the suspense, discuss the characters and live for the week to end and read next part of the story.

9.Describe the terrible effects of industrialization on people’s lives as have been depicted by Charles Dickens in his novel ‘Hard Times’.

Or

“Charles Dickens focused on the terrible effects of industrialization on people’s lives and characters.” Justify.

Or

Who wrote the novel ‘Hard Times’? Write the theme of this novel in brief.        

Or

Name any two novels which describe the impact of industrialization. Explain the theme of any one.

Ans. (1) Charles Dickens wrote the novel Hard Times.                                 

 (2) (i) Charles Dickens wrote about the terrible effects of industrialization on peoples’ lives and characters.

(ii) In Hard Times, Dickens describes Coke town, a fictitious industrial town, as a grim place full of machinery, smoking chimneys, rivers polluted purple and buildings that all looked the same.

 (iii) He criticized not just the greed for profit but also the ideas that reduced human beings into simple instruments of production in this novel.

(3)(i) Oliver Twist is a tale of poor orphan who lived in a world of petty criminals and beggars.

 (ii) Brought up in a cruel workhouse, Oliver was finally adopted by a wealthy man and lived happily ever after.

10.How did novels become popular among readers after technological improvement in printing?

Or

 How did the technological improvements in printing lead to the popularity of novels?

 Ans. (1) Technological improvements in printing brought down the price of the novels and innovation in marketing made them accessible to masses.

(2) The world created by novels were absorbing and believable and seemingly real.

 (3) Novels allowed individu als the pleasure of reading in private as well as the joy of publicly reading or discussing stories with friend or relatives.

(4) In rural areas, people would collect to hear one of them reading a novel aloud, often becoming deeply involved in the lives of the characters.

(5) While reading novels, the reader was transported to another person’s world and began looking to life as it was experienced by the characters of the novel.

11.Examine the social problems that existed in the 19th century Britain as written by Thomas Hardy and Charles Dickens.

Or

 Examine the social changes that took place in the 19th century Britain as written by Thomas Hardy and Charles Dickens.                         

Or

Highlight the various themes of novels written by Charles Dickens and Thomas Hardy, in the 19th century.                                                                                                     

Or

Discuss some of the social changes in the 19th century Britain which Charles Dickens wrote about.

Or

How did Thomas Hardy explain about the industrial problems during the 19th century in his

 novels?                                                                                                           

 Ans. (1) Charles Dickens had written a lot in his novels about the social changes taking place in the nineteenth century.

(2) Europe entered the industrial age and cities expanded in an unregulated way and were filled with over worked and underpaid workers. They lived in a grim place full of machinery, smoking chimneys, polluted purple rivers.

(3) Workers were called ‘hands’ as if they had no individual identity. The unemployed youth and poor roamed the streets for jobs.

(4) Conditions of urban life under capitalism had become terrible. Human beings had become simple instruments of production.

(5) The growth of industry was accompanied by an economic philosophy which celebrated the pursuit of profit and undervalued the lives of worker.

(6) Thomas Hardy wrote about traditional rural communities of England that were fast vanishing. This was actually a time when large farmers fenced off, bought machines and employed laborers to produce for the market.

12.Why did the readership of novel begin to include poorer people? Give any three reasons.

Or

Why did the readership of novels begin to include poorer people after 1740?

Ans. (1) The introduction of circulating libraries gave poor people an easy access to novels. This was also beneficial for the publishers as they had now more readers.

 (2) Initially novels were costly. Sometimes it coasted an amount equal to a week’s wages of a worker. Hence, it was almost impossible for the poor people to buy novels. This problem was solved when technological improvement in print brought down the price.

 (3) In France, publishers made the novels available for hiring by hours.

(4) Soon people had easier access to book with the introduction of circulating libraries in 1740.

(5) Technological improvements in printing brought down the price of books and innovations in marketing led to expanded sales. These were the reasons that the readership of novel began to include poorer people.

13.Describe the reasons for the popularity of novels among the women.

Or

 Examine the popularity of novels among women during eighteenth century.

Ans. (1) With more prosperity, women got more leisure to read and write novels.

(2) Novels began to explore the world of women—their emotions and identities, their experiences and problems.

(3) Many novels were about domestic life—a theme about which women were allowed to speak with authority.

(4) Women now had the opportunity to draw upon their experience, write about family life and earn public recognition. These were some reasons that made novels popular among the women.

14.Explain any five reasons for the popularity of novels in the 18th and 19th centuries.         

Or

Explain any three reasons for the popularity of novels in the 18th century Europe.

Or

Explain the factors which were responsible for creating interest in reading, in Europe?             

Ans. Following were the factors that created interest in reading:

(1) Novels produced a number of common interests among their scattered and varied readers.

(2) The readers were drawn into the story and could identify themselves with the fictitious characters. It gave them mental satisfaction.

(3) Novels enabled them to think about various issues and concerns.

 (4) They were interested to understand the relationship between love and marriage and the proper conduct for men and women and so on.

(5) Novels allowed them the pleasure of reading in private, in trains during journeys and in leisure times.

15.Elaborate upon the contribution of Charles Dickens in the field of novel writing.

Or

Explain the contribution of Charles Dickens in the field of English literature.

Or

 Highlight the main contribution of Charles Dickens in the field of novel writing.

Ans. (1) Charles Dickens wrote about the terrible effects of industrialization.

(2) He discussed about pollution caused due to industrialization.

 (3) Dickens criticized the greed for profits.

 (4) He criticized the idea that human beings were treated as simple instruments of production.

(5) He threw light on terrible conditions of urban life.

(6) He highlighted the exploitation of children/orphans in ‘Oliver Twist’.

16.What did GA Hendy write about in his novels which attracted the young?

Or

How did the novels for the young boys idealize a new type of man? Explain.

Ans. (1) G.A. Hendy’s historical adventure novels for boys were widely popular dun . rig the height of British empire.

 (2) They created excitement and adventure of conquering strange lands. His stories were set in Mexico, Alexandria and Siberia.

(3) His novels were always about young boys who witnessed grand historical events.

(4) Through his novels, he filled in young readers the pride, of being British.

(5) In his novel `under Drake’s Flag’ two young Elizabethan adventurers face their apparently approaching death, but still remember to assert their Englishness.

17.How did the novels for young boys idealize a new type of man? Give suitable examples from the novels published in the 19th century.

Or

Explain any five features of novels written for the young in the last stage of the nineteenth century.                                                                                                                                         

 Ans. (1) Novels for young boys idealized a new type of man : someone who was powerful, assertive, independent and daring.

(2) Most of the novels were full of adventures set in places remote from Europe, e.g., R.L. Stevenson’s ‘Treasure Island’ and Rudyard Kipling’s ‘Jungle Book’.

(3) The colonizers appear heroic and honorable confronting ‘native’ people and strange surroundings, adapting to native life as well as changing it, colonizing territories and then developing nations there.

