Ch. – 5 Consumer Rights- Extra Questions and Notes

By | December 18, 2018

Chapter-5 Consumer Rights,

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CHAPTER-5

Consumer Rights

THE CONSUMER IN THE MARKETPLACE

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What is Consumer Protection?               

 Ans. Consumer Protection refers to protect the consumers from the exploitation of traders in the marketplace. ‘

2. What do we call the person who purchases goods and services from the market-place?

Ans. The consumers.

3. Who are consumers?

Ans. Consumers are those people who participate in the market when they purchase goods and services that they need and these are the final goods that people as consumers use.

4. Write any one factor which leads to exploitation of consumers.

Ans. Traders try to earn a profit by hook or by, rook for which they weigh less than what they should and resort to adulteration, hoarding and black-marketing.

5. What types of goods are generally purchased by consumers?

 Ans. Final goods.

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Describe the conditions in which markets do not work in a fair manner.

 Ans. (1) Markets do not work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful whereas consumers purchase in small amounts and are scattered.

(2) This happens especially when large companies are producing these goods. These companies with huge wealth, power and reach can manipulate the market in various ways.

 (3) At times, false information is passed on through the media and other sources to attract consumers. For example, a company sold powder milk for babies claiming to be better than mother’s milk.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Mention any three malpractices which the traders use to cheat consumers. What stringent punishment would you suggest to curb such tendencies?

 Ans. (1) Malpractices: The following malpractices are used by the traders to cheat consumers :

(i)Sometimes, traders weigh less than what they should.

(ii) They add charges that were not mentioned before.

(iii) They sell adulterated goods and resort to hoarding and black-marketing. They sell sub-standard goods and duplicate goods.

(2)Measures : (i) There should be provisions of stringent punishment for those traders who involve in such malpractices.

(ii) The malpractices like adulteration cause heavy loss to the consumers, they suffer from monetary loss as well as it affects their health. So, if there is a loss of lives due to adulteration, traders should be charged for murders.

(iii) The consumer must make complaints his/her genuine grievances. We must know our rights and exercise them.

2. What is consumer exploitation? What are the various ways in which a consumer can be exploited?                        

Ans. (1) When consumers in the marketplace are treated unfairly by the producers or shopkeepers so as to make money or gain an advantage, it is called consumer exploitation.

 (2) Exploitation of consumers in the marketplace happens in various ways :

(i) Sometimes, traders indulge in unfair trade practices such as when shopkeepers weigh less than what they should.

(ii) Traders add charges that were not mentioned before.

(iii) They sell adulterated or defective goods and resort to hoarding and black-marketing.

(iv) Traders sell sub-standard goods and make false claims about the durability and quality of goods. Also, they sell duplicate goods unhesitant.

3. What is consumer exploitation? Which law protects the consumers from this?

Ans. (1) (i) When consumers, in the marketplace, are treated unfairly by the producer or shopkeepers so as to make money or gain an advantage, it is called consumer exploitation.

 (ii) For example, sometimes, traders weigh less than what they should.

(iii) They add charges that were not mentioned before.

 (iv) Also, they sell adulterated goods and resort to hoarding and black-marketing.

 (v) They sell sub-standard goods and duplicate articles.

 (vi) Besides, they make a false claim about the durability and quality of goods.

 (2) The Consumer Protection Act (COPRA), 1986 protects the consumers from exploitation in the marketplace.

4. What is meant by consumer exploitation? Identify any three factors which encourage traders to adopt unfair practices.                                                                 

Or

 Explain any three factors responsible for the exploitation of consumers.                           

Ans. (1) When consumers in the marketplace are treated unfairly by the producers or shopkeepers so as to make money or gain an advantage, it is called consumer exploitation.

(2) The following are the factors which encourage the traders to adopt unfair practices :

(i) Profit motive: Traders try to earn a profit by hook and by crook. For this, they weigh less than what they should. Also, they sell adulterated goods and resort to hoarding and black-marketing.

