Ch –4 Agriculture Extra Questions and Notes

By | September 28, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

Geography

Chapter-4 Agriculture

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for Class 10 social science, social science Class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts.

TYPES OF FARMING

Very Short Answers:-

1,What proportion of India’s population is engaged in agricultural activities?

Ans. 60 c,

2.Which millet is rich in iron, calcium, other micro-nutrients and roughage?

Ans. Raga

3.Which state of India is the leading producer of jute?

 Ans. West Bengal is the largest producer of jute in India.

4.Which position does India rank in terms of rice production in the world?

Ans. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world.

5.Describe `Humming cultivation’ in one sentence.

Ans. Slash and burn agriculture is locally called Humming in the north-eastern states like Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland.

6.’Slash and burn’ farming comes under which type of farming?

Or

 Which type of agriculture is ‘slash and burn’ agriculture?

 Ans. Humming farming.

7.Which describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?

Ans. Plantation agriculture

8.What percentage of world’s coffee production does India produce?

Ans. 3.2%

Short Answers:-

1.What are millets? Give brief description of the climatic conditions and producing states of the millets grown in India.

Ans. (1) The three food grains also used as fodder, is called as millets. The three food grains are mower, bare and raga. These are also known as the coarse grains, because of the presence of high nutritional values and roughage.

(2) It is a khaki crop mostly grown in the moist areas without much need of irrigation. Baja grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil.

(3) In the drier western India mainly; raga is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.

2.Mention any three features each of intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming.

                                                                                Or

Distinguish between intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming.

 Ans. (1) Intensive subsistence farming: (i) It is practiced in areas of high population pressure on land.

(ii) It is labor-intensive farming.

(iii) High doses of biochemical inputs and Production.

(2) Commercial farming: (1) Higher doses of modern inputs like HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers are used.

(ii) The main aim is to obtain higher productivity.

(iii) Crops are grown mainly for sale in the market.

Long Answers:-

1.With the example of sugarcane, explain the interdependence of all the three sectors of the economy.

 Ans. (1) Sugarcane is the cash crop produced as a tropical crop in both North India and South India.

(2) It is the raw material for the sugar industries and many other beverage cola producing industries. Sugar mill produces the sugar crystals by crushing the sugarcane stems.

(3) The left over material after crushing is called biogases, which can be a good ingredient for paper industry

(4) The service of transportation of the sugarcanes after harvesting to the factory sites is very important; otherwise the juice can get dried up.

(5) That is why, the role of service sector is so vital to make the connection of agricultural and industrial sectors strongly bonded. g.

2.Give any three points of distinction between primitive subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture.  

Or

 Compare primitive subsistence farming and commercial farming.                         

Ans. Primitive Subsistence Farming Commercial Farming (1) It is practiced on small patches of land.

 (1) The size of farm is comparatively large.

 (2) This type of farming depends upon (2) Higher doses of modern inputs HYV monsoon and natural fertility of soil, seeds, and chemical fertilizers are used to obtain higher productivity.

(3) Farmers produce food crops to sustain (3) Crops are grown mainly to sell in the family market.

(4) Land is cultivated with the help of (4) Modern tools like tractors, harvesters primitive tools like hoe, Dao and digging are used for cultivation sticks.

(5) In this type of agriculture land (5) Land productivity is very high productivity is low.

3.Describe any five types of farming practiced in India.

Ans. Major farming systems practiced in different parts of India are:

(1) Primitive Subsistence Farming: This type of farming is mainly practiced by tribal groups. It is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools and also lacks in capital and irrigational facilities.

 (2) Intensive Subsistence Farming: This type of farming practiced in the areas of high population pressure on land. In this type of farming, high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.

 (3) Commercial Farming: In commercial farming, higher doses of modern technology are used. It uses High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity. The main objective of this type of farming is to earn money and foreign exchange.

(4) Plantation Agriculture: Plantation farming is a type of commercial farming where crops are grown largely for the purpose of sale or trade. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large scale. It involves large capital investment and application of modem science and technology.

 (5) Humming : Slash and burn agriculture is locally called `Humming’ in north- eastern states like Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland. In this type of farming, farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family.