(4) G.A. Hendy’s historical adventure novels aroused excitement and adventure of conquering strange lands.

(5) In the 19th century, Europe was colonizing the rest of the world. So, they believed themselves as superior and made young people to take pride in it.

(6) Love stories for adolescent girls also became popular e.g., Ramona.

(7) Hendy’s novels were about young boys who witnessed grand historical events.

18.How was the ‘New Women’ portrayed in the novels of the 18th century? Explain.

Or

 How did the novels explore the possibility in the world of women in the eighteenth century? Explain.                                                         

Or

How did the novels explore the world of women in the eighteenth century? Explain.

Ans. (1) Middle classes became prosperous. So, women got more leisure to read as well as write.

 (2) Novels became to explore their emotions, identities, experiences and problems.

 (3) Novels spoke about women’s domestic life.

(4) Women were portrayed as individuals who were to remain preoccupied with marriage, money and children as typified in Jane Austin’s ‘Pride and Prejudice’.

(5) Some novelists wrote about women who broke established norms of society as in Jane Eyre’s Charlotte Bronte.

19.Assess the reasons for the popularity of the novel in Europe.

Or

 Explain any five reasons for the popularity of novels in mid-eighteenth century Europe     

Or

Why the novels were widely read and became popular very quickly?                            

Or

 Explain any three reasons for the popularity of novels in the 18th century Europe.

Ans. Reasons for the popularity of the novels in Europe:

(1) Novels created a world that was understandable and believable and seemingly real.

(2) While reading the readers were transported to another world and they began looking at life as experienced by the characters of the novel. This was thrilling.

(3) Novels allowed private entertainment.

(4) In rural areas, people gathered in places and listened to stories being read aloud. These sessions were enjoyable.

(5) With the introduction of serialized novels the popularity of the novels increased. In 1836, Pickwick Papers’ by Charles Dickens was serialized in a magazine.

(6) Serialization allowed the readers to relish the suspense, discuss the characters and live for the week to end and read next part of the story

20.Who is the author of ‘Mayor of Caster Bridge’? Give a brief picture of the story

Ans. (1) Author of ‘Mayor of Caster Bridge’ was Thomas Hardy.

(2) Story: (i) It is a story about Michael Hen chard, a rich grain merchant who becomes the Mayor of Caster Bridge.

 (ii) He is an independent-minded with his own business style.

(iii) He was both unpredictably generous as well as cruel with his employees.

(iv) Being of uncertain nature he was no match for his manager and rival Donald Fanfare.

(v) Donald Fanfare was well-regarded for his smooth and even-tempered behavior with everyone.

21.Name one famous woman novelist in 19th century England. Describe the different ways in which women novelists portrayed women.

Or

Highlight the theme of Jane Austen’s novels with examples.

Or

 Explain the popular themes on which women in England wrote novels in the 19th century. Also, mention the names of any two women novelists of this period and one novel written by each of them.                                                               

Or

 How do the novels of Jane Austen give a glimpse of the world of women in the 18th Century Britain?                       

Or

 Describe any two themes on which women writers wrote in 19th century England. Give suitable examples.

 Ans. (1) Jane Austen was a famous woman novelist.

(2) (i) Her novel, ‘Pride and Prejudice’ gave a glimpse of the world of women in genteel rural society.

(ii) Society encouraged women to look for good. marriages and showed women in domestic roles.

(iii) Charlotte Bronte’s novel ‘Jane Eyre’ was about women who broke established norms of society before adjusting to them.

 (ii) She portrayed women as rebellious, independent and assertive who protested about hypocrisy of elders.

(iii) George Eliot was a popular novelist. She, in her novels, emphasized on equality of men and women.

 THE NOVEL COMES TO INDIA

Very Short Answers:

1.Name the novel which was written by Baba Padmanji.

Ans. Baba Padmanji wrote `Yamuna Puritan’.

2.Name the first proper modern novel written by Srinivas Das.

Ans. Srinivas Das wrote ‘Parish-Guru’.

3.Who was the most popular novelist in Bengali who often used to host jar’?

Ans. Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyay.

4.Name the novel written by Kandukuri Viresalingam.

Ans. Rajasekhara Caritamu in 1878.

5.Which Hindi novel reflects the inner and outer world of the newly emerging middle class?

Ans. Srinivas Dais’s Parish Guru.

6.Who wrote novel Muktamala”?

Ans. Ashman Mores war Hale.

7.Which novel published in 1889 was the first modern novel in Malayalam?

Ans. Indulekha.

8.Name the most popular novelist in Bengal.  

Ans. Sara Chandra Chattopadhyay.

9.Name the earliest Marathi novel.

 Ans. The earliest novel in Marathi was Baba Padmanji’s %mane Puritan’.

10.Who wrote the novel ‘Anandmath’?

 Ans. Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote the novel ‘Anandmath’. Which novel was the first modern novel in Malayalam?                                                             

11.Which was the first Malayalam novel?

Or

Name the first novel in Malayalam.

Ans. Indulekha’ (1889)

12.Who wrote the first proper modern novel in Hindi?

Or

Mention the first proper modern novel written in Hindi.

Or

Name the first proper modern novel written by Srinivas Das.

Ans. Srinivas Das (1882) wrote the first Modern Hindi Novel named Parish Guru.

13.Name the first novel written by Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyaya.  

Ans. Dirges Nadine (1865)

14.Who wrote the novel `Chandra anta’?

Ans. Device Mandan Kari.

15.In which year was Srinivas Ads’ novel published?

Ans. In 1889.

16.In which language was the novel ‘Yamuna Puritan’ written?  

Ans. Marathi.

17.Which traditional art of writing was adopted by Premchand?

Ans. `Kissa-goi’ (storytelling)

 Short Answers:-

1.Who wrote the novel Parish-Guru’? Explain any two features of it

 Ans. (1) Srinivas Das wrote the novel, `Parish-Guru’.

(2) (i) This novel cautioned young men of well-to-do families against the dangerous influences of bad company and consequent loss of morals.

(ii) It reflects the inner and outer world of the newly emerging middle classes. The characters in the novel are caught in the difficulty of adapting to colonized society and at the same time preserving their own cultural identity.

2.How did novel reading become a great source of pleasure in India? Explain.

Ans. (1) The novel became a popular medium of entertainment among the middle class in India.

(2) Picture books allowed people to amuse themselves in new ways : Picture books, translations from other languages.

(3) Soon novels became immensely popular as the passion for reading novels was not limited only to the youth, older people included men and women too enjoyed reading novels.

Novels helped people in creating a world of imagination where readers could identify themselves with protagonists.

3.Explain the contribution of Srinivas Das in popularizing novel reading in Hindi through his novel — `Parish Guru’.                             