(ii) Lack of rules and regulations: It also encourages traders to adopt unfair practices. This is because individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position. Whenever there is a complaint regarding a good or service that had been bought, the seller tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.

(iii) A few and powerful producers: Markets do not work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful whereas consumers purchase in small amounts and are scattered. These large companies with huge wealth, power and reach can manipulate the market in various ways.

5.Describe two incidences showing the need for rules and regulations to ensure the protection of the consumers.

Or

 Why are the rules and regulations required in the market-place? Explain with examples.

Ans. Rules and regulations are required for the protection of the consumers in the marketplace. This could be evident from the following two incidents :

(1) Some years ago, I bought a colour television from City Electronics, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi against 1 year’s warranty. But the CTV stopped working only after 3 months. I complained about it to the dealer. In response, they sent an engineer to set it right. Still, the CTV continues to give trouble, I complained again and again to the dealer but got no reply from him. In such a situation I strongly felt the need for rules and regulations.

(2) A company for years sold powder milk for babies all over the country as the most scientific product. It even claimed its product to be better than mother’s milk. As we all know it has been scientifically proved that mother’s milk is the best milk. The company had been making false claims. Hence, there is a need for rules and regulations to ensure protection for consumers.

6. Why rules and regulations are required for the protection of the consumers in the market place? Give three reasons.

Ans. Following are the reasons that rules and regulations are needed for the protection of consumers in the marketplace :

(1) Adulteration causes heavy loss to the consumers, they suffer from monetary loss as well as it affects their health.

 (2) Sellers make a false claim about the durability and quality of their products through attractive advertisements.

(3) Individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position in the market. The seller tries to shift all the responsibilities on to the buyer in case of a complaint.

(4) Markets do not work in a fair manner when producers are a few and powerful, whereas consumers purchase in small amounts and are scattered.

(5) Many people who work in the unorganized sector, have to work at a low wage and accept conditions that are not fair and are also harmful to their health.

7. How can individual consumers be safeguarded in the marketplace?

Or

Suggest any three ways to protect the consumer from exploitation in the market.        

 Ans. The individual consumers can be safeguarded in the marketplace in the following ways :

(1) Consumers should look at the price, quality of the products as well as at the guarantee of the products and services. We should purchase quality marked products such as ISI, Agmark. Hallmark, etc.

(2) Consumers should ask for cash memo for the goods purchased.

(3) He/She must make complaints about his/her genuine grievances.

 (4) The consumer should take the help of consumer organisations in seeking redressal of his/her grievances.

(5) We must know our rights and exercise them.

8. Explain any three ways by which people may be exploited in the market.

Or

In which three ways do the shopkeepers cheat the customers?                           

Or

How does consumer’s exploitation happen in the market? Explain.                      

Ans. Following are the ways by which consumers are exploited by the producers or wholesalers or traders :

(1) Sometimes, traders are involved in unfair trade practices. They weigh less than what they should.

(2) They add charges that were not mentioned before.

(3) They sell adulterated goods and resort to hoarding and black-marketing.

(4) They sell sub-standard goods and make a false claim about the durability and quality of goods.

(5) They sell duplicate articles.

CONSUMER MOVEMENT

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What was the major step taken by the Indian Government in 1986 for the protection of consumers?                 

Ans. The Indian Government enacted the Consumer Protection Act in 1986, popularly known as COPRA for the protection of consumers.

2. How did the consumer movement originate in India?                 

 Ans. The consumer movement originated in India with the necessity of protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade practices.

3. Why was the Consumer Protection Act enacted by the Indian Parliament?

 Ans. The Consumer Protection Act was enacted by the Indian Parliament to correct business conduct which may be unfair and against the interests of consumers at large.

4. What is COPRA?                        

Ans. In the direction of consumer protection, the Indian government has taken a major step in 1986 and enacted the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 which is popularly known as COPRA.

5. How many organizations have been set up at the international level to protect consumers?

Ans. 220 organizations have been set up at the international level to protect consumers.

