Ch. – 1- The French Revolution- Extra Questions and Notes

By | December 18, 2018

India and the Contemporary World I (History)

Chapter-1– The French Revolution,

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CHAPTER-1

The French Revolution

VERY SHORT ANSWERS 

1. Why was the Bastille hated by all?

Ans.  Because the Bastille stood for the despotic power of the king.

2. What form of government was in practice in France in 1789?  

Ans. Monarchy

3. When did the French Revolution break?                                                                           

Ans In the morning on 14th July 1789.

4. Who stormed the Bastille, the fortress prison during the last years of the 18th century?

Ans. On the morning of 14 July 1789, the people of Paris stormed the fortress prison, the Bastille’.

5. When was the fortress prison, the Bastille demolished by the people?

Ans. On 14th July 1789.

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. State any three points of significance of storming the Bastille.

Or

 What is the significance of the storming of the Bastille? What is meant by people’s militia?

Ans. (1) The significance of the storming of the Bastille is as follows:

(i)Bastille was the symbol of autocracy.

(ii) The Bastille was hated by all because it stood for the despotic power of the king.

 (iii) The demolition of this fortress-prison symbolized the end of the era of despotism.

 (2) People’s militia means an army of common men.

2. Describe the events of 14th July 1789.

Or

Trace the events which led to the fall of the Bastille.          

Or

Describe the incident which took place in the morning of 14 July 1789 in France.

Ans. (1) The city of Paris was alarmed in the morning of 14th July 1789.

(2) The king had commanded troops to move into the city.

(3) Rumours spread all around that the king would soon order the army to open fire upon the citizens.

(4) About 7,000 men and women gathered in front of the town hall and formed a people’s militia. They broke into a number of government buildings in search of arms.

(5) Finally, a group of several hundred people marched towards the eastern part of the city and stormed the fortress-prison, the Bastille.

FRENCH SOCIETY DURING THE LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

 VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1.In how many estates was the French society divided in the eighteenth country?

Ans. Three estates namely

(a) Clergy,

(b) Nobility,

(c) Small businessmen, peasants, landler labour and artisans.

2. Name any two classes of people who belonged to the third estate in France.

Ans. Small businessmen and peasants.

3. ‘lb which dynasty was Louis XVI related?

Ans. Louis XVI was related to Bourbon dynasty.

4. Name the tax which was charged by the church from the peasants?

Ans. The tax which was charged by the church from the peasants was Tithe.\

5. What were Tithes and Taille?

 Ans. Tithe: It was a tax collected by the church from the French peasants.

Tithe: Tax to be paid directly to the State.

6. Who refuted the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the Monarch?

Ans. John Locke refuted the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the Monarch.

7. To whom were the taxes called ‘tithes’ payable by the peasants in the eighteenth centuryFrance?                                                                             

 Ans. The tithe was a tax levied by the church on the peasants, comprising one-tenth of the agricultural produce.

8. Who wrote the book ‘Two Treatises of Government’?  

Ans. John Locke wrote the book ‘Two Treatises of Government’.

9. Who enjoyed certain privileges by birth in the French society during the late eighteenth? Century?                                                         

 Ans. The members of the first two estates that were clergy and the nobility enjoyed certain privileges by birth.

10. Name the tax which was paid directly to the State in France.

Ans. ‘Taille’ is the name of the direct tax paid to the State.

11. Who wrote ‘The Spirit of the Laws’?             

 Ans. Montesquieu is the writer of ‘The Spirit of the Laws’.

12. The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of which social groups in France.

Ans. Middle-class groups.

13.  Which book has proposed a division of power within the government?

Ans. The Spirit of the Laws.

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1.What role did the middle class play in bringing about social and economic changes France? Explain.

 Ans. (1) In the eighteenth century, middle class brought many changes the social-economic life of France.

 (2) This class believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth.

 (3) A person’s social position must depend on his merit.

 (4) The society should be based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all.

(5) The government should be based on a social contract between people and their representatives.

LONG ANSWERS-

1.Explain any five economic conditions of France that led to a revolution

Or

 Examine the economic conditions of France before 1789.                           

 Ans. The economic conditions which led to the revolution were as follows:

 (1) Long years of war and cost of maintaining an extravagant court had drained the financial resources of France.

 (2) The French government was forced to increase taxes.

(3) Moreover, the French society was divided into three estates and only the members of the third estate paid taxes.

(4) The population of France grew rapidly which led to a rapid increase in the demand for foodgrains which was not fulfilled.

(5) The prices of essential things rose more than the wages which led to a subsistence crisis.

2. ‘A growing middle class in France during the 18th century envisaged an end to privileges.’ Analyze the statement.                                                   

 Ans. (1) In the 18th century, the growing middle class had envisaged an end to the privileges of higher classes in France.

 (2) This era witnessed the emergence of social groups termed as the middle class which consisted of small businessmen, professionals such as lawyers or administrative officials.

 (3) All of these were educated and believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth. Rather a person’s social position must depend on his merit.

(4) These ideas were envisaging a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunity for all without any distinction based on caste and creed.

3. How was the taxation policy responsible for the French Revolution?

Ans. (1) The taxation policy played an important role in the French Revolution which was based on the system of estates.

(2) The members of the first two estates that were clergy and the nobility enjoyed the exemption from paying taxes to the State.

(3) On the other hand, peasants had to pay double tax. One ‘Tithe’, a tax levied by the Church, comprising one-tenth of the agricultural produce, second `Taille’, a tax to be paid directly to the State.

(4) This disparity in paying the taxes added fuel to the French Revolution.

4. What was a subsistence crisis that occurred in France during the old regime? Explain.

Or

 What does subsistence crisis mean? What led to subsistence crisis in France? Explain.