Ans. (1) Srinivas Ads’ novel, Parish Guru is the first proper novel in Hindi published in 1882, considered a land mark in Hindi fiction.

(2) Many novels were actually translated and adopted from English and Bengali but the first proper modern novel was Parish-Guru. It cautioned young men of well-to-do families against the dangerous influence of bad company and consequent loose morals.

 (3) Though with all the good intentions, Parish-Guru could not win many readers but it was a milestone of Hindi fiction.

4.How were the concerns of Oriya Society depicted in the Oriya novels of 19th century Explain.                                

Ans. (1) Oriya fiction began in 1888 and in its movement through the first three decades of the twentieth century brought many social problems in limelight.

(2) Novelists like Mesh Chandra Starker, Ram Shankar Roy. Nanda Inshore Bal and Kantilla Kumara Sabot had shifted their focus from the genre of historical romance to deep concern with contemporary social problems such as those of economic exploitation.

(3) They raised the problems of widowhood and widow marriage, political corruption, caste hierarchy, women education, colonial power and agrarian tenancy system. All of them were ideologically engaged with a sense of social reform as well as resistance to evils, injustice and moral depravity.

5.Examine the main features of novel Sewasadan’ written by Mushy Premchand.

Ans. (1) The novel, `Sewasadan’ (The Abode of Service) was published in 1916.

(2) This novel lifted the Hindi novel from the realm of fantasy, moralizing and simple entertainment to a serious level.

(3) Sewasadan is a bold statement on the political and religious debate about child marriage and dowry in the society. It tells us about the ways in which the Indian upper classes used whatever little fortuities they got from colonial authorities to govern themselves.

6.Who translated the novel `Henrietta Temple’ written by Disraeli in Malayalam Alma? Why i did the author give up the idea of translating English novels? What did he do instead in the literary field?

Or

Who translated the novel ‘Henrietta Temple’ in Malayalam? Why did the translator give the idea of translating English novels?                                                                                          

Ans. (1) O. Chengdu Menno tried to translate the novel ‘Henrietta ‘Ample’ written by Benjamin Disraeli into Malayalam.

 (2) (i) He gave up the idea of translating English novels because he realized that  readers in Kerala were not familiar with the way in which characters in English society lived.

 (ii) The direct translation of English novels was dreadfully boring and the Indian readers could not relate to the culture or social contexts mentioned in the novels.

 (3) He wrote ‘Indulekha’, the first modern novel in Malayalam in the manner of an English novel.

7.Which was the first modern romantic Hindi novel? How did it become popular among readers? Explain.

Ans. (1) Chandra anta was the first modern romantic Hindi novel.

 (2) It became popular among readers because : (i) It was written purely for the ‘pleasure of reading’.

(ii) It gave insights into the fear of the readers.

 (iii) It was written by Device Mandan Kari.

8.Explain the meaning of `Jar’, Kabirlarai and Bhadralok.

 Ans. (1) Jar: It is the tenth day after navaratra and is celebrated as the day of departure of Goddess Dura.

(2) Kabirlarai: It was a type of contest held among the poets. It was a public form of entertainment. The merchants of Calcutta used to patronize such contests.

 (3)Bhadralok: It means people who are well-read and who belong to rich families from upper-class.

9.Who wrote the novel “Parish-Guru”? Explain any two features of it.

Or

 Mention any five features of Srinivas Dais’s novel titled `Parish-Guru’.

     Or

 Who is the author of Trisha-Guru’? What message does he try to convey to the readers through Parish Guru? Describe.                                                                                                                    

Or

How does the novel `Parish-Guru’ reflect the inner and outer world of the newly emerging middle classes? Explain.                                                                      

Or

 Describe the main features of the novel “Parish-Guru” written by Srinivas Das.

Ans. (1) The author of `Parish-Guru’ is Srinivas Das.

(2) (i) Parish-Guru reflects the inner and outer world of the newly emerging middle class.

(ii)It cautions the youth of well-to-do families against the dangerous influences of bad company and consequent loss of morals.

(iii)It teaches the readers to be worldly wise and practical.

(iv)It teaches the readers to become modern by remaining rooted to their culture and life with dignity and honor.

10.Mention the main features of the first Hindi modern novel which became a best seller. Who was its writer?

Or

Name the first Hindi modern novel which became a best seller. Mention its main features.

Or

 Name the first Hindi modern novel which became a best seller and give reasons for its  Popularity                                                                                                                                                                          

Or

 Name the Hindi novel which became the best seller. Who was its writer? Why was it so Popular?

Ans.(1) Chandra anta— a romantic novel by Device Mandan Kari became a best seller. 

 (2) It became popular because :

(i) It was written purely for the ‘pleasure of reading’.

(ii) It gave insights into the fears and desires of the readers.

(iii) It had a romantic story.

 (iv) It had dazzling elements of fantasy.

(v) It had many mystic elements.

11.Explain briefly the history of Hindi novel from starting to excellence.

Or

Describe the growth of Hindi novels from their origin to the period of excellence.

Or

Describe the process of the development of novel in Hindi.                 

Or

 Briefly describe the journey of the development of novel in Hindi.

Ans. (1) Bartend Harishchandra was the pioneer of modern Hindi literature, but Srinivas Das of Delhi wrote the first proper modern Hindi novel, ‘Parish-Guru’.

(2) The writings of Device Mandan Kari created a novel-reading public in Hindi.

 (3) It was the writing of Premchand that the Hindi novel achieved excellence. His writings touched every sphere of life whether it be the rural society or the urban society.

12.How did the writings of Device Mandan Kari create a novel reading public in India?

Or

 Explain any three contributions of Device Mandan- Kari in popularizing the Hindi language.

Or

 Explain the contribution of Devi Mandan Kari in the Hindi novels.

 Ans. (1) His novel dracaena was a romantic novel with dazzling elements of fantasy` It gathered a huge reader.

(2) His novels were out of the initial modern Hindi novels.

(3) His novels immensely popularized Hindi language and Negara script.

(4) He wrote for reading pleasures.

(5) His novel gave insight into the fears and desires of the readers.

Long Answers:-

1.Indians used the novel as a powerful medium to criticize what they considered defects in their society and to suggest remedies. Explain the statement with examples.

Ans. (1) Indians used the novel as a powerful medium to criticize what they considered defects in their society and to suggest remedies.

 (2) Writers like Viresalingam used the novel mainly to propagate their ideas about society among a wider readership.

(3) Novel writers also helped in establishing a relationship with the past. Through glorified accounts of the past, these novels helped in creating a sense of national pride among their readers.

 (4) At the same time, people from all walks of life could read novels so long as they shared a common language. This helped in creating a sense of collective belongings on the basis of one’s language.

 (5) People in different regions speak the same language in different ways but novels made their readers familiar with the ways in which people in other parts of their land spoke their language thus, binding them together.