4.Describe the main features of Indian agriculture.

Ans. (1) nearly two-thirds of our total population is engaged in agricultural activities.

(2) It is the main source of employment in India. It provides livelihood to about 50% of the total labor force.

(3) Agricultural sector produces various crops such as wheat, rice, millets, pulses, etc. Thus, it ensures food security for the country.

(4) Various cash crops like cotton, sugarcane, coffee, jute are grown. In this way, agriculture provides raw materials to agro-based industries.

(5) Various agriculture products like tea, coffee, spices are exported. This helps to earn foreign exchange.

5.What is Intensive Subsistence Farming? Write three features of this type of farming.

 Ans:-(1) In Intensive Subsistence Farming, land is intensively is consumed mainly by the farmers’ family. There is hardly any surplus left to be sold or traded.

(2) The landholdings are small and scattered due to ‘right of inheritance’.

(3) The farmers continue to take maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative source of livelihood.

(4) It is labor-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and litigation are used to obtain higher yields.

 (5) Thus, there is enormous pressure on agricultural land.

6.Write about the features of Commercial Farming in India.

 Ans. (1) Commercial farming: In this type of farming crops are grown largely for the purpose of sale or trade. Mainly cash crops are grown because they fetch much higher prices in the market.

(2) Features of commercial farming:

(I) Higher doses of modern inputs are used

(ii) It uses High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pest higher productivity

(iii) Modern techniques and scientific methods of cultivation are practiced. Productivity as high. It is a mechanized and commercialized farming. Is

(iv) The main objective of this farming is to earn money and foreign exchange.

(v) The degree of commercialization of agriculture varies from one region to another. For example, rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, while in Odessa, it is a subsistence crop.

7.Distinguish between primitive subsistence farming and intensive subsistence farming.

Ans. primitive Subsistence Farming (1) This type of farming is practiced in areas of high population pressure on land. (2) It is practiced on small patches of land for obtaining higher production. (3) There is no pressure on agricultural (4) In this type of farming, agricultural productivity is high. (5) Farmers shift and clear a fresh patch output from limited land.

Intensive Subsistence Farming – (1) This type of farming is practiced few pockets of India. (2) In this type of farming, high doses of with the help of primitive tools and also bio-chemical inputs and irrigation are used lacks in capital and irrigational facilities.(3) There is enormous pressure on land agricultural land. (4) In this type of farming, agricultural productivity is low. (5) The farmers continue to take maximum of land for cultivation.

8.Why is subsistence agriculture still practiced in certain parts of the country? Give four reasons.                                                                                                                          

 Ans. Subsistence agriculture is still practiced in certain parts of the country for the following reasons :

(1) There is small piece of land.

(2) Farmers are poor and don’t have fertilizers and High Yielding Variety of seeds.

(3) Storage facilities are inadequate.

 (4) Agriculture mainly depends on monsoon rains.

(5) Means of transport are inadequate.

 (6) Facilities like electricity and irrigation are generally not available to them.

(7) Most of the food production is for their own consumption.

Very Short Answers:-

1.Which two areas of India produce orange mainly?

Ans. Nagpur and Cherrapunjee

2.Which crop is used both as food and fodder?

 Ans. Maize is a crop which is used both as food and fodder.

3.Name any one leguminous crop.

Ans. Ural, mooing and maser                                                                                     

 4′ Which state is the leading producer of mower?

Ans. Maharashtra is the leading producer of mower in India.

5.Which country does produce 13 per cent of the world’s vegetables?

Ans. India produces about 13 per cent of the world’s vegetables.

6.What is the agricultural term used for cultivation of Recoil?

Or

By which name is specialized cultivation of fruits and vegetables known?                   

Or

What is the term used for specialized cultivation of fruits and vegetables? 

Ans. Horticulture is the term used for cultivation of fruits and vegetables.

7.Which is the leading coffee producer state in India?

 Ans. Karnataka is the leading coffee producer state in India.

8.What is the rank of India among the natural rubber producing countries of the world?

Ans. India ranks fourth among the world’s natural rubber production.

9.Which crop is commercial crop in one state while subsistence crop in another state?