Or

 Why did subsistence crisis frequently occur in France during the Old Regime?

Or

 List any five reasons that led to the subsistence crisis in France during the Old Regime.

Ans. (1) Subsistence crisis was an extreme situation where the basic means of livelihood were endangered.

The subsistence crisis frequently occurred in France during the Old Regime due to the:

(1) King Louis XVI and his predecessors of the Old Regime in France did nothing to raise the following reasons: the subsistence level of the Third Estate that paid all the taxes. Instead, they spent huge sums of money on maintaining an extravagant court and a large army.

(2) With the rapid increase in the population of France (23 million to 28 million), the demand for food grains also increased rapidly. The price of bread rose rapidly due to the scarcity of grains. Bread was the staple diet of the majority of the population.

 (3) Most workers were employed as labourers on fixed wages. They suffered the most during the periods of bad harvests which occurred frequently. Their wages could not keep pace with the rise in prices.

(4) Things became worse whenever drought or hail hit and reduced the harvest while demand for grains continued to rise. Bakers and hoarders often exploited such a situation.

(5) In addition to bad harvests, scarcity of grain and food riots due to rising food prices, people also suffered and died due to the epidemics occurring frequently during the Old Regime.

5. Describe the ‘middle class’ in three points.  

Or

 Who constituted the middle class in French society? How did they participate in the French Revolution? Explain.                                                                                                        

Or

`The eighteenth century France witnessed the emergence of the middle class’. Who were they and what were their ideas?

Or

Describe any three features of a middle class of France during the 18th Century.

Ans. (1) The middle class was a social group that had earned their wealth through overseas trade and manufacture of goods. It also included professionals like lawyers or administrative officials.

 (2) They were educated and believed that:

 (i) No group in the society should be privileged by birth.

(ii) person’s social position must depend on his merit.

 (3) They believed that a society should be based on freedom and have equal law and opportunities for all.

6. Explain the role of philosophers in the French Revolution of 1789.

Or

 How did philosophers influence the thinking of the people of France? Explain.

Or

Analyze the role of the French philosophers in creating awareness among the people to fight for their rights                                                                                                            

Or

Highlight the role of philosophers in the French Revolution.                  

Or

 Describe the ideology of any three philosophers who influenced the French Revolution.

Or

What role did the philosophers play in bringing about the French Revolution?      

Or

Describe the contribution of the French philosophers in the outbreak of the Revolution of 1789.

Ans. Role of philosophers in the French Revolution:

 (1) John Locke wrote ‘Two Treatises of Government’ and criticized the divine and absolute rights of the ruler.

(2) Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote ‘The Social Contract’. He gave the idea of formation of a government based on a social contract between people and their representatives.

(3) Montesquieu wrote ‘The Spirit of the Laws’. He believed in the division of power between three organs of the government.

(4) Philosophers wanted a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all.

(5) Ideas of philosophers were discussed in salons and coffee houses and inspired them to fight for their rights.

7. “The inequality that existed in the French society in the Old Regime became the cause of the French Revolution”. Justify the statement by giving three suitable examples.

Or

 Describe the system of estates in which the French society was organized in the eighteenth century. What was the condition of peasants in this system?

Or

 How was the French society organized? What privileges did certain sections of the society enjoy? Describe.                                                                     

Or

 How was the system of Estates in French society organized? Explain.           

Or

Explain the composition of French society during the late 18th century.

Ans. This is true that the inequality that existed in the French society in the Old Regime became the cause of the French Revolution.

(1) The French society was divided in the 18th century into three estates. The First and the Second Estates comprised clergy and nobility respectively. The Third Estate consisted of businessmen, traders, merchants, artisans, peasants and servants.

 (2) The members of the first two estates enjoyed certain privileges by birth. Their most important privilege was that they were exempted from paying taxes to the State.

(3) The nobles further enjoyed feudal privileges. They extracted feudal dues from the peasants who had also to render services to the lords.

(4) The Church also extracted its share of taxes called `Tithes’ from the peasants.

(5) All the members of the Third Estate had to pay taxes to the State. These included a direct tax, called ‘Faille’, and many indirect taxes.

(6) In this way, the burden of financing the State activities was borne by the Third Estate alone. It created a heavy burden on them and created much discontentment.

THE OUTBREAK OF THE REVOLUTION

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What did the persons taking oath at the Tennis Court promise to do?

Ans. They swore not to disperse till they had drafted a Constitution for France with limited powers of the Monarch.

2. Who was the king at the time of revolution that took place in France in 1789?

Ans. Louis XVI

3. Which sections of the French society was forced to give up their power after the French Revolution of 1789?                                 

 Ans. Monarchy and Church

4. Which sections of society in France got political rights, by the Constitution of 1791?

Ans. Middle Class

5. Who in France, was given the status of active citizens?

 Ans. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer wage were given the status of active citizens.

6. Which term was used in France for the newly elected assembly in 1791?

Ans. National Assembly

7. Name the pamphlet written by Abe Sieyes.

Ans. Abe Sieyes wrote an influential pamphlet called ‘What is the Third Estate’.

8. Why were women disappointed by the Constitution of 1791?  

Ans. Women were denied entry to assembly and voting rights in the National Assembly, therefore, they were disappointed.

9. Name the political body to which the three estates of the French society sent the” Representatives.

 Ans. National Assembly.

10. Who was given the status of ‘Active Citizens’ of France as per the Constitution of 1791?

Ans. Only men above 25 years of age.

11. Who wrote the book, The Social Contract?

 Ans. Rousseau.

12. Who proposed the concept of The Social Contract?

Ans. Rousseau.

13. What was the main object of the National Assembly in France while drafting the Constitution in 1791?

 Ans. To limit the powers of the monarch.