2.Explain the growth of modern forms of novels in India.

Ans. (1) The modern novel form developed in India in the nineteenth century as Indians became familiar with the western novel. The development of the vernaculars, print and a reading public helped in this process. The first novels were written in Bengali and Marathi.

 (2) Earliest novel in Marathi was Baba Padmanji’s Yamuna Puritan’. This was followed, by Ashman Mores war Hale’s `Muktamala’. This novel presented an imaginary romance narrative with a moral purpose.

(3) Colonial period started appearing in south Indian languages during colonial era. Even some English novels were translated into Indian Languages.

(4) Parish-Guru was the first Hindi novel written by Srinivas Das. After this the writings of Device Mandan Kari created a novel reading public in Hindi.

(5) It was with the writing of Premchand that the Hindi novel achieved excellence. He on the traditional art of Kissa-goi’. His novel, Sewasadan published i drew in 1916, lifted the Hindi novel from in the realm of fantasy, moralizing and simple entertainment to a serious reflection on the lives of ordinary people and social issues like child marriage and dowry.

3.Examine the contribution of Mushy Premchand in achieving excellence in Hindi literature.

Ans. (1) Mushy Premchand’s novels are filled with all kinds of powerful characters drawn from all levels of society. In his novels, we meet aristocrats and landlords, middle level peasants and landless laborers, middle class professionals and people from the margins of society.

(2) The women characters are strong individuals, especially those who come from the lower classes and are not modernized.

(3) Unlike many of his contemporaries, Premchand rejected the nostalgic obsession with ancient history.

(4) Instead, his novels look towards the future without forgetting to importance of the past.

(5) Drawn from various strata of society, Premchand’s characters create a community based on democratic values. He makes the lives of the most oppressed section of society as worthy of literary reflection.

4.Who wrote Parish-Guru? Explain the picture of the new middle class families the novel portrays. Explain any four points.

Ans. (1) Parish-Guru was written by Srinivas Das in 1882.

(2) (i) The novel portrays the inner and outer world of the newly emerging middle classes. The characters in the novel are caught in the difficulty of adapting to colonized society and at the same time preserving their own cultural identity.

(ii) The novel tries to teach the readers the right way to live and expects all sensible men to be worldly-wise and practical to remain rooted in the values of their own tradition and culture and to live with dignity and honor.

(iii) In the novel, we see the characters attempting to bridge two different worlds through their actions they take to new agricultural technology, modernized trading practices, change the use of Indian languages etc.

 (iv) The young are urged to cultivate the ‘healthy habit’ of reading the newspaper. But the novel emphasizes that all this must be achieved without sacrificing the traditional values of the middle class household.

5.Describe the development of novels in Bengal in the nineteenth century.

Or

 Examine about the beginning and the growth of ‘Novels in Bengal’.

Ans. (1) In nineteenth century, novels in Bengal were love stories based on historical events. Many novels depicted the inner world of domestic life in contemporary setting.

(2) Domestic novels frequently dealt with the social problems and romantic relationships between men and women.

(3) Besides, the ingenious twists and turns of the plot and the suspense, Dirges Nadine’ novel written by Bunkum Chandra was also relished for its language.

(4) Later on Bunkum’s vernacular style sanskritized prose became popular. Now the novel rapidly acquired popularity in Bengal.

(5) By the twentieth century, the power of telling stories in simple language made Sara Chandra Chattopadhyaya (1876-1938) the most popular. novelist in Bengal and probably in the rest of India.

6 “It was with the writings of Premchand that Hindi novel achieved excellence? Justify the statement. Explain the contribution of Mushy Premchand to the growth of Hindi novel examples.

Or

“Hindi novel achieved excellence with Premchand’s writings.” Support the statement with examples.                                                                                                

Or

Evaluate the work of great novelist—Premchand.

Ans. (1) Premchand began writing in Urdu and then sifted to Hindi, remaining as immensely influential writer in both languages.

(2) He drew on the traditional art of story-telling.

(3) Earlier the Hindi novelists wrote in the realm of fantasy and moralizing and sun. entertainment Premchand gave a turn to this.

 (4) Premchand lifted Hindi novel from this realm to a serious reflection on the lives of ordinary people and social issues.

(5) His novels talked about the condition of women in the society, child marriage and dowry like issues.

(6) His novels tell us about the ways in which the Indian upper classes used whatever little opportunities they got from colonial authorities to govern themselves. All this gave a very different dimension to Hindi novels and took them to excellence.

7.Name the first novel written by Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhyaya. Examine the contribution of the Bengali novel.                  

 Ans. (1) turgeshnandini’ is Bunkum Chandra Chattopadhaya’s first novel.

(2) (i) He was the writer who inspired many kind of freedom fighters through his novel, Anandmath. 

(ii) The nation he imagined in the novel was so powerful that it could inspire actual political movements.

(iii) Anandmath is a novel about a secret Hindu militia that fights Muslims to establish a Hindu kingdom.

(iv) He would host a Jar in the courtyard where members of family would be gathering. In his room, a group of literary friends would collect to read, discuss and judge literary works.

8.In what ways did novels help to give the people a vision of being ideal characters without losing one’s identity? Explain.  

 Ans. The novels helped to give people a vision of being ideal characters without losing one’s identify in the following ways :

(1) Srinivas Ads’, Parish-Guru’ reflects the inner and outer worlds of the newly emerging middle class.

(2) The characters in the novel are caught in difficulty of adapting to preserving their cultural identity.

(3) The characters in the novel attempt to bridge two different worlds through their actions. They take to new agricultural technology, modernize trading practices and change the use of Indian languages making them capable of transmitting both western sciences and Indian wisdom.

(4) The young ones are urged to cultivate the healthy habit of reading the newspaper.

(5) The novel also emphasizes that all this must be achieved without sacrificing the traditional values of the middle class household.

 NOVELS IN THE COLONIAL WORLD

Short Answers:

1.How did novels in British India help colonial administrators and Indians both ? Explain.

Ans. (1) Leading novelists of the nineteenth century wrote for a cause.

 (2) Colonial rulers regarded the contemporary culture of India as inferior. They tended to depict Indians as weak, divided and dependent minded. Some of the novels-translated into English proved all the more useful in knowing the intricacies of the Indian society.

(3) On the other hand, through novels nationalist leaders express their grievances against the colonial government.

 (4) Nationalist leaders attacked various social evils prevailing in the society but also suggested remedies for them.

(5) The novels also took up the cause of nationalism and urged the people to be true to their culture and for freedom of their country.

2.What kind of entertainment did novels provide? Describe.                             

Ans. (1) Novels were the biggest gift of printing revolution to the people in the field of entertainment. It produced a number of common interests among their scattered and varied readers.

 (2) The readers were drawn into the story and could identify themselves with the fictitious characters. It gave them mental satisfaction.

