Class-10 Ch-5 Minerals and Energy Resources Extra Questions and Notes

By | September 28, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

Geography

Chapter-5 Mineral and Energy Resources

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for Class 10 social science, social science Class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts.

Short Answers:-

1.How do geologists define minerals? Give one example each of the hardest and the softest minerals.                         

Ans. (1) Geologists define minerals as a “homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure”.

 (2) Minerals are found in varied forms in nature.

(3) The hardest form of mineral is diamond and softest is talc.

2.Distinguish between rocks and minerals. Give one example of each.                  

 Ans.

Rocks(1) Rocks are combinations of homogeneous occurring substance with a definable internal structure.

(2) Majority of rocks consist of several in nature, ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.

(3) For example, granite, sandstone.

Minerals – (1) Minerals are homogeneous naturally substances called minerals.

(2) Minerals are found in varied forms minerals in varying proportions.

(3) For example, iron, manganese.

3.Describe any three points of importance of minerals in our daily life.

Ans. Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives. For example;

(1) The railway lines and the tarmac of the roads, our implements and machinery are made from minerals.

 (2) Cars, buses, trains, aero planes are manufactured from minerals.

(3) From a tiny pin to a towering building or a ship, all are made from minerals

(4) In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rites, etc.

4.What is the difference in approach of Geographers and Geologists in the study of mineral resources?

Ans. (1) (i) Geographers study minerals as part of the earth’s crust for a better understanding of land forms.

(ii) The distribution of mineral resources and associated economic activities are of great interest to Geographers.

(2) (i) A Geologist is interested in the formation of minerals, their age and physical and chemical composition.

(ii) They define minerals as a homogeneous naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.

(iii) The formation of minerals depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms. This results in a wide range of colors, hardness, crystal forms, lustier and density that a particular mineral possesses. Geologists use their properties to classify the minerals.

CLASSIFICATION OF MINERALS

Short Answers:-

1.Classify minerals into the three groups. Give one example of each.

Ans. Classification of minerals:

Metallic minerals:

These can be classified into: (i) Ferrous (containing iron): For example, iron ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt, etc.

(ii) Non-ferrous minerals: For example, copper, lead, tin, bauxite, etc.  (iii) Precious: For example, gold, silver, platinum, etc.

(2) Non-metallic minerals: For example, mica, salt, potash, granite, limestone, etc.

(3) Energy minerals: For example, coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.

MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS

Very Short Answers:-

1.Why has aluminum metal great importance?

 Ans. Aluminum metal has great importance because it combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.

2.Name the minerals formed as ‘placer deposits’.                         

Ans. Gold, silver, tin and platinum.

3.How are minerals formed in sedimentary rocks?

 Ans. They formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata.

4.Name the two types of iron-ore found in India.

 Ans. (i) Magnetite, (ii) Hematite.

5.Name any two minerals obtained from veins and lodes.

 Ans. Two minerals obtained from veins and lodes are : copper and zinc.

6.Name the mineral for which the Blight mines of Madhya Pradesh are famous.

Ans. Blight mines of Madhya Pradesh are famous for copper.

7.What is at-Hole Mining’?

Ans. Coal mining in Jokai and Cherapunjee is done by family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel, known as tat-Hole Mining’.

8.Where are Bilabial hills located and why are they called so?

 Ans. Bilabial hills are located in the Bestir district of Chhattisgarh. They are called so because the range looks like the hump of an ox.

9.Which factors affect the economic viability of a reserve?                          

 Ans. (1) The concentration of mineral in the ore.

(2) The ease of extraction.

(3) Closeness to the market.

10.What is Hematite?

 Ans. Hematite is a type of iron ore.

11.In which places of Odessa-Jharkhand belt is iron-ore found?

 Ans. (1) In Odessa, iron ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kandahar districts.

(2) In Jharkhand, iron ore is mined in Guam and Normandy.

12.In which form do minerals occur in the sedimentary rocks?

Ans. Beds or layers 

13.Which is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development in India?

Ans. Iron ore

14.How is gypsum formed?

Ans. It is formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions.

15.Which type of iron ore has the content of iron up to 70%?

Ans. Magnetite

16.Which iron ore deposits is known to be one of the largest in the world?

 Ans. The Kudermukh iron ore deposits it.

17.Which is the largest manganese producing state of India?

Ans. Odessa

18.Which minerals provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries?