14. In which book did Rousseau mention the idea of one person, one vote?

Ans. The Social Contract.

 SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Who was entitled to vote in France as per the Constitution of 1791, framed by did National Assembly? State any three rights given to the people by the Constitution.

Ans. (1) According to the Constitution of France framed by the National Assembly, citizens did not have the right to vote. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were active citizens and had the right

 (2) The three rights given to the citizens were:

(i) Right to life, (ii) Freedom of speech, (iii) Freedom of opinion and equality of Law

2. On the night of 4th August 1789, a decree was passed by the French National Assembly. Describe the three main changes brought down by the decree.

 Ans. On the night of 4th August 1789, the French National Assembly passed a decree. Three changes that were brought down were as follows:

(1) It passed a decree abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes.

(2) Members of clergy too were forced to give up their privileges.

 (3) Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the Church were confiscated.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. How were ancient _regime and its crises responsible for the Revolution of 1789 in France?

 Ans. (1) In France’s ancient regime inequality existed in the society which became the cause of the French Revolution.

(2) The society was divided into three estates. The members of the first two estates enjoyed certain privileges by birth.

(3) Clergy and nobility and Church were the members of the first two estates. They extracted feudal dues and Tithes from the peasants who belonged to the third estate.

(4) Old Regime did nothing to raise the subsistence level of the third estate that paid all taxes. Instead, they spent huge sums of money on maintaining an extravagant court and a large army.

(5) This inequality existed in the French society in the old regime and became the cause of the French Revolution.

2. Who was the king of France at the time of the French Revolution? Mention the conditions in which he ascended the throne of France.

 Ans. (1) Louis XVII was the king of France at the time of the French revolution.

(2) (i) In the summer of 1792, the Jacobins planned an insurrection of a large number of Parisians who were angered by the short supplies and high prices of food.

(ii) On the morning of August 10, they stormed the palace of Toiletries, massacred the king’s guards and held the king himself as a hostage for several hours.

(iii) Later the Assembly voted to imprison the royal family.

 (iv) Louis XVI was sentenced to death by a court on charges of treason and was executed publically.

3. Give the reason for a walkout from the assembly of Estates-General by the members of 5 May 1789. What two steps were taken by the members of Third Estate Third Estate on after walk out?

Or

Mention the Third Estate on after the walk o reason for a walkout from the assembly of Estate General by the members of 5th May 1789.  Explain any two steps taken by the members of the Third Estate out.

Or

Describe the events of 5th May 1789 in France                                                              

 Ans. (1) (i) On 5th May 1789, the members of Third Estate demanded that voting should be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote.

 (ii) This was one of the democratic principles put forward by philosophers like Rousseau in his book The Social Contract’.

(iii) Louis XVI wanted that the voting should be like past in Estates General according to the principle that each estate should have one vote.

(iv) When the king rejected this proposal, the members of the third estate walked out of the assembly in protest.

 (2) (i) They declared themselves a National Assembly.

 (ii) They swore not to disperse till they had drafted a Constitution for France that would limit the powers of the monarch.

4. ‘While the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting Constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil’, Justify.

Or

Give Reasons as to why the National Assembly was formed by the ‘people of the Third Estate’.

Or

Why was the National Assembly formed by the people of the Third Estate? Explain.

Ans. (1) It is absolutely true when the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a Constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil.

 (2) As a severe winter meant a bad harvest, the price of bread rose.

(3) Often bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies.

(4) After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops.

(5)At the same time, the king ordered troops to move to Paris. On 14th July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille.

5. Evaluate countryside condition during the French Revolution.

Ans. (1) In the countryside, rumours spread from village to village that the lords of the Manor had hired bands of brigands who were on their way to destroy the ripe crops.

(2) Caught in the frenzy of fear, peasants in several districts seized hoes and pitchforks and attacked chateaux.

(3) They looted hoarded grain and burnt down documents containing records of manorial dues.

(4) A large number of nobles fled from their homes and many of them migrated to the neighbouring countries.

6. Highlight the political reasons behind the French Revolution.

Or

 Describe the political conditions leading to the outbreak of revolution in France.

Ans. (1) The Autocracy of the Kings—The autocracy form of the government w prevalent in France. The kings regarded themselves as ‘Representatives of God on the Earth and ruled over their subjects without any check of restraints. The will of the king was law.

(2) Defective Administration—The French administration was not being properly carried on. It was a hotbed of favouritism and nepotism. The prized posts were reserved for the aristocrats and the nobles.

(3) Extravagancy—The King and the Queen spent a lot on their luxuries. The courtier also followed in the footsteps of their sovereign. Thus, the expenditure of the royal co crossed all limits.

 (4) The Power of the Court–On the eve of the French Revolution, there were servant courts of law in France. But no book of the law was available for the guidance of the judges. T laws were made by the will of the king. About 400 different types of laws were in force France.

(5) The burden of Taxes—The general people had to pay 80% of their income in taxation They were not only groaning under the burden of these heavy taxes but also compelled to lead a very miserable life.

7. State the events that led to the formation of the National Assembly.

Ans. Following events led to the formation of the National Assembly.

(1) The Estates General was a political body of France to which the three estates sent their representatives. The voting in it had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote.

(2) This time too when Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General, he decided to continue the same old practice.

 (3) But, the members of the Third Estate demanded that voting now is conducted on the democratic principle of one person, one vote.

(4) When the king rejected this proposal, the members of the Third Estate walked out of the assembly in protest.

 (5) They assembled on 20 June 1789 in the hall of an indoor tennis court in Versailles. These representatives of the Third Estate viewed themselves as spokesmen for the whole French nation. They declared themselves a National Assembly.