 (3) Novels enabled them to think about various issues and concerns.

(4) They were interested to understand the relationship between love and marriage and the proper conduct for men and women and so on.

 (5) Novels allowed them the pleasure of reading in private, in trains during journeys and in leisure times. _

(6) New group of people as shopkeepers, clerks along with the aristocrats of England and France enjoyed reading novels.

(7) In the eighteenth century, industrialization brought prosperity. This provided some leisure time to the women. They emerged as a new group of readership of novels.

3.With what objectives novelists in colonial India wrote for a political cause? Explain any three objectives.

Ans. (1) As outsiders, the British knew little about life inside Indian househrildive life Ana s. cool customs. Some of these books were translated into English, Often by British administer moon or Christian missionaries.

(2) Novelists in colonial India used the novel as a powerful medium to criticize what the considered defects in their society and to suggest remedies. national pride among their readers. a common languages. This helped in creating a sense of collective belonging on the b

(3) Through glorified accounts.

(4) At the same time, people from all walks of life could read novels so long as they shared past, these novels helped in creating a sense nssee3ooff one’s language.

(5) The way characters spoke in a novel began to indicate their region, class of caste. Thus, novels made their readers familiars with the ways in which people in other parts of their land spoke their language.

4.Describe the pleasure of reading in the early decades of the 20th century.

Ans. (1) The circulation of printed books allowed people to amuse themselves in new ways.

(2) In Tamil, there was a flood of popular novels in the early decades of the twentieth century.

 (3) Detective and mystery novels often had to be printed again and again to meet the demand of readers. The novels also assisted in the spread of silent reading.

(4) Individuals sitting at home or travelling in trains enjoyed them.

(5) Even in a crowded room, the novel offered a special world of imagination into which the reader could slip and be all alone.

5.How did the novels play a significant role in awareness about the India’s glorious past?

Ans. (1) Novels helped a lot in establishing a relationship with the past. The historians reinvented India’s glorious past and appealed to the readers to take pride in it.

(2) Many of the novels told the stories of adventures and intrigues set in the past.

(3) Through glorified accounts of the past, these novels helped in developing a sense of national pride and collective identity among their readers.

(4) People from all walks of life could read novels so long as they shared a common language. This helped in creating a sense of collective belonging on the basis of ones language.

(5) The way characters spoke in a novel began to indicate their region, class or caste; Thus, novels made their readers familiar with the ways in which people in other parts Of their land spoke their language.

6.”Indian novelists used the novel as a powerful medium to criticize the defects of the 003/ society.” Justify the statement with the suitable examples.

Or

Indians used the novels as a powerful medium to criticize what they considered defects in their society and to suggest remedies. Explain the statement with examples.                         

Ans. (1) Indians used the novel to criticize the defects and ill practices in the same time, they suggested how to correct them.

(2) Parish-Guru cautioned young men of well-to-do families against of bad company and consequent loss of morals.

 (3) Vireshlingam and others mainly used the novel to propagate their ideas about society.

(4) Chengdu Menno highlighted the prejudices of the caste system.

 (5) Pother Kunjambu through his novel, `Saraswativijayam’ mounted a strong attack on the caste-system.

(6) Premchand described the exploits by the upper class and misery of the oppressed section.

7.How was the problem of being modern addressed by Indian novelists? Explain.  

Or

 How was the problem of being modern addressed by Indian novelists? Support your answer with two examples.                                                                          

 Ans. (1) Novel presented a vision of how things should be. They created heroes and heroines with ideal qualities.

 (2) Novels successfully depicted the dilemmas faced by colonial subjects about how to be modern without rejecting tradition.

(3) For example, Chengdu Menno portrayed Indulekha as a woman of breath-taking beauty, artistic talent, with education in English and Sanskrit. Mahan, the hero of the novel, was also presented in ideal colors. He was a first rate scholar, dressed in western clothes and at the same time, kept a tuft of hair according to the near custom.

8.Highlight any five uses of the novels.

Or

How were novels useful for the Indians? Explain with examples.        

Or

Explain any five uses that the novels served in India.

Or

Novels in India were put to a variety of uses. Explain any five uses that the novel served.

Or

 Explain any three uses of the novels in the colonial world.  

Ans. Uses of novels:

(1) These were a popular media of entertainment.

(2) These introduced the method of silent reading.

(3) These created a sense of collective belonging on linguistic basis.

(4) These were a medium to criticize the events in the society and suggest remedies.

(5) These helped in establishing a relationship with the past.

 (6) These brought out regional variations of a particular language.

 (7) Vernacular novels helped the colonial administrators to know about the culture of the Indians which was required for governance of the country.

9.How did the novel become a popular medium of entertainment among the middle class in India? Explain.       

Or

Explain how novels became a popular medium of entertainment among the middle class during late 19th century.                                                                                                                

Or

How did the novels become a popular medium of entertainment among the middle ciao in India? Give any five reasons.                                                             

Or

How did novel reading become a great source of pleasure in India? Explain.

Ans. (1) Like in other parts of the world, in India also, the novel became a popular medium of entertainment.

(2) Picture books, translations, popular songs, stories in newspapers and magazines offered new forms of entertainment.

(3) Detective and mystery novels often had to be printed again and again to meet the demand.

(4) It assisted the spread of silent reading.

 (5) People could sit in crowded rooms or while travelling and enter the world of imagination.

10.How did the colonial administrators find vernacular novels as a valuable source of information to native life and customs? Explain with examples.

Or

How were the novels in colonial India useful for the colonizers?

Or

Why were vernacular novels valuable for colonial administrators?                         

Ans. (1) Colonial administrators found vernacular novels to be an available source of information on native life and customs.

 (2) As outsiders, the British knew little about life inside Indian households.

(3) Novels helped the colonists to understand Indian way of dressing, forms of worship, their beliefs and practices.

(4) Many novels reflected social customs, divisions based on caste and class.

(5) These novels helped the British to understand the social divisions and use them to their advantage to create further divisions.

(6) Lord Bentinck helped the Indian reformers in their mission to get rid of the practices like Sati and passed legislation favoring remarriage of widows.

11.Why did the novels become popular during colonial period? Explain with examples.

Or

 Explain any three reasons for making the novel so popular in India.                

Or

 Explain any three reasons for novel becoming popular in India.  

Ans. (1) Novels offered new forms of entertainment. The cost of novel was low.

(2) The stories were realistic, absorbing and interesting.

 (3) Novels provided the pleasure of reading in private.

 (4) Individuals sitting at home or travelling in trains enjoyed them. Even in a crowded room, the novels offered a special world of imagination.

 (5) Novels were considered as an agent of awakening and social reforms.

WOMEN AND THE NOVEL

Very Short Answers:-

1.Identify the hero of the novel `Indulekha’

Ans. Madhavan

2.What was the issue addressed in the novel `Padmarag’?