Ans. Ferrous minerals

19.Which mine in Karnataka is a 100% export unit of iron ore?

 Ans. Kudermukh

20.India is critically deficient in the reserve and production of which mineral?

Ans. Copper

21.Koderma-Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Bihar-Jharkhand is the leading producer of which mineral?

 Ans. Mica

Short Answers:-

1.Explain veins and lodes. Which minerals are found in them?  

Ans. (1) In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes.

(2) In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.

(3) Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead, etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.

2.What type of mineral is limestone? Describe its uses and distribution

Ans. (1) Limestone is a non-metallic mineral. It is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates

Uses of limestone: (i) It is the basic raw material for cement industry.

(ii) It is essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

 (3) Distribution: It is produced in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, etc.

3.Why is mica considered the most important mineral in electric and electronics industries? Give three reasons.                               

Or

“Mica is an indispensable mineral in the electronic industry.” Evaluate.                   

 Ans. (1) Mica is a non-metallic mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves.

(2) It can split easily into thin sheets. These sheets can be so thin that a thousand can be layered into a mica sheet of a few centimeters high.

(3) Due to its excellent did-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, it is used in electric and electronic industries.

4.Name the rock mineral which is the basic raw material for a cement industry. State its composition and use.

Ans. (1) Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry.

(2) It is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates.

(3) It is used for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

5. State the facts about iron-ore found in India with reference to following:

(i) Two types of iron-ore

(ii) Two exporting ports

(iii) Two major destinations of the exports.

Ans. (1) Two types of iron-ore: (a) Magnetite, (b) Hematite.

 (ii) Two exporting ports: (a) Vishakhapatnam. (b) Mangalore.

(iii) Two major destinations of the exports :Japan, (b) South Korea.

6.What is an ore? Name any two ores of iron.

Ans. (1) The term, ore is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements.

Two ores of iron: (i) Magnetite, (ii) Hematite.

7.Describe the position of India regarding the non-ferrous minerals with their importance.

Ans. (1) India’s reserves and production of non-ferrous minerals are not very satisfactory.

(2) These minerals include copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold.

(3) They play a vital role in a number of metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries.

8.Explain the formation of Bauxite and name the metal obtained from it.

Ans. (1) Formation of bauxite involves the decomposition of surface locks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores.

(2) Aluminum is extracted from bauxite.

9.Mention any three properties of copper. Name three mines from which copper is extracted.

Ans. Copper is: (1) malleable, (2) ductile and (3) good conductor of heat and electricity.

Copper is extracted from: (1) Blight mines in Madhya Pradesh.

(2) Sing hum district in Jharkhand.

(3) Cheri mines in Rajasthan.

10.State any two uses of limestone and name any two states which are the major producers of limestone.

Or

State two uses of limestone and also the states where it is produced.

 Ans. (1) Two uses of limestone: (i) It is the basic raw material for cement industry. (ii) It is essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

(2) It is produced in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat’ Tamil Nadu, etc.

Long Answers:-

1.Define mineral. How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks? Explain any three types of formations in which minerals occur.            

Or

 Name any three forms in which minerals are found.                               

Or

 Explain the mode of occurrence of minerals in igneous and metamorphic rocks with examples.                                                                                                                           

 Ans. (1) Mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.

Minerals occur in different types of formations: (i) In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and larger are called lodes. Tin, copper, zinc, lead are obtained from veins and lodes. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.

(ii) In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under great heat and pressure. Another group of sedimentary minerals include gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt.

(iii) Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores.

(iv) Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most important among such minerals.

(v) The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals. Common salt, magnesium and bromine are derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds are also rich in manganese nodules.

2.Highlight any three factors which play an important role in turning a mineral resource into a mine.

Ans. The factors which play important role in turning a mineral reserve into a mine are:

(1) Concentration of mineral in the ore: If concentration of minerals is more, then only it is economical to extract them.

(2) The ease of extraction: Some mineral resources occur on the earth’s surface while others may occur deep under the earth’s surface. It is difficult to mine beyond a depth of about 2,000 m.

(3) Closeness to the market: If the mine is close to the market then, transportation cost also reduces. If the market is far off then cost of mineral increases. It also leads to wastage in loading and unloading of mineral resources.

 (4) The place where it occurs: The minerals available in regions of harsh climate or rugged topography are difficult to extract.