6. Which is the international level consumer organisation?

 Ans. Consumers International.

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What are the effects of the enactment of COPRA on consumers?  

Ans. (1) India is one of the countries that have exclusive courts for consumer redressal. India has been observing 24 December as the National Consumer’s Day.

 (2) The Consumer movement in India has made some progress in terms of numbers of organised groups and their activities. There are today more than 700 consumer groups in the country of which only about 20-25 are well-organised and recognised for their work.

(3) The movement succeeded in bringing pressure on business firms as well as government to correct business conduct which may be unfair and against the interests of consumers at large.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. How did the consumer movement arise out of dissatisfaction of the consumers? Explain.

Or

 Explain any five factors which gave birth to the ‘Consumer Movement’ in India.

Ans. (1) The consumer movement arouses out of dissatisfaction of the consumers as many unfair practices were being indulged in by the sellers.

(2) There was no legal system available to consumers to protect them from exploitation in the marketplace.

(3) In India, the consumer movement as a ‘social force’ originated with the necessity of protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade Practices.

(4) Rampant shortages, hoarding, black-marketing, adulteration of food and edible oil gave birth to the consumer movement in an organised form in the 1960s.

 (5) Till the 1970s, consumer organisations were largely engaged in writing articles and holding exhibitions. They formed consumer groups to look into the malpractices in ration shops and overcrowding in the road passenger transport. More recently, India witnessed an upsurge in the number of consumer groups.

2. What is Consumers International? How did it come into being?                

Ans. (1) Consumers International is an umbrella body of 220 organisations from over 115 countries for consumers movement.

(2)(i) In 1985, the United Nations adopted the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection. This was a tool for nations to adopt measures to protect consumers and for consumer advocacy groups to press their governments to do so.

(ii) At the international level, this has become the foundation for consumer movement. lady, Consumers International has become a leader of 220 international organisations.

CONSUMER RIGHTS

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1.MRP of the product falls under which right?                         

 Ans. MRP of the product falls under the right to be informed.

2. What are Consumer Forums?                         

Ans. The consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organisations locally known as Consumer Forums or Consumer Protection Councils which guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court and create awareness among the people.

3. Hallmark is used on which products?         

 Ans. Hallmark is used on jeweller products.

4.If any damage is done to a consumer by a trader, under which consumer right one can move to consumer court to get compensation?                      

 Ans. One can move to consumer court under the right to seek redressal.

5. Write the importance of consumer forums.  

 Ans. Consumer forums create awareness and guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court.

6. Name the levels of consumer courts that are available to appeal.  

Ans. The district level court, the state level court and national level court are available to appeal.

7. Who is entitled to file a complaint against consumer exploitation?

Ans. If consumers are denied their rights or any damage is done to them, they are entitled to file a complaint against consumer exploitation.

8. What is meant by a complaint under consumer awareness?  

Ans. This means that after more than 25 years of the enactment of COPRA, consumer awareness in India is spreading but slowly.

9. What are Agmark, ISI and ISO related to?               

Ans. Agmark is related to agricultural produce, ISI is related to consumer goods while ISO certifies the standards of products at the international level.

10. Who performs the main role in consumer protection?                         

 Ans. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 performs the main role in consumer protection.

11. When was the Right to Information Act passed?                                                

 Ans. The Right to Information Act was passed in October 2005.

12. Suggest a measure to create consumer awareness.  

Ans. Consumer awareness can be created by newspaper advertisements’ about consumer rights.

13. Write any two rights of consumers.                      

Ans. (1) Right to Safety; and

(2) Right to be Informed.

14. Which logo would you like to see for purchasing electrical good?              

Ans. I would like to see ISI mark for purchasing electrical goods.

15. What is the information written on a product?

 Ans. The information written on a product is the ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and the address of the manufacturer.

16. What is right to represent?

 Ans. In 1986, the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) was passed by the Government of India that has enabled us, as consumers, to have the right to represent in the consumer courts.