 Ans. Rekey Hussein’s `Padmarag’ showed the need for women to reform their conditions by their own actions.

3.What is the novel that shows a topsy-turvy world in which women take the place of men?

Or

Which novel depicts a topsy-turvy world in which women take the place of men?

Ans. Sultana’s Dream written by Rekey Hussein.

Short Answers:-

1.Write the main contributions of Viacom Muhammad Basher as a novelist in Malayalam literature.

Ans. Muhammad Basher brought into Malayalam writing themes which were considered very unusual at that time—poverty, insanity and life in prisons.

 (1) Varco Muhammad Basher (1908-94) was one of the early Muslim writers to gain wide popularity as a novelist in Malayalam.

(2) Most of his works were based on his own rich personal experience. Basher’s short novels and stories were written in the ordinary language of conversation. With wonderful humor, Basher’s novels spoke about details from the everyday life of Muslim house holds.

2.Who was Pother Kunjambu? Write about him.

Ans. (1) Pother Kunjambu was a ‘lower caste’ writer of north Kerala.

 (2) He wrote a novel called Saraswativijayam’ in 1892, mounting a strong 4 attune -, on caste oppression.

3.What was the main contribution of Rekey Hussein through her novels?

Or

 Explain the contribution of Rekey Hussein in the field of education and literature.    

Or

Who was Rekey Hussein? What messages did she convey through her writings?

Ans.(1) Rekey Hussein (1880-1932) was a reformer after she was widowed, started a girl’s school in Calcutta.

(2) She wrote a satiric fantasy in English called Sultana’s Dream (1905) which shows a topsy-turvy world in which women take the place of men.

(3) Her novel Tamara’ also showed the need for women to reform their conditions by their own actions.

4.What is a novel? Assess the contribution of the novels towards spreading awareness about the evils of the caste system in India. Support your answer with examples.

 Ans. (1) The novel is a modern form of literature.

(2) Following are contributions of novels in spreading awareness: (I) Caste system and caste oppressions were often depicted in the novels.

(ii) Writers from the lower castes and minorities were also offered a respectable space in the society.

(3)Examples: (i) Chandu Menon’s `Indulekha’.

(ii) Pother Kunjambu’s Baraswativijayam’.

(iii) DaVita Mullah Barman’s writ ash Keri Nadir Noam’.

Long Answers:-

1.Analyze the role and involvement of women in the readership and authorship of novels in India.                                            

Or

Examine the involvement of women in the growth of novels in 18th century with any two examples.                                                                                           

Or

Analyze the role of women in the readership and authorship of novels in India.

Ans. (1) In some languages, the early creations of women were poems, essays or autobiographical pieces.

(2) Women in south India also began writing novels and short stories.

 (3) Some women authors also wrote about women who changed the world of both men and women.

(4) (i) Rekey Hussein wrote a satiric fantasy in English called ‘Sultana’s Dream’.

(ii) Rashsundari Debi learnt to read in the secrecy of her kitchen and wrote her autobiography ‘Amir Jibing’.

(iii) Kailashbashini Debi wrote book about painful experiences women had to go through in their family.

(iv) Arabia Shined and Pundit Arabia wrote about the miserable lives of widows in upper caste Hindu families.

2.Describe the themes of novel Indulekha.

Ans

(1)She is portrayed as a woman of breath-taking beauty, go intellectual abilities, artistic talent and with an education in Sanskrit and English.

 (2) The heroine rejects the foolish landlord and chooses the handsome and educated lower caste Madhavan.

(3) Madhavan, the hero is a member of the English educated class of Nears from the University of Madras. He was also a `first rate Sanskrit Scholar’.

(4) He dressed in western clothes but he kept the long tuft of hair according to the Near custom. They both get married and he joins the civil service.

(5) Western way of living was attractive but the wholesome adopting of western values would destroy traditional ways of living. Indulekha and Madhavan were the ideal combination.

3.How has `Titans Keri Nadir Noam’ novel depicted the condition of lower caste in the Indian society ? Explain.

 Ans. (1) The author of the novel, Titans Keri Nadir Noam was DaVita Melina Barman.

(2) (i) This is an epic about the Malls, a community of fishermen who lives off fishing in the river Titans.

(ii) The novel is about three generations of the Malls, about their recurring tragedies and the story of Ajanta.

(iii) The story of Ajanta is about a child born of parents who were tragically separated after their wedding night. Ajanta leaves the community to get educated in the city

(iv) The novel describes the community life of Males in great detail.

 (v) Their end comes together, as the river dries up.

(3) Titans is special because the author is himself from a ‘low-caste’, fishermen community

4.Who was Viacom Muhammad Basher? How were most of his works based own rich personal experience? Explain. Describe any three special features of novels written by the Malayalam writer Viktor, Muhammad Basher.

Ans. (1) Viacom Muhammad Basher (1908-84) was a renowned Muslim novelist  Malayalam. He had little formal education. His works were based on his personal experience rather than on books from the past.

 (2) Basher’s short novels and stories were written in the ordinary language of conversation.

 (3) With wonderful humor, Basher’s novels spoke about details from the everyday life of Muslim households.

(4) He also brought into Malayalam writing themes which were considered very unusual at that time — poverty, insanity and life in prisons.

5.What were the favorite themes to women novelists in India? Explain giving any three examples.                            

Or

 What were the reasons for women getting involved with novels?

Or

Explain the contribution of women writers on the writing of novels in India.         

Ans. (1) Rashsundari Debi learnt to read in the secrecy of her kitchen and wrote her autobiography ‘Amor Jibing’.

(2) Kailashbashini Debi wrote books about painful experiences women had to go through in their families.

 (3) Arabia Shined and Pundit Arabia wrote about the miserable lives of widows in upper caste Hindu families.

(4) Rekey Hussein emphasized upon the need for women to reform their conditions by their own action.

(5) Some women authors also depicted the women power and efficiency. They talked about women who changed the world of both men and women.

6.How does `Saraswativijayam’ lay stress upon the importance of education for the upliftment of the lower castes?

Or

 How the novel `Saraswativijayam’ does stresses the importance of education in the lower caste. Explain with example.                                                                                      

Ans. (1) `Saraswativijayam’ shows a young man from an ‘untouchable’ caste who leaves his village to escape the cruelty of Brahmin landlords.

(2) He converts to Christianity, attains higher education and returns as a judge in the local court.

(3) Meanwhile, the villagers’ thinking that the landlord’s men had killed him, file a case.

 (4) At the conclusion of the trial, the judge reveals his true identity and the landlord repents and reforms his ways.

 (5) This’ shows how education enables a person and can do miracles in uplifting the downtrodden people. An educated person not only improves his life but also can change the mindset of the upper class.

7.How did authors from so called low castes gain recognition in the world of literal, Explain with examples of any two such authors.’

