Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 9th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus
Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation And Wildlife
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Question 1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
i)To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
Answer : (d) Tropical Evergreen
ii)Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than
d.less than 50 cm
Answer : (a) 100 cm
iii)In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?
Answer : (c) Odisha
iv)Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bioreserve?
c.Gulf of Mannar
Answer : (a) Manas
Question 2. Answer the following questions briefly.
i)Define an ecosystem.
Answer : (i)The living community of plants and animals in any area together with the non- living components of the environment such as soil, air and water, constitute the ecosystem. This interrelation between plants and animals in the natural environment is called Ecosystem.
An ecosystem is a community of plants, animals and smaller organisms that live,feed, reproduce and interact in the same area or environment. Some ecosystems are very large. For example, many bird species nest in one place and feed in a completely different area . On the other hand, some ecosystems may be physically small, such as you would find in a meadow at he edge of a forest, or in a coral reef in the ocean.How does everything fit together in a forest ecosystem versus a meadow ecosystem? While some species may be found naturally in both areas, the species that live in the forest ecosystem are usually very different from those that inhabit the meadow, even though the two environments are right next to each other. In other words, if we protect existing natural habitats, we will help to maintain biodiversity (biodiversity is the variety of life in all its forms, levels and combinations). Unfortunately, natural habitats and their ecosystems are more and more endangered because of the damaging environmental effects of growing human populations everywhere.
ii)What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
Answer (ii) Factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India are:
a)Relief: Land and soil
b)Climate: Temperature, Humidity, Photoperiod and Precipitation.
iii)What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.
Answer :A bioreserve is an area in which the flora and fauna of the given country is protected and there are certain researches which are done on them. It is an area containing a wildlife preserve bordered by a buffer zone in which more frequent use is permitted to the public, established as a way of integrating habitat conservation with the interests of the local community.
Examples are Rajaji in Uttarakhand and Simlipal in Orissa.
iv)Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of
Answer :(iv) Tropical animals: Tiger, Elephant Montane animals: Snow Leopard, Spotted dear
Question 3. Distinguish between
i)Flora and Fauna
Answer : (i)
|The Plant species of particular region or period are called Flora.||The animal species of particular region or period are called Flora.|
The flora of a country consists of plant kingdom of that country. It covers trees in the forests, other flowering and non-flowering frees grown by man, grassland, scrubs, fens, etc. India possesses about 47,000 different species of plants and 5,000 of them are exclusively found in India.
The fauna of a country consists of birds, fish and animals. It also includes amphibians, reptiles, mammals, small insects and worms. The fauna of India is quite rich and varied. There are about 89,000 species in India.
(ii)Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests
|Tropical Evergreen Forests||Tropical Deciduous Forests|
These are also called Rain Forest
|These are also called Monsoon Forest.|
|Since the region is warm and wet throughout the year, there is no definite time for the trees to shed their leaves||The trees shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in dry summer|
Examples: ebony, mahogany, rubber, rosewood
|Examples: teak, bamboo, sandalwood, peepal, neem|
|Common animals found in these forests are elephants and monkeys.||Common animals found in these forests are lions and tigers|
Present in areas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfall
|Present in areas receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm|
Tropical Evergreen Forests:
Evergreen forests (or Tropical Rain Forests) are found on the rainy parts of the Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Ebony, mahogany and rosewood are the most important trees of the Evergreen Forests.Teak is the most dominant species of the deciduous forests. Other trees found here are bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood and khair.
Deciduous forests are found mostly in the eastern parts of the country – northeastern states along the foothills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa and Chhattisgarh and the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.
Trees of the Evergreen Forests don’t shed their leaves at one and the same time, so these forests remain evergreen.The trees of the deciduous Forests shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in summer.
Question 4. Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
Answer : The different types of vegetation found in India are:
a.Tropical Evergreen Forests
b.Tropical Deciduous Forests
c.Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
The vegetation of high altitudes are Montane Forests. In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation. As such, there is a succession of natural vegetation belts in the same order as we see from the tropical to the tundra region. The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominate. Between 1500 and 3000 metres, temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar, are found. These forests cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas and places having high altitude in southern and northeast India.
At higher elevations, temperate grasslands are common. At high altitudes, generally more than 3,600 metres above sea level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests.
However, they get progressively stunted as they approach the snow-line. Ultimately through shrubs and scrubs, they merge into the Alpine grasslands. These are used extensively for grazing by nomadic tribes like the Gujjars and the Bakarwals. At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of tundra vegetation. The common animals found in these forests are Kashmir stag, spotted dear, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard,squirrels, Shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair.
Question 5. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Answer : Few species of plants and animals are endangered in India because of:
→ Increase in population.
→ Urbanization and Industrialization.
→ Large scale deforestation.
→ Hunting for pleasure and commercial purpose, etc.The main causes for this major threat to nature are hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purposes, pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits, introduction of alien species and reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and inhabitation, which are also responsible for the imbalance.
Question 6. Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?
Answer : India has a rich heritage of flora and fauna due to following reasons:
→ India is a diverse country with different relief features (i.e. mountains, plateaus, plains, etc.) Different types of vegetation are found in these regions and the vegetation support different type of animals.
→ Availability of different types of soil providing base for different type of vegetation.
→ Variation in the climatic conditions (Temperature, humidity, etc.). Climate of India differs from north to south and east to west. Thus, supporting large variety of flora and fauna.
→ India has a monsoon type of climate where rainfall varies from 20 cms to 300 cms distributed through out the year supporting large amount of flora and fauna.
→ Variation in the duration of sunlight at different places due to difference in the latitude and altitude.
India has different types of soil like alluvial soil, red soil and black soil suitable for different plant types.
India is blessed with perennial rivers which sustain aquatic life apart from supporting different kinds of flora and fauna.
The mountains and plains are capable of supporting and sustaining different kinds of plants and trees and provide an environment and habitat for various Kinds of animal species.
India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world. It has about 47,000 plant species. It stands at the tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. It has 89,000 species of animals as well as a rich variety of fish. It has about 15,000 flowering plants and ferns. India is blessed with different types of soils, climatic conditions and physical features and thus, it is suitable for supporting different species of flora and fauna making it a biodiversity hot spot.
On an outline map of India, label the following.
i)Areas of Evergreen Forests
ii)Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests
iii)Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country