(5) The cost of processing it: The cost of processing the minerals also determines its total cost. Thus, it plays an important role in determining whether reserve should be converted into a mine or not.

3.Name any three major iron ore belts found in India. Write main features of each.

Or

Explain the distribution of iron-ore in India.                                                 

Ans. The major iron ore belts in India are: (1) Odessa-Jharkhand belt: In this belt, high grade hematite ore is found. The major mines of this belt are Mayurbhanj, Kandahar, and Sing hum.

 (2) Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt: It lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Very high grade hematites are found in the famous Bilabial range of hills. This range comprises 14 deposits of super high grade hematite iron ore.

(3) Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt: It lies in Karnataka. It has large reserves of iron ore. Kudermukh deposits are known to be one of the largest in the world.

(4) Maharashtra-Goa belt: This belt is located in the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. Ores found here are not of very high quality. Here, iron ore is exported through Maragos port.

4.Which type of minerals has provided a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries in India? Explain with the help of examples.

 Ans. (1) Ferrous minerals like iron ore, manganese has provided a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries in India.

(2) Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.

(3) Magnetite (a type of iron ore) has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry.

 (4) Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and Ferro-manganese alloy.

(5) It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.

5.Explain any three reasons for variation in the distribution of minerals in India.

                                                                Or

 How minerals are unevenly distributed in India? Explain with examples.           

 Ans. (1) Variation in the distribution of minerals in India is because of (i) the differences in the geological structure

(ii) Processes (iii) time involved in the formation of minerals.

(2) Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals and mica.

(3) Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of peninsula have petroleum deposits.

(4) Alluvial plains of north India are devoid of economic minerals.

6.”Minerals found in the ocean waters mostly are not of economic significance.” Give one reason. Name any two minerals derived from ocean water.  

 Ans. Minerals found in the ocean waters mostly are not of economic significance because:

(i) These are too widely diffused.

(ii) The higher cost and environmental constraints of marine mining.

(iii) Mining is hampered by technological constraints (depth of ocean).

Two minerals derived from ocean water: (i) Common salt (ii) Magnesium (iii) Bromine (iv) Manganese nodules.

7.Name a clay like substance from which alumina and later aluminum is obtained. Give its formation, uses and distribution.                          

 Ans. (1) Bauxite.

(i) Formation-Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminum silicates.

(ii) Uses-It combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.

(iii) Distribution—Bauxite deposits are found in the Amarkantak plateau, Magical hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni.

8.Mention any four mineral resources in which India is fairly rich. By which mineral resource does India earn foreign exchange? Explain.

Or

 “India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources.” Elaborate the statement.

Ans. (1) Four mineral resources in which India is fairly rich are: (i) Iron ore, (ii) Manganese, (iii) Bauxite, (iv) Mica.

(2) India earns foreign exchange by iron ore. Very high grade hematite’s (a type of iron ore) are found in the famous Bilabial range of hills in the Bestir district of Chhattisgarh. The range of hills comprise of 14 deposits of super high grade hematite iron ore. It has the best physical properties needed for steel-making. Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam port.

9.Explain the mode of occurrence of minerals in sedimentary rocks, with examples.

Ans. (1) In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers.

(2) They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata.

(3) Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under great heat and pressure.

(4) Another group of sedimentary minerals include gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt, These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions.

10.Name the mineral formed by decomposition of surface rocks. Which metal is extracted out of it? Which two properties of this metal make it very important?

Ans. (1) Bauxite is formed by the decomposition of surface rocks.

 (2) Aluminum is extracted out of it.

(3) (i) Aluminum is important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron with extreme lightness.

 (ii) It has good conductivity and great malleability.

11.Name the iron-ore mines of Karnataka located in Western Ghats. List any two features of these mines.                              

Or

Name the largest iron-ore mines of Karnataka located in Western Ghats. Write any two features of these mines.                                                                                              

 Ans. (1) Kudermukh iron ore mines of Karnataka are located in Western Ghats.

(2) (i) These mines are a 100 per cent export unit.

 (ii) These are known to be one of the largest in the world.

(iii) The ore is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.

12.Name the finest quality of iron-ore with a high content of iron and state any two characteristics of it.

Or

 Which is the finest quality of iron-ore? Write any two characteristics of it.

Or

Name the most important industrial iron-ore in terms of quantity. Write any two characteristics of it.                                                                                                                        

Ans. (1) Magnetite is the finest quality of iron ore.