17. Explain the ‘Right to Information’.

Ans. Consumers have the right to be informed about the goods and services they purchase. This information includes ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and the address of the manufacturer.

18. Which organisation guides consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court?

Ans. Consumer Forums or Consumer Protection Councils.

19. Which organisation develops standards for goods and services in India?

 Ans. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).

 SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What does MRP stand for what is its significance?

 Ans. (1) MRP stands for Maximum Retail Price.

(2)It has the following significance: (i) When we buy a commodity, we find MRP and other details were given on the packaging. ‘lb find information about goods and services comes under our right to be informed.

(ii) One can protest and complain if someone sells a good at more than the printed MRP on the packet.

 (iii) Moreover, consumers can bargain with the seller to sell at less than the MRP.

2. The Right to Information (RTI) is a big step in consumer protection. Support the statement with the help of a case where the complainant used RTI.                                               

Ans. (1) The Right to Information (RTI) Act is really a big step in consumer protection. This act ensures its citizens all the information about the functions of government departments.

(2) We can understand the importance of RTI with the help of the following case :

(i) Amit attended an interview for a government job.

 (ii) But, he did not receive any news of result.

(iii) He filed an application using the RTI Act saying that it was his right to know the result in a reasonable time so that he could plan his future.

(iv) He was not only informed about the reasons for delay but also, he got his call letter appointment as he had performed well in the interview.

3. Name and explain the functions of the different consumer courts in dia.

Ans. (1) Under the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA), 1986, a three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the district, state and national levels was set up for redressal of consumer deputies.

(2)(i) The district level court deals with the cases involving claims up to 20 lakhs.

(ii) The state-level courts deal with between = 20 lakhs and t 1 crore.

(iii) The national level court deals with cases exceeding 1 crore.

 (iv) If a case is dismissed in district-level court, the consumer can also appeal in state and then in national level court.

4. Suppose you buy a bottle of honey and a gold chain, which logo or mark will you have to look for and why?

 Ans. (1) When we buy a bottle of honey and a gold chain, we have to look for Agmark on the bottle of honey and Hallmark on the gold chain.

 (2) This is because honey is an agricultural produce and a gold chain is a jewellery item.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. While making purchases what should the consumers keep in mind or check up about the products?

 Ans. While making purchases, the following things should the consumer keep in mind or check up about the products:

(1) We should find certain details given on the packing. These details are about ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date, and the address of the manufacturer.

(2) When we buy medicines, we should find direction for proper use and information relating to side effects and risks associated with the usage of that medicine.

(3) When we buy garments, we should find information on instructions for washing.

(4) There are many goods and services that we purchase that require special attention to safety. For example, a pressure cooker should have a safety valve.

(5) While buying many commodities, on the cover, we should find a logo with the letters ISI, Agmark or Hallmark. These logos and certification help consumers get assured of quality while purchasing the goods and services.

2. Why do the manufacturers display information about their products? How does this benefit the consumers?

 Ans. (1) (i) Since consumers have the right to be informed about the particulars of goods and services that they purchase, manufacturers display information about the products.

 (ii) That is, rules have been made so that the manufacturer displays this information.

(2) This benefits the consumers in the following ways :

 (1) Consumers can complain and ask for compensation or replacement if the product proves to be defective in any manner.

(ii) For example, if we buy a product and find it defective well within the expiry period, we can ask for a replacement.

(iii) Similarly, one can protest and complain if someone sells a good at more than the printed price on the packet.

3. What is standardization? Name some agencies responsible for standardization of products in India?

Ans. (1) Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards that can help to maximize compatibility, safety or quality of the product.

 (2) There are many agencies responsible for standardization of products in India. The agencies like ISI, Agmark or Hallmark develop quality standards for many products. They provide logos and certificates that help consumers get assured of quality while purchasing the goods and services.

4. What is meant by the Right to Choose? Mention three situations in which it is violated.

Ans. (1) Right to choose means that any consumer who receives a service in whatever capacity, regardless of age, gender and nature of service, has the right to choose whether to continue to receive the service.