Ans. Rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but subsistence crop in Odessa.

10.Which type of soil is ideal for growing cotton?                                    

 Ans. Black soil is ideal for growing cotton.

11.Mention two rabbi crops.

Or

Name any one rabbi crop.                                                                         

Ans. Two rabbi crops are: wheat, barley, peas, gram, and mustard.

Short Answers:-

1.Differentiate between the two major cropping seasons of India.

Or

 Distinguish between rabbi and khaki cropping seasons of India with regard to sowing,

Or

Which are the two main cropping seasons in India? Mention their growing and harvesting periods.                                                                   

Ans.

Rabi Cropping Season  (1) Rabi crops are sown from October to December. (2) They are harvested in summer from April to June. (3) Important rabbi crops are: wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard. (4) These crops are grown in Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, J & K, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. (5) Availability of precipitation during winter months due to western temperate cyclones helps in success of these crops.

Sharif Cropping Season-(1) Sharif crops are grown with the onset o1 monsoon. (2) These crops are harvested in September’ October. (3) Important khaki crops are: paddy, maize’ mower, Baja, etc. (4) These crops are grown mainly in Assam’ West Bengal, Odessa, Andhra Pradesh, Tao’ Nadu, Kerala, Bihar. (5) These crops are irrigated mainly through monsoon rains.

2.Give any three features of Said Season.

Or

Explain `ZAID’ cropping season of India with examples.                       

Ans. (1) said Season: In between the rabbi and the khaki seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Said Season.

 (2) They require dry weather for major growth period and longer day length for flowering.

(3) In the Indian sub-continent, the crops are grown on irrigated lands which do not wait for monsoon.

(4) Some of the crops produced during `Said’ are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.

(5) Sugarcane takes almost a year to grow.

Long Answers:-

1.Mention two geographical conditions required for the growth of Maize crop in India. Describe three factors which have contributed to increase maize production.

Ans. Geographical conditions required for the growth of maize are as under:

(i)It needs an average temperature between 21°C and 27°C.

(ii) An annual rainfall of around 75 cm is required.

 (iii) It grows well in old alluvial soil.

Factors which have contributed to increase maize production:

(i) HYV seeds — It means High Yielding Variety of seeds. These seeds make it possible to produce much greater amount of grain on a single plant. They help in increasing the total production.

(ii) Fertilizers and pesticides—use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in increasing production and producing best results.

(iii) Irrigation—Due to well-developed irrigation facilities, the production of maize is also increased.

2.Name the important beverage crop introduced by the British in India. Explain the geographical conditions needed for its cultivation. Write any two important states where it is grown.

Ans. Tea is the important beverage crop introduced by British in India.

Geographical conditions needed for the cultivation of tea are as under:

(i) Tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates.

 (ii) Deep, fertile and well-drained soil is needed.

 (iii) Soil rich in humus and organic matter is required.

 (iv) It requires warm and moist frost-free climate throughout the year.

(v) Frequent showers, evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.

(vi) Tea is labor intensive industry. So, it requires abundant, cheap and skilled labor.

 (3) Important states where it is grown are Assam and West Bengal.

3.Which is the staple food crop of India? Explain the growing conditions required for the same.                                                                                  

Or

What are the growing conditions required for the main staple food crop of India? Mention the main growing regions.                                                                                                           

Or

 Which is the staple food crop of a majority of the people in India? Mention any two regions where this crop is mainly grown.                                                                  

Ans. (1) The two most important staple food crops of India are rice and wheat.

 (2) Rice: (i) India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.

 (ii) It is a khaki crop.

(iii) It requires high temperature (above 25°C) and humidity with annual rainfall -L_ ‘wove 100 cm.

 (iv) Major areas where rice is grown are: West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odessa, and Andra Pradesh.

 Wheat: (i) It is the main food crop in north and north-western parts of the country. It is a rabbi crop.

(ii) It requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening. It also requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall.

 (iii) It is grown in alluvial and loamy soil.

 (iv) Major areas where wheat is grown are: Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

4.Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of sugarcane and tea, Mention two important states of each.

Or

 Describe any four geographical conditions required for the growth of sugarcane. Name any two major sugarcane producing states of north India.