(2) (i) It has a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent.

(ii) It has excellent magnetic qualities.

 (iii) It is valuable in the electrical industry.

13.Diatribe the two main qualities of iron ore deposits of India. State the two types of iron ore mainly found in the country. Identify the major areas known for the production of iron ore.

Or

Describe the qualities of two types of iron ore found in India. Mention the major areas known for the production of iron ore.                                                                                

Ans. (1) (i) India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. (ii) India is rich in good quality iron ores.

 (2) Two types of iron ore mainly found in the country are: (i) Magnetite (ii) Hematite.

(3)The major areas known for the production of iron ore: (i) Odessa (ii) Jharkhand (iii) Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.

(iv)  Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur in Karnataka.

14.Which state is the largest producer of manganese in India? Mention any four uses of manganese.

Or

Write any three uses of manganese.                                                      

 Ans. (1) Odessa is the largest producer of manganese in India.

 (2) Uses of manganese: (i) It is used in the manufacturing of steel.

(ii) It is used in the manufacturing of Ferro-manganese alloy.

(iii) It is also used in manufacturing of bleaching powder.

(iv) It has its uses in insecticide and paint industries.

15.Which is the basic mineral and is the backbone of industrial development? Give its main features.                 

Ans. (1) Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.

(2) (i) It provides a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.

(ii) Hematite has the best physical properties needed to steel-making.

 (iii) Iron has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry

(iv) Various other industries are dependent for their tools and equipment on this mineral.

16.Explain the importance of iron, manganese, mica, bauxite, copper.   

 Ans. (1) Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development Magnetite iron ore has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry.

(2) Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and Ferro-manganese alloy. It is also used in manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.

(3) Mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries It has excellent did-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance. to high voltage.

(4) From bauxite aluminum is obtained. It combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.

(5) Copper is malleable, ductile and a good conductor to heat and electricity. It is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.

17.What is a mineral? Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.

Or

Distinguish between ferrous minerals and non-ferrous minerals. Give two examples of each.

Ans. (1) Mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.

(2) Difference between ferrous and non-ferrous minerals:

Ferrous Minerals (i) The minerals which do not contain iron are known as ferrous minerals. (ii) They have their own utility and are used it They also provide strong base for electrical, electronic, chemical, engineering metallurgical industries. (iii) Ferrous minerals account for about of the total value of the satisfactory production of metallic minerals. (iv) Iron, manganese, cobalt are the examples.

Non-Ferrous Minerals (i) The minerals containing iron-content content are known as non-ferrous minerals (ii) They are used in iron and steel industry industries. (iii) India’s reserves and prccluction of non-fern: three-fourths minerals are not veil (iv) Copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, gold are the examples.

18.Name a non-metallic mineral made up of a series plates or leaves. Give its characteristics, use, and distribution.

Or

Name the non-metallic mineral which can split easily into thin sheets. Mention its uses

Ans. (1) Mica is the non-metallic mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves.

 (2) Mica can split easily into thin sheets. These sheets can be so thin that a thousand c be layered into a mica sheet of a few centimeters.

(3) Characteristics : It has excellent did-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties, resistance to high voltage.

 (4) Uses : It is used in electric and electronic industries.

(5) Distribution : (i) Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chita Nagpur plateau.

(ii) Koderma-Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer.

(iii) Ajmer in Rajasthan.

(iv) Nellore in Andhra Pradesh.

19.Explain the impact of mining on the health of miners and the environment? Suggest any one solution.                               

Or

 How is the mining activity injurious to the health of the miners and environment? Explain.

Ans. (1) Mining activity is often called a ‘Killer Industry’ due to high risks involved.

 (2) The dust and poisonous fumes inhaled by the miners make them vulnerable pulmonary diseases.

(3) The extraction of minerals from nature often creates imbalances, which adversely affect the environment.

(4) The key environmental impacts of mining are on wildlife and fishery habitats, the water balance, local climates and the pattern of rainfall, sedimentation, the depletion of forests and the disruption of the ecology.

(5) Effects of mining on environment in India : (i) The operations of Kudermukh Iron ore company in the Western Ghats in Karnataka state have caused large scale destruction of the hills, pollution of groundwater and affected Kudermukh National Park.

(ii) The miners face health hazards arising out of on-site pollution due to dust gases, noise and polluted water.

(iii) In Hair and Ranging coal fields in Jharkhand, there are more than 500 abandoned mines covering about 1800 hectares.