 (2) The following are the situations in which it is violated :

 (1) Sometimes, gas supply dealers insist that we have to buy the stove from them when we take a new connection. So, when we are forced to buy things that we may not wish to and we are left with no choice, our right to choice is denied.

(ii) Similarly, when we want to buy toothpaste and the shop owner says that he/she can sell the toothpaste only if you buy a toothbrush and we are not interested in buying the brush, our right to choice is denied.

  (iii) In another case, when we are forced by the school authority to purchase books and notebooks from the school only, our right to choice is denied.

5. Mention any three functions of consumer protection councils.

Ans. (1) Consumer Forums or Consumer Protection Councils guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court.

(2) On many occasions, they represent individual consumers in the consumer courts.

(3) They create awareness among the people about consumer’s rights. For this, these voluntary organisations receive financial support from the government.

6. Describe the jurisdiction of different tiers of the quasi-judicial machinery for redressal of consumer disputes in India.

Or

 Explain the three-tier quasi-judicial machinery set up under COPRA.

Ans. (1) In the direction of consumer protection, the Indian government has taken a major step in 1986 and enacted the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 which is popularly known as COPRA. Under COPRA, a three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the district, state and national levels was set up for redressal of consumer disputes.

(2) The jurisdiction of a district-level court of the quasi-judicial machinery for redressal of consumer disputes in India is to deal with the cases involving claims up to ! 20 lakhs.

(3) The state-level court deals with the cases involving claims between ! 20 lakhs and 1 crore.

(4) The national level court deals with cases involving claims exceeding Z 1 crore.

(5) If a case is dismissed in district-level court, the consumer can also appeal in state and then in national level court.

7. Explain with an example how one can use the ‘right to seek redressal’ against unfair trade practices and exploitation?             

Or

 What is meant by consumer right to seek redressal? How can an aggrieved consumer seek justice?                                                                                                                                    

Ans. (1) Consumers have the right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitation. If any damage is done to a consumer, she has the right to get compensation depending on the degree of damage.

(2) Under COPRA, a three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the district, state and national levels was set up for redressal of consumer disputes. The district level court deals with the Cases involving claims up to Z 20 lakhs, the state level courts between Z 20 lakhs and ! 1 cure and the national level court deals with cases involving claims exceeding Z 1 crore.

(3) The following example shows how one can use the ‘right to seek redressal’ against unfair trade practices and exploitation :

(i) Radha purchases a computer from a retail outlet.

(ii) She realizes that the dealer has given her defective material.

 (iii) She goes and complains to the dealer and the branch office, but to no effect.

(iv) Radha goes to the local Consumer Protection Council for advice.

(v) She files a case in the District Consumer Court.

(vi) She starts attending the court proceedings.

 (vii) She is asked to produce the bill and warranty card before the court.

 (viii) Within a few months, the dealer was ordered by the court to replace her old computer with a brand new one at no extra cost.

8. Explain with an example how one can exercise the ‘Right to Choose’.  

Or

 Explain the meaning of ‘Right to Choose’ with examples.                                            

 Ans. (1) Consumers have the right to choose goods or services. Any consumer who receives a service in whatever capacity, regardless of age, gender and nature of service, has the right to choose whether to continue to receive the service.

 (2) For example, I have to take a new gas connection. But, gas supply dealers insist me that I have to buy the stove from them when I take a new connection. In this way, my right to choice is denied by the dealers.

(3) In such a situation, I can take help of Consumer Forum or Consumer Protection Council. I should file the case in the District Consumer Court. Within a few months, the court would provide judgment.

9. Name five of the rights of the consumers and write a few sentences on each.

Or

 List the rights of the consumer and explain any two.                      

Ans. (1) Right to Safety: We, as consumers, have the right to be protected against the marketing of goods and delivery of services that are hazardous to life and property. Producers need to strictly follow the required safety rules and regulations.