Ans. (1) Pother Kunjambu, a lower caste writer wrote `Saraswativijayam’ a) portraying an untouchable boy who converts to Christianity. “

(2) This novel stressed on importance of education in upliftment of lower castes.

(3) DaVita Mall Barman belonging to community of fisher folks wrote writ ash Keri Nadir Maim’. This novel talks about lives of Mullah Families.

(4) Viacom Basher, a Malayalam novelist also wrote about underprivileged classes arid Muslim household in general.

(5) Chengdu Menno in his novel ‘Indulekha’ showed how an upper caste woman marries to a lower caste man.

8.Describe the theme of the novel `Saraswativijayam’ written by Pother Kunjambu.

Or

 Who wrote the novel `Saraswativijayam’? Highlight any two messages given to the people through the novel.                                                                                                                                            

Or

 Who is the author of novel “Saraswativijayam”? Describe the theme of it.                   

 Ans. (1) Author: Pother Kunjambu.

 (2) Theme: (i) Based. on caste oppression.

(ii) Due to high handedness of a Brahmin landlord, a young man of untouchable caste leaves the village.

(iii) Person receives higher education and converts to Christianity and becomes a judge.

(iv) The villagers had filed a case against the landlord thinking that his men have killed the young man.

(v) When the trial is about to conclude, the judge reveals his true identity and the landlord is saved.

(vi) The high caste Brahmin repents for what he did.

9.Explain the role of novelists in the field of social reforms in India with the help of any three examples.

Ans. (1) Chandu Menno wrote the novel Indulekha, he tried to highlight the difficult marriage systems in upper castes.

(2) Pother Kunjambu, a lower caste writer from Kerala wrote a novel called `Saraswativijayam’ in 1892, mounting a strong attack on caste-oppression.

 (3) Viacom Muhammad Basher highlighted the daily lives of Muslim families and their problems in very simple language.

(4) From the 1920s, in Bengal too, a new kind of novel emerged that depicted the lives of peasants and `low castes’.

 (5) Premchand, in his novels, threw light on the exploitation of the poor by a complex network of landlords, moneylenders and bureaucrats. He highlighted the miserable condition of the people from lower stratum of the society.

10.Explain how issue of caste was included in the Novels in India.  

Or

 Explain how issue of caste was included in the novels in India.              

Ans. (1) Novels commented on various issues that society faced. The conditions of lower caste was also explained.

(2) The way in which the members of upper caste had exploited lower castes was brought in light effectively.

(3) The novels also explained how lower caste people tried to break themselves free.

(4) Pother Kunjambu, a lower caste writer from Kerala strongly attacked on caste oppression in his novel Saraswativijayam’.

(5) Premchand’s Itangbhoomf examines the issues of caste and untouchability. He had chosen untouchables as the hero of his novels.

(6) Novels like Indulekha and Indirabai were written by the members of upper caste.

THE NATION AND ITS HISTORY

Very Short Answers:

1.Which Hindi novel by Premchand tells the story of Indian peasantry through the characters of Hori and his wife Dania?

 Ans. God an, Published in 1936 that remains Premchand’s best-known work, tells the story of Indian peasantry through the characters of Hori and his wife Dania.

2.By whom was the novel Angrily Binimoy’ written?

Ans. Angrily Binimoy’ was written by Budded Mukhopadhyay.

3.Who wrote the novel Itangbhoomi’?

Ans. Premchand

4.Which novel of Premchand deals with the poor condition of women in Indian society?

Ans. Se washday

5.Who wrote God an?

Or

By whom was the novel `God an’ written?                                           

Or

Who was the author of God an?                                                                                

Ans. Premchand

Short Answers:-

1.How were novels useful for the nationalism?

Ans. (1) Novels had played a very significant role for imbibing a sense of nationalism in Indians.

(2) Novels had brought this aspect by bringing together people from varied background, produced a sense of shared community. The most significant form of the community is nation where many different communities live together with different nature.

(3) But the novels had produced a sense of sharing and promoted an understanding of different people, different values and different communities. Different groups had begun to question or reflect upon their own identities, thus indirectly bonding them with a national feeling.

2.Summarize the main theme of the novel ‘God an’ written by Premchand.

Or

Examine the theme of novel ‘Godden’.                                                                      

Or

 Briefly explain the theme of the novel today’ written by Munshi Premchand.

Or

 Why `Godden’ is considered an epic on Indian peasantry? Explain.                  

 Ans. (1) Godden (The Gift of Cow), published in 1936, remains Premchand’s best known work. It is an epic of the Indian peasantry.

(2) The novel tells the moving story of Hori and. his wife Dania, a peasant couple.

 (3) Landlords, moneylenders, priests and colonial bureaucrats — all those who hold power in society — form a network of oppression.

(4) This network is exploitative. They together rob poor couple’s land and make them into landless laborers.

(5) Yet, Hori and Dania retain their dignity to the end.

3.’Novels helped in creating a sense of social awareness in India.’ Explain.

Or

`Novels created a sense of social awareness in India’. Support the statement with suitable examples.                                                                

Ans. (1) Indians used novels as medium to criticize defects in society and suggest remedies.

(2) In Premchand’s Sangbhoomf, `Godden’, `Karmabhumf, etc. the social issues were discussed and had a great impact so far as the creation of social awareness was concerned.

(3) Novels sent a clear message for reform. Pother Kunjambu’s `Saraswativijayam’ is an example. In this novel, the caste issues were effectively raised.

(4) Novels helped in establishing relationship with past and thus inculcated pride in the nation.

 (5) Bringing together people from different backgrounds produces a sense of shared community and the most notable form of this community is the nation. The feeling of nationalism can be seen in the novels of Premchand.

4.”Premchand’s novels mainly dealt with various basic social issues like conflict among castes and class and oppressive attitudes of the upper sections in the contemporary society.”

 In the light of the above statement mention some basic values which are the key features of Premchand’s novels.

Ans.

(1) Criticism of castes.

(2) Protest against exploitation by upper classes.

(3) Honesty and self-respect amongst the poor.

(4) Satire on corruption.

(5) Criticism of untouchability.

Long Answers:-

1.How did the novels written by Mushy Premchand promote the feeling of nayonalis rag among the Indians? Explain.

 Ans. (1) Novels written by Mushy Premchand glorified accounts of the past and created a feeling of national pride.

(2) They created a sense of belongingness among people speaking same language coming from different walks of life.

(3) His novels included various classes and created an image of the shared world.

(4) Premchand’s novels set people to think about the nation.

(5) Through his novels people came to know about the harmful effects of colonialism and the British Rule.

2.Mushy Premchand is an icon of Hindi literature. Discuss the contributions of Munshi Premchand to Hindi literature.

Ans. (1) It is true that Munshi Premchand is an icon of Hindi literature. He had included various classes in the novels, so that they could be seen to belong to a shared world.