20.Differentiate between metallic and non-metallic minerals with examples.  

Ans.

Metallic minerals(1) Metallic minerals are those from which metals are obtained. (2) These minerals are, malleable and ductile. (3) These minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks. (4) Metallic minerals show luster. (5) For example, iron ore, manganese, copper, tin etc.

 Non-metallic minerals –(1) These minerals do not contain metals. (2) Non-metallic minerals are non-malleable and non-ductile. (3) These minerals occur in sedimentary rocks. (4) Non-metallic minerals do not show luster. (5) For example, gypsum, potash, salt, etc.

CONSERVATION OF MINERALS

Long Answers:-

1.Explain the objectives of conservation of minerals. Why is it essential for future economic growth? Explain.                                    Or

Explain the importance of conservation of minerals. Highlight any three measures to conserve them.                                                                                                                                              

Ans. (1) We need to conserve mineral resources because: (i) Minerals are finite and non-renewable.

(ii) They are extremely valuable but short-lived possessions.

 (iii) Continuous extraction of ores leads to increasing cost of minerals. Mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with decrease in quality.

(2) We can conserve minerals in the following ways: (i) We should use resource in planned and sustainable manner.

(ii) Recycling of metals by using scrap.

(iii) Improved technology to allow use of low grade ores.

 (iv) Using other substitutes.

2.What efforts are required to use mineral resources in a planned and sustainable Meitner? Explain in three points.

Or

Suggest some measures to conserve the minerals.

Ans. (1) Recycling of metals: Ferrous metals like steel is one of the most recycled materials. The most recycled items are containers, coins, automobiles appliances and construction materials. It is cheaper to recycle steel than to mine iron ore. Steel does not lose any of its inherent physical properties during recycling process.

 (2) Use of substitutes or alternative resources: Since metals and fossil fuels are available in a fixed quantity therefore, using substitutes or alternative resources is the need of the hour.

(3) Resource planning: Resource planning is another important aspect. Resource should be used in such a way that future generations may not face problems. Priorities need to be fixed in advance so that resources can be used accordingly.

 (4) Important technology needs to be improved to avoid wastage during different processes of extracting minerals from the ores.

CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

Very Short Answers:-

1.Why is natural gas considered as environment friendly?

 Ans. Natural gas is considered as environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions.

2.Which type of coal has the highest content of moisture?

 Ans. Lignite

3.Which is the oldest oil producing state in India?

Ans. Assam

4.Which type of coal is used for generation of electricity?

Ans. Lignite

5.Which oilfield produces more than 50% of India’s petroleum?

Ans. Mumbai High

6.Identify the popular liquid fuel used for vehicles which is environmental friendly.

 Ans. CNG

Short Answers:-

1.Highlight the importance of petroleum. Explain the occurrence of petroleum in India.                                                           

Or

 Mention any three uses of the petroleum. 

Ans.  Importance of Petroleum:

1.Petroleum is the major energy source in India.
2. Provides fuel for heat and lighting.
3. Provides lubricant for machinery.
4. Provides raw material for a number of manufacturing industries.
5. Petroleum refineries act as nodal industry for synthetic, textile, fertilizer and chemical industries.

Its occurrence:

(a).Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps.
(b).In regions of folding, anticline or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold.
(c).Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.

2.Describe the distribution of natural gas reserves in India.                        

 Ans. (1) Natural gas is considered an environment-friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions.

(2) Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin.

(3) Along the west coast the reserves of the Mumbai High and allied field are supplemented by finds in the Gulf of Cambay.

(4) Andaman and Nicobar islands are also important areas having large reserves of natural gas.

(5) The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas.

3 Why is coal the most important energy source in India even today? Give three reasons.

Ans. (1) Coal is the main source of energy as it provides about 67% of energy needs in our country.

 (2) Coal is used as a fuel in households, thermal power plants and in industry.

(3) Coal is used in manufacture of fuel gases like coal gas.

 4 “Coal is an exhaustible resource. There is a great need to conserve it.” Suggest and explain five measures to reduce dependence on coal.

 Ans. We can reduce the dependence on coal in the following ways:

(1) The mining techniques should be improved so that the wastages are cut down and optimum production is got.

(2) As a fuel for industries, we should try to generate more power from renewable sources like hydroelectricity and atomic energy.