8. Explain any five features of the Constitution of 1791, framed by the National Assembly in France.

Or

Explain any three features of the Constitution of France drafted in 1791.

Or

What were the main provisions of the French Constitution of 1791?                 

Or

List the main five features of the French Constitution of 1791.                 

Or

 State any five features of the Constitution of 1791 drafted by the National Assembly in France.                                                                                                                                        

Or

 Mention any three features of the Constitution drafted in 1791 by the National Assembly of

France.                                                                                                                                    

 Ans. (1) It declared France a constitutional monarchy.

(2) Powers of the king were separated and assigned to the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. (3) Laws were to be. made by the National Assembly.

 (4) Only men above 25 years of age, who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of labourer’s wages, were entitled to vote.

(5) Many rights were given to the people.

(6) To qualify as an elector and as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers.

9. How did the political system work in France under the Constitution of 1791?

Ans. (1) It made France a constitutional monarchy.

 (2) The powers of the government were separated and assigned to different institutions, the legislature, the executive and the judiciary independently.

(3) The National Assembly was given the power to make laws.

 (4) Only men above 25 years of age, who paid taxes to equal 3 days of labourer’s wages, were entitled to vote for the National Assembly.

 (5) The Constitution began with a declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

 (6) It declared the right to life, freedom of speech and opinion and equality before law natural and inalienable.

10. How was the system of estates in French society organized? Who constituted t middle class? What were their ideas about privilege in society?

Ans. (1) The French society was organized into three estates. The First and the Second Estates comprised clergy and nobility respectively. The Third Estate consisted of businessmen, traders, merchants, artisans, peasants and servants.

(2) Middle class constituted social groups which had earned their wealth through overseas trade and manufacturing. In addition to merchants and manufacturer, the middle class also included professional people such as lawyers, teachers, administrative officials, etc. All these persons were educated and had new ideas.

 (3) They believed that : (i) no group in the society should be privileged by birth.

(ii) person’s social position must depend on his merit.

 (iii) a society should be based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all.

(iv) Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu were its main thinkers.

11. Why did King Louis XVI conclude to increase taxes? Assess any three reasons.

Or

What compelled Louis XVI to raise taxes in France? Explain any five reasons.

Or

State any three circumstances which forced Louis XVI to increase taxes.

                                                                                                      Or

Describe any three causes which led to imposing fresh taxes by Louis XVI.

Ans. King Louis XVI was forced to increase taxes due to the following reasons :

 (1) Upon his accession to the throne, King Louis XVI found an empty treasury. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France.

 (2) The cost of maintaining an extravagant court at Versailles and a huge army was immense.

(3) The support given to the American War of Independence (against Britain) added over a billion livers to a debt that had already risen to more than 2 billion livers.

(4) Lenders who gave the State credit now began to charge 10% interest on loans.

 (5) The increasing payment of interest on loans created a budget deficit. It was unable to meet regular expenses.

 (6) All these conditions or circumstances forced the State or King Louis XVI to inker taxes which were to be borne by the members of the Third Estate only.

12. Explain the circumstances leading to the French Revolution of 1789.

Or

Explain the causes of the outbreak of the revolt in France in 1789.                              

Or

Describe any five major events that led to the outbreak of the French Revolution.

Or

 Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.

Or

 Describe any five causes of the French Revolution.                                                   

Or

 Explain any three causes of the French Revolution.  

Ans. The causes of the French Revolution are given below :

 (1) Social Cause: The French society in the 18th century was divided into three estates which were parts of the feudal system of the middle ages. The Third Estate was highly discriminated and exploited by the nobles, the church and the king.

 (2) Political Cause: King Louis XVI followed anti-people policies. The French army was involved in fighting costly wars. Peasants, artisans and women, who made up the majority of the population, were denied entry to the Assembly.

(3) Economic Cause: Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. The King’s court was extravagant. People were being heavily taxed to meet the State expenses. Shortage of food caused by bad harvests created much unrest among the people.

(4) Psychological Cause: The French philosophers like Rousseau, Locke and Montesquieu supported the people in their struggle against the king and to attain the ideals of liberty and equality.

 (5) Immediate Cause: Due to the rise in price, people were not in a condition to afford bread. There spread a rumour in the countryside that lords of the manor are going to destroy people’s ripe crops.

13. Describe any five social and political factors that led to the outbreak of the revolutionary protest in France.  

Or

 Explain the social causes of the French Revolution.                          

Or

Analyse the three main social causes leading to the outbreak of the revolutionary protest in France.

Ans. (1) Social Factors : (i) The French society was divided into three estates which were parts of the feudal system of the middle age. The Third Estate was highly discriminated and exploited by the nobles, the church and the king.

(ii) About 60% of the land was owned by nobles, the church and the richer members of the First and Second Estates.

(iii) All taxes were paid by the members of the Third Estate and the first two estates i.e., clergy and nobility were exempted from paying taxes.

(2) Political Factors : (i) King Louis XVI followed anti-people policies. The French army was involved in fighting costly wars.

(ii) Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. The king’s court was extravagant. People were being heavily taxed to meet the State expenses. Shortage of food caused by bad harvests created much unrest among the people.

(iii) Under Louis XVI, France helped the thirteen American colonies to gain their independence from the common enemy, Britain.

14. Mention any five symbols which came up during the French Revolution and explain their significance.  

Ans. Following were the symbols used during the French Revolution :

(1) The broken chains: These chains were used to fetter slaves. A broken chain stands for the act of becoming free.

 (2) The bundle of rods or fasces: One rod can be easily broken, but not an entire bundle, i.e., strength lies in unity.

 (3) The eye within a triangle radiating light: The all-seeing eye stands for knowled1 sceptre-symbol of royal power.