(2) Right to be Informed: Consumers have the right to be informed about the goods and services they purchase. This information includes ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and the address of the manufacturer.

(3) Right to Choose: Any consumer who receives a service in whatever capacity, regardless of age, gender and nature of service, has the right to choose whether to continue to receive the service.

 (4) Right to seek Redressal: Consumers have the right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitation. If any damage is done to a consumer, he/she has the right to get compensation depending on the degree of damage.

(5) Right to Represent: In 1986, the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) was passed by the Government of India. This Act has enabled us, as consumers, to have the right to represent in the consumer courts.

10. What is the Right to Information Act, 2005? How does it help the consumers?

Or

How is a consumer benefited by the right to be informed?                  

Or

Explain consumers right to be informed with an example.

Ans. The right to information has been expanded to cover various services provided by the Government. Therefore, the Right to Information Act, 2005 ensures the citizens all Information about the functions of government departments.

(1) Consumers have the right to be informed about the goods and services they purchase. so that they can complain and ask for compensation or replacement if the product proves to be defective.

(2) Information about goods like cars, geysers, medicines and food products safeguards consumers against exploitation.

 (3) Consumers can complain and ask for compensation in case of wrong information or promises.

(4) It makes the manufacturer responsible for what he is manufacturing.

(5) This keeps us informed about the progress of any work and makes the government departments answerable.

 (6) It also helps get files to move faster and the work may be done faster.

11. What are Consumer Forums? What is their importance?

Or

 What are Consumer Forums? What are their major functions?                                  

Ans. (1) The consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organizations locally known as Consumer Forums or Consumer Protection Councils.

 (2) Following are the importance or functions of Consumer Forums :

(i) They guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court.

(ii) On many occasions, they represent individual consumers in the consumer courts.

(iii) They create awareness among the people.

(iv) They work for the protection of consumer rights.

 (v) They impart knowledge about consumer rights by writing articles and getting it published in the newspaper.

TAKING THE CONSUMER MOVEMENT FORWARD

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. On which day is the National Consumers’ Day celebrated in India?               

Ans. 24th December

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Trace the growth of consumer organizations in India.

 Ans. (1) In India, the consumer movement as a social force originated with the necessity of protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade practices.

(2) Rampant food shortages, hoarding, black-marketing, adulteration of food and edible oil gave birth to the consumer movement in an organised form in the 1960s.

(3) Till the 1970s, consumer organisations were largely engaged in writing articles and holding exhibitions.

 (4) They formed consumer groups to look into the malpractices in ration shops and overcrowding in the road passenger transport.

(5) There are today more than 700 consumer groups in the country of which only about 20-25 are well-organised and recognised for their work.

2. How can a consumer’s movement be truly successful and effective?

 Ans. (1) Consumer’s movement can be truly successful and effective when consumers realize their role and importance in the market-place. Rules and regulations for working of markets should be strictly followed.

(2) It is often said that consumer movements can be effective only with the consumer’s active involvement.

 (3) It requires a voluntary effort and struggles involving the participation of one and all.

3.”Consumer movement can be effective only with the consumer’s active involvement.” Analyze the statement.                                                                                                                             

Or

Why is consumer consciousness considered the best way to curb consumer exploitation? Explain.                                                                                                                                           

 Ans. (1) Undoubtedly, consumer movement can be effective only with the consumer’s active involvement. It requires a voluntary effort and struggles involving the participation of one and all.

(2) It is the responsibility of consumers to be careful while buying.

 (3) The consumer should be aware of their rights and duties. They should purchase quality marked products, ask for cash memo, make a complaint about genuine grievances.

(4) When we, as consumers, become conscious of our rights, we will be able to discriminate and make informed choices.

(5) The enforcement of laws that protect workers, especially in the unorganised sectors is weak. Similarly, rules and regulations for the working of markets are often not followed. So, there is scope for consumers to realise their role and importance.

4 Why is the rise of consumer awareness essential? Explain the measures to protect consumers’ interest.

Ans. (1) Need for consumer awareness :

(i)Individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position in the market. The seller tries to shift all the responsibilities on the buyer in case of a complaint.