(2) The characters in the novels are drawn from all levels of society. They are landlords, aristocrats, peasants, landless labors, middle class professionals.

(3) The women characters are strong individuals, especially those who came from the lower classes and are not modernized.

(4) Unlike his contemporaries, Premchand rejected the nostalgic obsession with ancient history.

 (5) His novels look towards the future without forgetting the importance of past. His novels are milestone of Hindi literature.

3. “The credit of popularizing Hindi novels goes to Premchand”. Justify the statement.

Ans. (1) It was the writings of Premchand that Hindi novel achieved excellence. lie initially wrote in Urdu but later shifted to Hindi.

(2)He highlighted various social issues that touched the common man. It raised the popularity of Premchand and Hindi novels.

(3)He shifted Hindi novels from the track of mere entertainment to that of serious social concerns through the traditional art of Chisago. d

(4)His novel Sewasadan lifted the Hindi novel from the realm of fantasy, moralizing simple entertainment to a serious reflection on the life of ordinary people.

 (5) He gave in detail the way in which the Indian upper classes used wherever little opportunity they got from colonial authorities to govern themselves.

4.Why did the Indian novelists write for a political cause?

Or

 `Novelists in colonial India wrote for a political cause.’ Discuss.

Or

 Novelists in colonial rule India wrote for a political cause.

Or

 With what objectives novelists in colonial India wrote for a political cause? Explain any three objectives.                                                                                                                  

 Ans. (1) The Bruisers ruled India following the policy of ‘divide and rule’. The people of India has different identities. This was well-understood by the novelists. So, through their novels, they popularized the sense of belonging to a common nation.

(2) Also, most of the lower classes were cut from the mainstream. They lived in this country as they were from different land. The novelists tried to include various classes in their novels so that they could be seen to belong to a shared world.

 (3) The history written by colonial historians tended to depict Indians as weak, divided and dependent on British. These could not satisfy the taste of new Indians.

(4) The new generation wanted a new view of past that would show that Indians could be independent minded and had been so in the past. So, novels were written keeping all these things in mind.

(5) People from all walks of life could read novels so long as they shared a common language. This helped in creating a sense of collective belongings on the basis of one’s language.

5.How were novels useful for both the colonial administrators and the Indian nationalists? Explain.                                                                                                         

Or

In what ways was the novel in colonial India useful for both the colonizers as well as the nationalists?                                                      

Or

How novels were beneficial to the colonizer and colonist?

Ans. (1) Colonial administration found novels a valuable source of information on Indian society and its large variety of castes and community.

(2) Colonial administrators found novels a valuable source of information on native life and customs as to how people dressed, their religious worship, beliefs and practices about domestic life.

(3) Indians used the novels as a powerful medium to criticize their defects in society and to suggest remedies.

 (4) People came to know about the harmful effects of colonialism and the British rule.

(5) Novels helped in establishing a relationship with the past and creating a sense of national pride among their readers.

6.Explain the ways in which the novels in India attempted to create a sense of pan-Indian belonging.                                                      

Or

How did the Indian novels of 19th century create the feeling of patriotism? Explain.

Or

How did novels in India attempt to create a sense of pan-Indian belonging? Explain.

Or

 How did novels produce a sense of pan-Indian belonging? Explain with examples.

Or

 Anew How did the historical novels in India try to create a sense of Why were historical novels written by the Indians?                                                                                                

Ans. (1) The history written by colonial administrators tended to depict Indians as weak divided and dependent on the British which could not satisfy the tastes of the new Indian administrators and intellectuals.

 (2) A new view of the past had to be presented in the novel, the nation could be imagined in a past that also featured historical characters, places, events and dates.

(3) In Bengal, many historical novels were about Marathas and Raj puts e.g.,Bhudeb Mukopadhyay’s ‘Angrily Binimoy’ whose hero Shiva engages in battles in the belief that he is a nationalist, fighting for the freedom of Hindus.

 (4) Bunkum’s Anandmath inspired political movements and freedom fighters.

 (5) Novels set people to think about the nation.

7.How did novels fulfill the task of nation-building in India? Explain.

Or

 How did the novels fulfill the task of nation-building during the British period? Explain.

Or

 How did the novels in India encourage nationalism? Explain any three points.  

Ans. (1) Glorified accounts of the past created a sense of national pride.

 (2) They created a feeling of belongingness among people speaking same language but coming from different walks of life.

 (3) Novels included various classes and created an image of the shared world.

(4) These novels highlighted characters like Shiva and Raj puts and created the sense of pan-Indian belonging.

(5) Novels like ‘Anandmath’ created very powerful effect and inspired political movements.

 (6) Tandem Mata ram’ from this novel strung the nation together.

8.Assess the contribution of Premchand in creating a sense of belonging to a common nation. Name any one of his famous novels.

 Ans. Premchand helped in creating a sense of belonging to a common nation in following manner :

(1) Premchand’s novels were filled with all kinds of characters drawn from all levels of the society from aristocrats to untouchables.

 (2) Women were portrayed as strong characters, especially those who came from the lower classes and were non-modernized.

(3) Novels written by Premchand are Sewasadan, Rangbhoomi, God an, etc.

 (4) His characters create a community based on democratic values.

(5) Premchand’s novels included characters from different sections of the society.

9.How did novels inspire the freedom fighters? Explain with two examples.

 Ans. (1) The novels diluted the thinking process of the colonial government regarding Indian customs and culture, provided a solution, and highlighted the reality regarding Indian customs and cultures. They mainly inspired the freedom fighters.

(2) In Bengal, many historical novels were about Marathas and Raj puts. These novels produced a sense of pan-Indian belonging. ‘Angrily Binimoy’ also inspired the freedom fighters. Another example is the theme of Anandmath.

(3) Novels helped in establishing a relation with the past and appealed readers to take pride in it.

 (4) Novels gave a common identity to the readers. Through stories these revealed the exploitations of the colonial power and inspired readers towards national causes.

(5) Through his novels Premchand brought together people from varied backgrounds and helped producing a sense of shared community and the most notable form of this community is the nation.

10.Explain the aspects of Premchand’s writings that make them special.

Or

 “Premchand’s novels are filled with powerful characters from all levels of society”. Justify the statement.                                                             

Ans. (1) Premchand’s novels are filled with all kinds of powerful characters, drawn from all levels of society.

(2) His novels include characters such as aristocrats and landlords, middle level peasants and landless laborers and women from margins of society.

 (3) The women characters are strong individuals coming from lower classes and not modernized.

 (4) His novels look towards the future without forgetting the importance of the past.

 (5) Drawn from various strata of society, these characters create a community based on democratic values.

(6) His novel Rangbhoomi’ makes the lives of the most oppressed section of society worthy of literary reflection.

(7) His literary work `Godden’ is an epic on Indian peasantry.

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