Ans. Geographical conditions required for the growth of sugarcane are as follows:

(i) It is a tropical as well as sub-tropical crop.

(ii) It requires hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C.

 (iii) It requires an annual rainfall between 17 to 100 cm.

(iv) It can be grown on a variety of soil.

 Major sugarcane producing states are : Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, etc.

Major tea producing states are : Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala.

5.Explain any two geographical conditions required for the cultivation of pulses. Name any two important pulses producing states.

 Ans. (1) Geographical conditions required for the cultivation of pulses: (i) Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.

(ii) Temperature is required from 25°C to 30°C.

 (iii) Pulses grow well in the areas of 50-75 cm rainfall.

(iv) These can be grown on all types of soil but dry light soil is the best suited.

 (v) Pulses are leguminous crops which help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air. Thus, pulses are mostly grown in rotation with other crops.

 (2) Major pulses producing states are: Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

6.Write any four climatic conditions required for the cultivation of rubber. Mention any two states which are the leading producers of rubber in India.

 Ans. (1) Climatic conditions required for the cultivation of rubber are as follows:

(i) Rubber is grown in equatorial, tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions.

(ii) It requires moist and humid climate.

(iii) Temperature is required above 25° C.

(iv) More than 200 cm rainfall is needed.

(2) Kerala, Tamil Nadu are the leading producers of rubber in India.

7.What are Saba crops’? In which period of the year are they sown and harvested in India? Mention any four states where these crops are grown mainly.

Or

 Explain `rabbi’ cropping season of India with examples.    

 Ans. Rabi crops:

(1) Crops grown in winter months are called rabbi crops.

 (2) Some of the important rabbi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.

(3) Rabi crops are sown in the winter from October to December.

(4) These crops are harvested in the summer from April to June.

(5) These crops are grown in large parts of India. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir are the main rabbi crops producing states of India.

8.Which crop is known as the ‘golden fiber’? Explain two geographical conditions essential for the cultivation of this crop. Mention any four uses.

Or

 What is known as ‘golden fiber’? Where is it grown in India and why? Describe various uses of this fiber.                                                                                                                                                

Ans. (1) Jute is called golden fiber.

(2) Geographical conditions for its cultivation are as follows:

(i) Jute grow well in well-drained fertile soil of the floodplains where the soil is renewed every year.

(ii) High temperature is required during the time of growth.

(3) It grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the floodplains.

 (4) Therefore, it is grown in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Desha and Meghalaya.

(5) Uses: It can be used to manufacture gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artifacts.

9.Mention four geographical conditions required for the growth of tea in India. Name any two tea growing states of South India.

Or

What are the soil type, climatic conditions and rainfall conditions required for the cultivation of tea? Write two states of India where tea grows.                    

Or

 Mention geographical conditions required for tea cultivation.                                

Ans. (1) Some of the geographical conditions for the growth of tea are as follow:

(a) Temperature: It requires hot and wet climate. The ideal temperature for the growth of tea bushes and leaf varies between 20°C to 30°C. If temperature either rises above 35°C or goes below 10°C, it would be harmful for the growth of tea bushes and leaves.

b)Rainfall: As mentioned above tea requires a good amount of rainfall ranging between 150-300 cm and the annual rainfall should be well distributed throughout the year. Long dry spell is harmful for tea.

(c) Soil:Tea bush grows well in well drained, deep, friable loamy soil.However, virgin forest soils rich in humus and iron content are considered to be the best soils for the tea plantation. Tea is a shade loving plant and grows better when planted along with shady trees.

(2) Major tea producing states of South India are: (1) Tamil Nadu (ii) Kerala (iii) Andhra Pradesh.

10.Name any four oil seeds produced in India. Explain the importance of oil seeds in our day-to- day life.

Or

Describe the importance of oil seeds. Describe the significance of oil seeds.

Ans. (1) (i) Groundnut, (ii) Mustard, (iii) Coconut, (iv) Sesame (v) Soybean (vi) sunflower.

 (2) Importance of oil seeds:

(i) Most of these are edible in the form of oil and are used for cooking foods.