(ii) Adulteration causes heavy loss to the consumers, they suffer from monetary loss and their health is adversely affected.

(iii) Sellers make a false claim about the durability and quality of their products through attractive advertisements.

 (2) Measures to protect consumers’ interest :

(i) On 24th December 1986, the Indian Parliament enacted the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA).

(ii) The government procures food grain from the public through FCI and redistributes in the areas where these are needed through Public Distribution System.

(iii) There are organisations that through their logos like ISI, Amiga or Hallmark develop quality standards for many products.

5. What type of duties should a consumer keep in mind under consumer awareness?

Or

Highlight any five duties as consumers if you visit a shopping complex in your locality.

Ans. Following are the duties of the consumers :

(1) The consumer should purchase quality marked products such as ISI, mark, hallmark, etc.

 (2) The consumer should ask for cash memo for the items purchased whenever possible.

(3) The consumer should make a complaint about genuine grievances.

 (4) Consumers should know their rights and should exercise them.

 (5) Consumers should make sure that their consumer rights are respected.

6. There are many rules and regulations regarding consumer protection but these are often not followed Why?                      

 Ans. The following are the main reasons responsible for the above situation :

(1) Corrupt government officials: The law implementing officials are very corrupt. They give space to dishonest traders and shopkeepers to escape by taking a bribe from them.

 (2) Red-tapism: The dishonest shopkeepers also break the rules and regulations resorting to red-tapism. They find out a relationship with the concerned government officials and are able to do malpractices.

(3) Ignorant consumers: Illiteracy causes ignorance. Even the literate consumers do not bother about the price, quality, durability, composition, etc. of the product. So, it is easy for the shopkeepers to breach the concerned rules and regulations.

(4) Limited supplies: If the supply of a good is less than its demand, the price rises. This encourages the tendency of hoarding among sellers by breaching the law.

(5) Limited competition: If the production of a good is in a few hands, they restrict the supply of the product and manipulate its price.

(6) Consumers purchase in small quantities and are scattered, while producers are few-and powerful.

7. Why is the consumer redressed process becoming cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming in India? Give any three reasons.

Or

 Highlight any three problems which a consumer may face in the process of redressal.

Or

Mention any three limitations of Consumer Rights.                                          

Or

 Why is the consumer reluctant to seek redressal?                                                 

Ans. Consumers face many problems in the process of redressal. Following are the limitations of the consumer redressal process in India :

(1) The consumer cases require time for filing and attending to the court proceedings, etc. Many times consumers are required to engage lawyers. So, the consumer redressal process is cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming.

(2) In most purchases, cash memo is not issued, hence it is not easy to gather evidence.

 (3) Most purchases in the market are small retail sales, the existing laws are not very clear on the issue of compensation to the consumers, affected by defected products.

(4) Rules and regulations for the working of markets are not always followed.

 (5) Existing laws are not very clear about compensation. Also, the enforcement of laws is weak.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1. You are the owner of a reputed company manufacturing biscuits. List the principles You would abide by before marketing your product.

 Ans. As the owner of the company, I would like to abide by the following principles before marketing our product :

 (1) Responsibility: It is the care of one’s duties. It would be our responsibility to give e Proper details of the product: ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and address of the manufacturer.

(2) Commitment: It means to show loyalty, duty or pledge to something for someone. We ‘’dl always he committed for the proper after-sale services to the consumers.

 (3) Honesty: We will always be honest about the product and after-sale services and respect the competitors in the market.

2.State the values associated with the origin of the Consumer Movement as a ‘social force’ to protect and promote the interest of the consumer in India.

 Ans. The following values can be associated with the origin of the consumer movement.

(1) Organisation: In India, consumers are widely dispersed. They are not united. So, they are at the mercy of a businessman. In contrast, producers and traders are organised and powerful. So, as consumers movement, consumers become organised.