 (4) Snake biting its tail to form a ring: Symbol of eternity.

(5) Red Phrygian cap: Cap was worn by a slave upon becoming free.

(6) Blue white red: The National colour of France.

 (7) The winged woman: Personification of the law.

(8) The law tablet: The law is the same for all and all are equal before it.

FRANCE ABOLISHES MONARCHY AND BECOMES A REPUBLIC

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Name the most popular political club that was formed in France to carry on the politic: reforms.

 Ans. Jacobin Club was the most popular political club that was formed in France to ca on the political reforms.

2. Who followed a policy of severe control and punishment in France?

Ans. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment in France.

3. Who were the ‘Sans-culottes’?

Ans. Jacobins came to be known as the Sans-culottes, literally meaning ‘those with knee breeches’.

4. Which was the most revolutionary social reform of the Jacobin regime?

 Ans. The most revolutionary social reform of the Jacobin regime was the abolition of the slave

5. Against whom did France wage a war in 1792?

 Ans. War was waged against Prussia and Austria.

6. What sort of clothes were worn by the Jacobins?

 Ans. Jacobins used to wear long stripped trousers and red cap.

7. What was the ‘guillotine’ and who invented it?

 Ans. (1) The guillotine was a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person’ was beheaded.

 (2) Dr Guillotine invented this.

8.  What important change occurred in France on 21 September 1792?

Ans. On 21 September 1792 monarchy was abolished and France was declared a republic

9. What was Marseillaise in France?

 Ans. `Marseillaise’ was patriotic song sang in France composed by Roget de Lisle.

10. How could a citizen qualify as an elector in France?

 Ans. All men of 21 years and above, regardless of wealth qualified as an elector in France.

11. Name the National Anthem of France. Who composed it?

Ans. `Marseillaise’ was National Anthem of France. It was composed by Roget de Lisle.

12. By whom, was the Marseillaise, a patriotic song composed?                 

Or

 Name the poet who composed the National Anthem of France.                                  

Or

Who composed the National Anthem of France ` Marseillaise’?

Ans. Roget de Lisle.

13. After which important event in the history of France, did the French people apron democratic Constitution for them?

Ans. Abolition of censorship.                                                                 

14. Who was the leader of the Jacobin Club in France?

Or

Name the main leader of the Jacobin Club.                                                                   

Ans. Maximilian Robespierre.

 Long Answers:-

  1. Which period in the history of France is known as ‘The Reign of Terror’? Explain the reasons.                                                                                                         

Ans. (1) The period from 1793 to 1794 is known as the Reign of Terror.

(2) The reasons are the following : (i) Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment.

(ii) All those whom he saw as being ‘enemies’ of the Republic were arrested, imprisoned and tried by the revolutionary tribunal. Nearly all of them were guillotined (killed). They included the Monarch, Queen, ex-nobles, clergy, members of political parties and even his own party members.

(iii) Very harsh laws were passed. Peasants were forced to sell their grains at fixed prices in the cities.

(iv) Churches were shut down and their building converted into barracks and offices. Ultimately he was guillotined.

2. Describe the rise of Napoleon as an emperor.

Or

 What were the reforms introduced by Napoleon Bonaparte in France?            

Or

 Highlight the three laws enforced by Napoleon to modernize France.                      

Or

Explain the achievements of Napoleon Bonaparte in France.                                          

 Ans. (1) Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself as the Emperor of France in 1804. He set out to conquer neighbouring European countries, dispossessing dynasties and creating kingdoms where he placed members of his family.

(2) Napoleon saw his role as a modernizer of Europe.

(3) He introduced many laws such as the protection of private property and a uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal system.

 (4) Initially, many saw him as a liberator who would bring freedom to the people. But soon Napoleon’s army came to be everywhere as an invading force.

(5) Many of his measures that carried the revolutionary ideas of liberty and modern laws to other parts of Europe had an impact on people long after Napoleon had left.

3. Why was Robespierre guillotined ? Give reasons.

 Ans. (1) Robespierre pursued his politics so relentlessly that even his supporters went against him.

(2) He rationed meat and bread.

(3) There was a maximum ceiling on wages and prices.

(4) All citizens had to eat pain d’egalite, a loaf made of wholesome wheat.

(5) Churches were shut down and their buildings converted into barracks or offices.

(6) Finally, he was convicted by a court in July 1794, arrested and on the next day, sent to the guillotine.

4. What measures were taken by Robespierre to bring equality in the French society?

Or

Describe any five steps taken by Robespierre Government as a policy of severe control and punishment.                                                                                                                       

Or

 Explain the measures taken by Robespierre to bring equality in the French society.

Or

Describe any five efforts made by Maximillian Robespierre to bring equality in the French society.                                                                                                                      

Or

How did Robespierre establish equality in French society? Explain.                   

Or

State any three major reforms taken by the Robespierre government in France.

Ans. (1) Robespierre government issued laws placing the maximum ceiling on wages and prices.

(2) Meat and bread were rationed.

(3) Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government.

(4) The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden. All citizens were required to eat the pain d’egalite (equality bread), a loaf made of whole wheat

(5) Equality was also sought to be practised through forms of speech and address. Instead of traditional Monsieur (Sir) and Madame, all French men and women were henceforth Citoyen and Citoyenne (citizen).

 (6) Churches were shut down and their buildings converted into barracks or offices.

5. Explain the policy of severe control and punishment followed by Robespierre in France.

Or

Why is the period from 1793 to 1794 referred as The Reign of Terror’ in France? Explain any three reasons.                                                                                                                  

Or

 “Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment”. In this context, explain his “Reign of Terror”.