(ii) These are also used as raw materials for manufacturing paints, varnishes, ‘yak, perfumes, cosmetics, etc.

(iii) Oil cake is used as excellent cattle feed. Oil cake is also used as fertilizer.

11.Compare the geographical conditions required for the two major cereal crops inning rice and wheat. Give one major area where they are grown.                      

Or

Which is the second most important cereal crop cultivated in India? In which regions is it grown? Explain the growing conditions for the same.                                                         

Or

Describe the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of wheat in India

Or

 “Wheat and rice farming in India is fairly different from each other.” Support the statement with five suitable examples.                                                                                                         

Or

Describe four geographical conditions required for the growth of wheat. Mention the two major wheat producing zones of India.

                                                                                      Or

Describe the suitable environmental conditions required for the growth of rice in India.

Or

Explain the geographical conditions required for the production of rice. Also mention the major rice-producing states of India.                                                                                                      

Or

 Mention any three geographical conditions required for the rice cultivation.

 Ans. (1) The two staple food crops of India are rice and wheat.

(2) Geographical conditions for rice and wheat:

Rice –(i) It requires high temperature, (above 25°C). (ii) It requires high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. (iii) In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. (iv) It is grown in alluvial and loamy soil. (v) It is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern parts of India.

Wheat (i) Wheat requires a cool growing season. (ii) It requires a bright sunshine at the time of ripening. (iii) It also requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season. (iv) It is grown in alluvial and loamy soil: (v) It is grown in the Ganga-Satluj plants of north-western and black soil region

 (3) (i) Major areas where rice Andhra Pradesh.

(ii) Major areas where wheat is grown are: Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.

12.Name two important bevel rage crops grown in India. Who introduced these crops t the country? What type of agriculture is followed for their cultivation?

Ans. (1) Tea and coffee are the two important beverage crops grown in India.

 (2) Iva was initially introduced by the British in India. The Arabica variety of coffee initially brought from Yemen is produced in the country.

 (3) Plantation agriculture is followed for their cultivation.

13.Study the given diagram and answer the questions given below:

Dipped goods, 4.1% others, 4.7% Latex foam, 4% Belts and Hoses, 4.6%

Auto tires and tubes, 62.2%

Footwear’s, 6.6%

Camel back, 4.6%

Cycle tires and tubes, 9.2%

(1) Which crop is used for making the goods listed in the diagram?

 (2) Which types of goods occupy the highest percentage?

 (3) Mention any one climatic condition required for the growth of this crop.

 (4) Name any two major producing states of this crop.

 Ans. (1) Rubber

(2) Auto tires and tubes (62.2%).

(3) (i) It is grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas. (ii) It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm.

(iii) Temperature should be above 25°C.

(4) Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

14.Explain any three geographical conditions required for the growth of rice in India. How is it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfalls?. Explain with examples.

Rice is the staple crop of India. It is grown well in hot and moist climate. The geographical conditions for Rice Cultivation are:

1.Temperature: 16°C – 27°C and rainfall 100 cm to 200 cm is ideal for rice growing. But rainfall during harvest times is harmful. Annual coverage temperature around 24°C is ideal.

2.Soil: rice is grown well on the alluvial soil or on the fertile river basins. It is also grown in mixed soil or loamy and clayey soil.

3.Land: Plain lands or gentle slopes are suitable for the production of rice. Because stagnancy of water is a must for the cultivation of rice.

 (2) In areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of artificial irrigation such as in Punjab, Haryana, and Western Uttar Pradesh etc.

15.With reference to oil seeds, answer the following questions:

(a) Which is the main oil seed produced in India?

(b) Which state is the leading producer of that oil seed?

(c) Name two oil seeds which are grown as rabbi as well as khaki crop.

Ans. (a) Groundnut

(b) Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

(c) (i) Sesame is a khaki crop in north and rabbi crop in south India.

(ii) Castor seed is also grown both as rabbi and khaki crop.

16.How is it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall? Explain with examples.

Ans. (1) In areas of low rainfall, it is grown with the help of irrigation.

(2) Development of dense network of canal irrigation and tube wells has made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall.

 (3) In Punjab. Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan rice produced with canal irrigation and tube wells.

TECHNOLOGICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS

Very Short Answers:-

1.Which state is known as the harbinger of ‘Green? Revolution’ India joy

 Ans. Punjab is known as the harbinger of ‘Green Revolution’ in India.

2.Write another name for ‘White Revolution’.

Ans. Another name of White Revolution is Operation Flood.

3.Who initiated Bhoodan-Gramdan Movement?

 Ans. Viola Behave initiated Bhoodan-Gramdan Movement.

4.Write the full form of ICAR.

Ans. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).

Long Answers:-

1.What is the main contribution of agriculture to the national economy? Explain any five steps taken by the government of India to modernize agriculture.

Or

 “Agriculture is the mainstay of Indian economy.” Explain the statement.

 Ans. (1) (i) Agriculture is the backbone or the mainstay of the Indian economy. It has been contributing significantly in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). From 1951 onwards I the share of agriculture sector in GDP has registered a declining trend. In 2010-11 about 52 per cent of the total work force was employed by the form sector which makes more than half of the Indian population dependent on agriculture for sustenance.

 (ii) Besides providing livelihood and employment it also provides raw materials to agro- based industries and fodder to country’s vast livestock.

(2) Considering the importance of agriculture in Indian economy, the Government of India made serious efforts to modernize agriculture in the following ways :

(i) Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) was established.

(ii) Agricultural universities, veterinary colleges and universities have been setup.

(iii) Animal breeding centers, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology have been established.

(iv) Weather forecast are also given priority.

 (v) Steps are taken for improvement of rural infrastructure.

2.Describe the technical and institutional reforms occurred in Indian agriculture.

Or

 Describe any five technological and institutional reforms initiated to improve the standard of agriculture in India.                                            

Or

 Describe the institutional and technical changes introduced in the field of agriculture in India in the recent years.                                                                                   

 Ans. (1) The government provides HYV seeds and fertilizers.

 (2) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmed for farmers are introduced on radio and television.

 (3) Government provides technical assistance and training for farmers.

(4) Soil testing facilities, cold storage and transportation facilities are provided by government for farmers.

 (5) Veterinary services, animal breeding centers, horticulture development like facilities are provided by the government for farmers.

3.Describe any five steps taken by the government of India to increase the productivity of agriculture in India.                                                                                                      

                                                                                           Or

Explain any three institutional reforms introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.                  

Or

 Explain any four institutional reforms programmed introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.                                                                                                      

Or

Describe any five reforms brought in the Indian agriculture after independence through the efforts of the Indian Government.

Or

Suggest two technological and three institutional reforms taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.

Ans. (1) The right of inheritance has led to fragmentation of land holdings. Therefore, collectivization, consolidation of land holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari system, etc. are given priority to bring about institutional reforms.

(2) The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology was initiated to improve Indian agriculture.

(3) Land development programmed was initiated, which included provisions for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and diseases, establishment of Graeme Banks, Cooperative Societies, etc.

(4) Kiss an Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PATS) were also introduced for the benefit of farmers.

(5) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmed for farmers are run on the radio and television.

(6) To check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen, the government announces Minimum Support Price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1.Two boys from your school visited two different villages and presented the reports mentioning the features of agriculture practiced there. These features are listed below :

(1) Small land piece (2) Poor farmers

(3) Rich farmers

(4) Availability of fertilizers and pesticides

 (5) Use of traditional equipments of agriculture

(6) Use of combine and thresher machines

(7) Low production

(8) Developed irrigation system

(9) Adequate means of transport

 (10) Monsoon-based irrigation.

One of the students reported that there was subsistence agriculture practiced in the village he visited. What do you think which are the features in the above list which he is talking about ? 

Ans. (1) Small land piece (2) Poor farmers

(3) Use of traditional equipments of agriculture

(4) Low production (5) Monsoon-based irrigation.

2.”In India, agriculture production is under pressure.” In the light of the above statement, mention a few challenges before Indian agriculture.

Ans. (1) Lack of irrigation facilities

(2) Dependence on monsoon

(3) Inadequate marketing and storage facilities

(4) Competition with global market prices of agriculture products

(5) High cost of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

(6) Lack of modern agricultural equipments and technology.

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