(2) Self-awareness: It is often said that consumer movements can be effective only with the consumer’s active involvement. It requires a voluntary effort and struggles involving the participation of one and all.

 (3) Interpersonal skills: This refers to mental and communicative problem-solving procedure applied during social communications and interaction to reach certain results. Having positive interpersonal skills increase the productivity in the organisation or society.

3. When was the Right to Information (RTI) enacted? Explain with examples how it helps people in realising its value.  

Ans. (1) The Right to Information (RTI) was enacted in October 2005.

 (2) This Act ensures its citizens get all the information about the functions of government departments.

(3) For example, (i) Amritha attended the interview for a job in a government department. But she did not receive any news of the result.

 (ii) Even the concerned authorities refused to comply with her queries.

(iii) Ultimately, she had no choice but to file an application using the RTI Act.

(iv) She claimed that it was her right to know the result in a reasonable time so that she could plan her future.

(v) As a result, she was not only informed about the reasons for delay but also got her call letter for an appointment, as she had performed well in the interview.

4. If you complain about a defective product and the shopkeeper instantly replaces it, what values does he exhibit?  

Ans. (1) Responsibility: It means taking care of one’s duties. We evaluate people or ups as responsible or irresponsible depending on how seriously they take care of their possibilities.

(2) Commitment: In this way, he exhibits his commitment. Commitment means to show loyalty, duty or pledge to something for someone. It is an important factor in individual success.

(3) Kindness and helpfulness: Kindness is the act or the state of being kind and marked by charitable behaviour, pleasantness and concern for others. While helpfulness is defined as the property of providing useful assistance and friendliness evidenced by a kind behaviour. Helping attitude benefits the giver as well as the receiver.

5. Highlight any three values which may really make a consumer more alert and wide awake in the market.

 Ans. The following values may really make a consumer more alert and wide awake in the market :

 (1) Self-awareness: Consumers should know about their rights and duties. Awareness is the first step in the creation process. They should purchase quality marked products, ask for cash memo and make a complaint about genuine grievances.

(2) Responsibility: It means taking care of one’s duties. We evaluate people or groups as responsible or irresponsible depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities.

 (3) Voluntary participation: Consumer movements require a voluntary effort and struggle involving the participation of one and all. There is scope for the consumer to realise their role and importance.

6. Mention any three ways by which consumers are exploited in the marketplace and the promotion of which social values will solve it.             

 Ans. (1) (i) Traders are involved in unfair trade practices. They weigh less than what they should.

(ii) They add charges that were not mentioned before.

 (iii) They sell adulterated goods and resort to hoarding and black-marketing.

(2)(i) Self-awareness: Consumers should know about their rights and duties. Also, we should use it in the right place. They should purchase quality marked products.

(ii) Organisation: In India, consumers are widely dispersed. They are not united. So, they are at the mercy of businessmen. On the other hand, producers and traders are organised and powerful. So, consumers should also be organised.

 (iii) Voluntary participation: Consumer movements require a voluntary effort and struggle involving the participation of one and all. There is always scope for consumers to realise their role and importance.

7. The Consumer Movement in India has imparted some of the values to the consumer. Write any such three values.                       

Ans. (1) Voluntary participation: Consumer movements require a voluntary effort and struggle involving the participation of one and all.

(2) Self-awareness: It means consciousness of one’s self. Awareness is the first step in the creation process. The consumers should be aware of their rights and duties. They should purchase quality marked products, ask for cash memo, make a complaint about genuine grievances.

(3) Interpersonal skills: This refers to mental and communicative problem-solving procedure applied during social communications and interaction to reach certain results. Having positive interpersonal skills increases the productivity in the organisation or society. This is because it reduces the number of conflicts.

(4) Respect to differences: Members of the movement should respect differences amongst them. We must respect the ability of others in which they are good at. We should never show our superiority pertaining to our ability.

 (5) Responsibility: It means taking care of one’s duties. We evaluate people or groups as responsible or irresponsible depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities. 

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