Or

Describe the policies of Robespierre and the Reign of Terror.                                        

Or

 Give reasons as to why the period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the ‘Reign of Terror’ in

 France.                                                                                               

Or

 Who was Robespierre? Mention any four of the measures taken by him to make his government effective.                                 

Or

 Why were the policies taken by the leader of Jacobin Club considered as Policy of severe control and punishment?                                                            

 Ans. (1) Maximilian Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobin club, which was the most successful political club formed after 1789. After the abolition of the monarchy, he remained the virtual ruler of the French Republic from 1793 to 1794.

(2) He followed a policy of severe control and punishment in France. His reign is referred to as ‘The Reign of Terror’ due to the following reasons :

(i) He adopted a policy of severe control over administration and punishment for the rivals.

 (ii) All those whom he saw or considered as being ‘enemies’ (and opponents) of the Republic were arrested, imprisoned and tried by a revolutionary tribunal. Nearly all of them were guillotined (killed). They included the Monarch and the Queen of France.

(iii) His government issued harsh laws. Peasants were forced to sell their grain in the cities at fixed prices.

 (iv) Churches were shut down and their buildings converted into barracks or offices.

(v) He pursued his policies so ruthlessly that even his own people turned against him. He was also guillotined.

6. What was the role of Jacobins during the French Revolution? What were they known as?

Or

Describe the main features of the Jacobin Club in France during the French Revolution.

Or

Explain the role of Jacobins in the French Revolution.                                         

Ans. (1) (i) As the Constitution of 1791 gave political rights only to the richer sections of society, the political clubs became an important rallying point for the people who wished to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of actions.

(ii) Jacobins planned insurrection of the people of Paris who were angry due to food shortage and high prices.

 (iii) They stormed the Palace of the Toiletries and held the king hostage for several hours.

(iv) Elections were held. From now on all men of 21 years and above, regardless of wealth, got the right to vote. They helped to produce laws, that improved the lives of women.

 (v) The newly elected assembly called ‘Convention’ was formed. It abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic.

 (2) They were called Sans-culottes.

DID WOMEN HAVE A REVOLUTION?

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Write the names of two prominent revolutionary women of France. 

Ans. (1) Olympia de Gouges

(2) Madam Roland

2. Which Law was introduced by the revolutionary government in France to improve the lives of women?

 Ans. The revolutionary government introduced laws to spread education among women and give them job training. Schooling was made compulsory for all girls.

3. Why were women disappointed by the Constitution of 1791?

Ans. Women were disappointed that the Constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizens.

4. Name the most popular political club started by the French women.              

Ans. The most famous women club was the Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women.

5. Name the famous women’s clubs of France.

 Ans. The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women.

 LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Which three reforms were introduced by the Revolutionary Government to improve the condition of women in French society?                                                        

Or

Explain any five laws introduced by the Revolutionary Government to improve the lives of women in France.                                                                                                                                  

Or

Analyse the changes brought about by the Revolutionary Government to improve the status of the French women?                                                                                            

Or

 Examine the change brought about in the life of women by the Revolutionary Government of France.                                                                                                                                        

Or

 State any three steps taken by the Revolutionary Government in France to improve the lives of women.                                                                                                     

Or

 How did the laws introduced by the Revolutionary Government help to improve the lives of women in France? Explain.                                                                                                                  

Ans. (1) In the early years, the Revolutionary Government introduced many laws to improve the condition of women.

 (2) Together with the creation of state schools, schooling was made compulsory for all women.

(3) Their fathers could no longer force them into marriage against their will.

(4) Marriage was made into a contract entered into freely and registered under civil laws.

(5) Divorce was made legal and could be applied for by both women and men.

(6) Women could now train for jobs, could become an artist or run a small business.

2. What was the position of women in French society?

Or

 Evaluate the role of women in France before the Revolution.    

Or

Describe the condition of women in 18th century France. 

Or

Write about the condition of women of the third estate in France before the French Revolution, of 1789.                                                                                                                                 

 Ans. (1)The position of Women in the French Society  Most women of the Third Estate had to work for a living.

(2) They worked as seamstresses or laundresses, sold flowers, fruits, vegetables at the market or were employed as domestic servants in the houses of prosperous people.

 (3) Most women did not have access to education or job training. Only daughters nobles and wealthier people could study at a convent.

(4) Working women had to take care of their families, that is, cook, fetch water, queue up for bread and look after their children. Their wages were lower than those’ of men.

(5) In order to discuss and voice their interests, women started their own political clubs and newspapers. They demanded the same political rights as men.

(6) The revolutionary government introduced some laws to improve their lives.

3. Describe the condition of women during the French Revolution and what did they Cit to voice their interests?

Or

 Analyse the role of women during the French Revolution.                          

Or

 Why did women participate in various events in French society?

Or

 What did the women do to improve their condition in France during the French Revolution?

Or

 Analyse the role of women of France during revolutionary years.

Or

Assess the role of women of France during the Revolution in five points.

Ans. Women’s Role in the French Revolution is described below :

(1) Though women had a low status in the 18th-century French society, they played an active role in the French Revolution.

 (2) In order to discuss and voice their interest, women started their own political clubs and newspapers.

(3) About 60 women’s clubs came up in different French cities. The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women were the most famous of them.

(4) The Constitution of 1791 had reduced them to the passive citizen. So, they demanded the same political rights as men and the right to vote and hold political office.

(5) Their struggle for equal political rights continued during the ‘reign of terror’ even though the government banned their clubs and political activities. Many women were arrested and executed and finally they had got the right to vote in 1946.

5. Why were women disappointed by the Constitution of 1791 in France? What laws did the revolutionary government introduce to improve the lives of women?

Ans. (1) The Constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizens and denied the right to vote.

