Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 9th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus
Chapter 6 Geography Population
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Question 1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
i)Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in
a.the area of departure
b.the area of arrival
c.both the area of departure and arrival
d.none of the above
Answer : (c) both the area of departure and arriva
ii)A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
a.high birth rates
b.high life expectancies
c.high death rates
d.more married couples
Answer : (a) high birth rates
iii)The magnitude of population growth refers to
a.the total population of an area
b.the number of persons added each year
c.the rate at which the population increases
d.the number of females per thousand males
Answer : (a) the total population of an area
iv)According to the Census 2001, a “literate” person is one who
a.can read and write his/her name
b.can read and write any language
c.is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
d.knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)
Answer : (c) is 7 year old and can read and write any language with understanding
Question 2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i)Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
Answer :Since 1981, the rate of growth started declining gradually, because of popularised.
a.Family planning measures were adopted, leading to decline in the birth
b.Awareness about advantages of small family came to be
c.There was a growth of nuclear families occurred which adopted the small family
d.Promotion of family planning programme by the government.
(ii)Discuss the major components of population
Answer : The major components of population growth are birth rates, death rates and migration.
The natural increase of population is the difference between birth rates and death rates. Birth Rate Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand person in a year. It is a major component of growth, because in India birth rates have always been higher than death rates. Death Rate Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates.
Migration Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries).
Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation.
(iii)Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
Answer : (iii)The age structure of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in that population.
Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
(iv)How is migration a determinant factor of population change?
Answer: (iv) Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It is a determinant factor of population change as it changes the demographics (size and composition) of both the areas of departure and arrival of the population.
Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). Migration is a determinant factor of population change as it changes its size and composition.
Internal migration does not change the size of the population but influences the distribution of population within the nation.
In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the ‘push’ factors in rural areas. These push factors are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas. The ‘pull’ factors of the city are In terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.
These ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors have led to increased migration from rural to urban areas and rapid rise in the urban population.
There has been a significant increase in the number of ‘million plus cities’ from 25 to 35 in just one decade i.e., 1991-2001.
Question 3. Distinguish between population growth and population change.
|Population Growth||Population Change|
|It refers to the increase in the number of inhabitants of a region during a specific period of time.||It refers to the change in the distribution, composition or size of a population during a specific period of time.|
|Natural increase of population and immigration are the major components causing population growth.||Natural increase, immigration and emigration are the major components causing population change.|
Question 4. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Answer : Development refers to the progress made over a period of time. Occupational structure refers to the percentage of a country’s working population engaged in various sectors of the economy.
The distribution of the population according to the different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure.
Occupations are generally classified as primary, secondary and tertiary.
Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, etc.
Secondary activities include manufacturing industry, building and construction work, etc. Tertiary activities Include transport. communications, etc.
The proportion of people working in different activities varies in developed and developing countries.
Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. In India about 64% of the population Is engaged only in agriculture.
The proportion of the population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is about 13 and 20% respectively.
There has been an occupational shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation in recent times.
Question 5. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Answer : The advantages of having a healthy population are:
1.More productive- A healthy individual is much more efficient and productive than an unhealthy individual.
2.Low absenteeism- Absenteeism is low where the workers are healthy
3.Able to realise potential– He or she is able to realise his or her potential, and play an important role in social and national development.
Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development. Sustained efforts of government programmes have registered significant improvements in the health conditions of the Indian population. Death rates have declined from 25 per 1000 population in 1951 to 8.1 per 1000 in 2001 and life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 64.6 years in 2001. The substantial improvement is the result of many factors including improvement in public health, prevention of infectious diseases and application of modern medical practices in diagnosis and treatment of ailments. Despite considerable achievements, the health situation is a matter of major concern for India. The per capita calorie consumption is much below the recommended levels and malnutrition afflicts a large percentage of our population. Safe drinking water and basic sanitation amenities are available to only one third of the rural population. These problems need to be tackled through an appropriate population policy.
Question 6. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Answer : The National Population Policy 2000 provides a policy framework for:
→ Imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age
→ Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births
→ Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases
→ Promoting delayed marriage and delayed child bearing
→ Providing food supplements and nutritional services to Adolescents
→ Protecting adolescents from unwanted pregnancies and STD (sexually-transmitted diseases), and educating them about the risks of unprotected sex
→ Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable
→ Making family welfare a people-centred programme