(2) The revolutionary government introduced the following laws to improve the lives of women :

(i) Together with the creation of State schools, schooling was made compulsory for all girls.

(ii) Marriage was made into a contract entered into freely and registered under civil law.

(iii) Divorce was made legal and could be applied for by both men and women.

(iv) Women could now train for jobs and run a small business.

THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Which was the most revolutionary social reform in the Jacobin regime?

Ans. Abolition of slavery.

2. From where was the slave trade started by French merchants?

Ans. French merchants sailed from the parts of Bordeaux or Nantes to the African coast for the trade of slaves.

3. Between which three countries was triangular slave trade held?

Or

Among which three continents was the triangular slave trade carried on?          

Ans. The countries of Europe, Africa and America.

4. In which year was slavery finally abolished in France?

Ans. 1848.

5. Who abolished slavery in France?

Ans. The Jacobin Government.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. How could the abolition of slavery become possible in France? Explain.

Ans. (1) Throughout the eighteenth century, there was little criticism of slavery in France.

(2) There were long debates in the National Assembly about whether the right of man should be extended to all French subjects including those in the colonies. But no law was made fearing opposition from the business community.

 (3) It was finally the convention which in 1794 legislated to free all slaves in the French overseas possessions. But ten years later, Napoleon again started slavery.

2. “One of the most revolutionary social reforms of the Jacobins regime was of slavery in the French colonies”. Justify the statement.

 Ans. (1) The inhuman treatment of the African slaves in the Caribbean had shaken the conscience of the people not only in France or Europe but all over the world. Demand for its abolition was steadily rising.

(2) The mass level criticism of slavery in France was growing all the time. The intelligentsia also was highly critical of such an inhuman practice.

(3) Long debates were held in the National Assembly to decide whether the ‘Rights of Man and Citizen’ should be extended to all French subjects including those in the colonies.

(4) It was finally the Convention (the newly elected Assembly by the Jacobins) which in 1794 passed the law to free all slaves in the French overseas possessions.

(5) This ruling turned out to be a short-term measure. Napoleon reintroduced slavery. Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in 1848.

3. Explain triangular slave trade carried on during 18th and 19th centuries.

Or

Give a brief account of the slave trade in France.                                                             

Or

Describe the triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa and America.

Ans. The triangular slave trade was carried on during the 18th and the 19th centuries in the following ways :

(1) There occurred a shortage of labour on the plantations in the Caribbean when Europeans refused to go and work in the distant lands.

(2) This problem was solved by a triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas.

(3) French merchants sailed from the ports of Bordeaux or Nantes (on the French coast) to the African coast. There they bought slaves from local chieftains.

 (4) The slaves were branded and shackled. They were then packed tightly into ships which carried them to the Caribbean. There they were sold to plantation owners.

(5) The exploitation of slave labour, thus, met the growing demand in European markets for sugar, coffee, and indigo.

THE REVOLUTION AND EVERYDAY LIFE

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Name the social reformer of India who responded to the ideas of revolutionary France.

Ans. Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

2. Which important law came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille in the summer of 1789?

 Ans.  In the summer of 1789, the abolition of censorship came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille.

3. Which battle sealed the fate of France in 1815?                     

Ans. Battle of Waterloo in 1815 sealed the fate of France.

4. Who crowned himself as Emperor of France in 1804?

Ans. Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself as Emperor of France in 1804.

5. Name the battle in which Napoleon was finally defeated.                         

 Ans. Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

6. In which year did Napoleon Bonaparte crown himself as Emperor of France?

Or

 When did Napoleon Bonaparte crown himself as Emperor of France?

Ans. Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself as Emperor of France in 1804.

 LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Describe any three consequences of the French Revolution on France.  

Ans. The French Revolution had a great impact on France. The main impacts were:

 (1) The French Revolution brought about the downfall or end of the absolute monarchy in France.

 (2) National Assembly was given due recognition by King Louis XVI. He accepted that a new Constitution will keep a check on his absolute powers.

(3) The Assembly passed a decree on August 4, 1789, abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes. The privileges of nobles and clergy were restricted. Tithes were abolished. The estates owned by Churches were confiscated. France now became a constitutional monarchy.

2. How were the ideas of liberty and equality brought into practice by the revolutionary government? Explain.

Ans. The revolutionary government had got the most important legacy of the French Revolution in the form of the ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity and democratic rights.

(1) These ideas spread from France to the rest of Europe during the 19th century where feudal systems were abolished.

(2) The 1791 Constitution began with a Declaration of the Right of Man and Citizen. Many rights such as the right of speech, freedom of opinion etc. were considered as basic or natural and inalienable rights which could not be taken.

 (3) In many colonized areas such as Asia, Africa and Latin America people started dreaming of sovereign nation states. This idea of liberty and equality got an overwhelming response from the revolutionary government of France.

3. Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.

Ans. French Revolution had paved the path for many democratic rights which we enjoy even today throughout the world. The main rights are :

(1) Right to Equality

(2) Freedom of Expressing Opinion

 (3) Freedom of Press

(4) Right to Life

4.’Ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution”. Explain the statement in light of the French Revolution.

Ans. (1) The ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These ideas spread from France to the rest of Europe during the 19th century, where feudal systems were abolished.

 (2) The 1791 Constitution began with a Declaration of the Right of Man and Citizen. Many rights such as the Right to Life, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Opinion, etc. were considered as basic or natural and inalienable rights which could not be taken.

(3) It inspired the people of Asia, Africa and Latin America to work on the idea of Freedom.

 (4) In many colonized areas people started dreaming of ‘sovereign nation states’.

(5) The idea of liberty and equality got an overwhelming response from the social and politic workers all over the world.

5. Examine the results of the abolition of censorship in 1789 in France.

Or

Describe any five effects of the abolition of censorship in France in 1789.                      

 Ans. (1) One of the important laws that came into effect soon after storming of the Bastille in the summer of 1789 was the abolition of censorship. In the old Regime, all written materials and: cultural activities-books, newspapers, plays could be published or performed only after they had been approved by the censor of the king.

(2) But after the declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right, the cities and villages were flooded with newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures.

(3) They all described and discussed the events and changes taking place in France, thus making common people aware of their rights.

6. How was the French Revolution responsible for social changes?

 Ans. (1) French Revolution circulated the powerful ideas of freedom and equality in Europe.

(2) The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic change in the way in which society was structured.

 (3) Before the eighteenth-century society was broadly divided into estates and orders. It’ was aristocracy and Church which controlled economic and social power.

(4) But after the revolution, it seemed possible to change this system.

(5) In many parts of the world including Europe and Asia, new ideas about individual rights and who should control social power, began to be discussed.

 (6)1n India Raja Rammohan Roy and Derozio also discussed the impacts of the French Revolution.

7. Give three laws enforced by Napoleon to modernize France.

Ans. (1) Many people the people in Europe saw Napoleon as a liberator who would bring Freedom.

 (2) Napoleon introduced many laws. He passed laws related to protection of private

(3) He introduced a uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal, eaten Napoleon had left. en,

 (4) He introduced the Civil Code in 1804 usually known as the Napoleonic Code.

(5) His revolutionary ideas of liberty and modern laws had an impact on people 1014 ‘LH.

8. What changes did people witness in everyday life after the Revolution of 1789 in France?

Or

Assess the changes people witness in everyday life after the Revolution of 1789 in France.

Ans. (1) Soon after the storming of the Bastille in 1739, one important law that it passed, was the abolition of censorship.

(2) The Constitution of 1791 began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. It proclaimed that Freedom of speech and opinion and equality before the law were natural rights of each human being by birth. They could not be taken away.

(3) Newspapers, pamphlets and printed pictures appeared steadily in the towns of France. From there, they travelled into the countryside. These publications described and discussed the events and changes taking place in the country.

(4) The Freedom of Press (or print) allowed expression of the opposing views of events. Each side could now try to convince others of its stand on any event or problem.

(5) Much use was made of plays, songs and festive processions which attracted a large number of people. This was one way to make people understand the ideas of liberty, equality or justice. The political philosophers had already written much about such ideas or ideals.

9. What is the legacy of the French Revolution? Name two Indian leaders, who responded to the ideals of this revolution?                        

Or

 Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the people of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.                                                                                        

Or

What was the impact of the French Revolution on the world? Name two Indians who were very much influenced by revolutionary France.                                                                                              

Or

 Analyse the impact of the French Revolution over Europe and other parts of the world.

Or

Assess the legacy of the French Revolution. Name two Indian leaders, who responded to the ideals of this revolution.                                                                 

Ans. The legacy of the French Revolution for the people of the world is stated below :

(1) The ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These ideas spread from France to the rest of Europe during the 19th century, where feudal systems were abolished.

(2) The 1791 Constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, etc. were considered as basic or natural and inalienable rights which could not be taken away.

(3) Colonized people in Africa, Asia and Latin America reworked the idea of freedom from bondage into their movements to create a sovereign new state.

 (4) The new revolutionary ideas spread quickly in French-occupied areas in Europe and abroad as well as the overseas possessions of other colonial powers. People in such areas began dreaming of ‘sovereign nation states’.

(5) Tipu Sultan and Rammohan Roy are two examples of Indian individuals who responded to the ideas of liberty and equality coming from revolutionary France.

10. Which was the important law that came into effect soon after the storming of the zoo, Bastille in the summer of 1789? How did it change the lives of the common people Explain?

Or

Explain the impact of the French Revolution on the life of people in France.

Or

 How did the Revolution affect the everyday life of the people of France?           

 Ans. (1) Abolition of Censorship was the important law that came into effect soon after storming of the Bastille in 1789.

(2) It changed the lives of the common people in the following ways :

(i) Newspaper, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France from where it reached the countryside.

(ii) They all discussed events and changes taking place in France.

(iii) Freedom of the press also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed.

(iv) Plays, songs and festive processions attracted common people through which the could identify with ideas such as liberty or justice.

 (v) Now, the Declaration of the Right of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1. The French Revolution popularized many symbols. Each symbol depicted some basic values. Mention any five such symbols and related values.

Ans. (1) The law tablet: It depicted that law is equal for all and all are equal before the law.

(2) Snake biting its tail to form a ring: This symbol depicted the value of eternity.

 (3) Red Phrygian cap: It symbolized the freedom of slaves.

(4) The broken chains: It depicted the freedom from slavery.

(5) The bundle of rods or fasces: This depicted the idea that unity has strength.

2. “The French Revolution in 1789 had a long-lasting impact on the world with regards to various rights and freedom.” In the light of the above statement describe the values that you see in the French Constitution of 1791.

Ans. (1) Freedom of speech.

(2) Freedom of expressing an opinion.

(3) Freedom of the press.

(4) Ideals of liberty.

(5) Right to equality.

(6) Declaration of various natural rights.

3. “Napoleon is known for bringing about reforms in France.,” In the light of the above statement answers the following questions :

(1) Name any two reforms introduced by Napoleon.

(2) Why was he foreseen as the liberator?

Ans. (1) Reforms introduced by Napoleon : (i) He made laws to protect private property.

 (ii) He devised a uniform system of weights and measures based on the decimal system.

(2) He was initially seen as a liberator because his reform measures carried revolutionary ideas of liberty and modern laws to other parts of Europe.

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