(3) Coal is extensively used as domestic fuel. This can be substituted by natural gas, biogas and to some extent, solar energy, etc. Smokeless Cholas are also useful.

 (4) Till the recent past, Indian Railways were mainly using coal to run their steam engines. The electrification of railway and use of diesel engines has cut down the consumption of coal.

(5) We should take a serious account of the coal situation and try to use it judiciously so that we may enjoy its benefits for a longer time.

5.”Natural gas is considered an environment friendly fuel.” Explain the statement in two points.  

Ans. (1) Natural gas is considered an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions.

 (2) It does not cause air pollution or environmental degradation. Thus, it is the fuel for the present century

(3) The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas.

6.What are the two main ways of generating electricity? How are they different from each other? Explain.

Or

 Name three methods of generation of electricity? Explain how electricity is generated using these method?

Ans. Electricity is generated mainly in two ways:

1.(i) By running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro-electricity

(ii) Hydro-electricity is generated by fast flowing water, which is a renewable resource

 (2) (i) Thermal power is generated by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce electricity.

(ii) Thermal power stations use non-renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity,

7.’The conventional sources of energy are fast getting depleted, if we are not careful, there will be an acute shortage.’ Support the statement with examples.

 Ans. (1) India is becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil for energy production.

(2) It has led to the depletion of conventional energy resources.

(3) Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future.

(4) To fulfill the energy demands the energy resources are over exploited.

(5) Increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems.

8.Why is energy required for all activities? How can energy be generated? Exp

Or

 “Energy is required for all activities.” Support the statement with examples.               

 Ans. (1) (i) Energy is a basic requirement for economic development.

(ii) Every sector of the national economy — agriculture, industry, services — needs inputs of energy

(iii) The economic development plans require increasing amount of energy to remain operational.

(2) (i) Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity.

(ii) In the recent years, energy has also been started generating from non-conventional sources like solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, etc.

9.In which two main geological ages does coal occur in rock series in India? Mention any two features of coal of each age.                         

Or

Describe about Godwin and Tertiary coals in India.             

Or

 Describe the rock series of two main geological ages of occurrence of coal in India.

Ans. (1) Godwin coal is a little over 200 million years in age. The major resources of Godwin coal which are metallurgical coal are located in Deodar Valley, Hair, Flanagan; and Bokhara. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wareham valleys also contain coal deposits.

(2) Tertiary coal deposits are only about 55 million years old. Tertiary coals occur in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

10.Classify the energy resources and write any three characteristics of each.

Or

Classify the energy resources into two categories. Mention any two features of each.

Ans. (1) Energy resource can be classified into two types — conventional and non-conventional.

 Conventional energy resources:

(i) The sources of power like coal, petroleum, natural gas are called conventional energy resources.

 (ii) They have been in use for a long time.

(iii) They have limited reserves and are likely to get exhausted.

 Non-conventional energy resources:

(i) Solar, wind, geo-thermal, tidal and biogas are called non-conventional energy resources.

 (ii) This energy is abundant, renewable, pollution free and eco-friendly.

(iii) It can be more easily supplied to rural, urban and remote areas. Thus, it is called the ‘energy of the future’.

11.Identify the second most important energy resource in India after coal. Mention its two uses along with its deposits in India.

Or

 Which is the second most important energy resource in India after coal? Mention its importance as a source of energy and as a source of raw material.               

 Ans. (1) Petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy source in India after coal.

Two uses of petroleum:

(i) It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.

(ii) Petroleum refineries act as a nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertilizer and numerous chemical industries.

(3)Deposits of petroleum:

(i) Ankeleshwar in Gujarat.

(ii) Igbo, Naharkatiya and Moran-Ugrian in Assam.

12.What are the major sources of energy in rural household of India? Identify the major problems faced due to these sources. Give suggestions to solve these problems.

 Ans. (1) Firewood and cattle dung cake are the major sources of energy in rural household of India.

(2) Major problems faced due to these sources are:

(i) using cow dung is discouraged because it consumes most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture.

(ii) Continuation of these sources of energy is increasingly becoming difficult due to decreasing forest area.

(3)Suggestions to solve these problems:

(i) Awareness must be developed in the rural areas regarding the non-conventional sources of energy like solar energy, wind energy etc. It will minimize the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes, which in turn, will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.

(ii) Government should take initiatives in setting up the biogas plants in rural areas.

13.Where does petroleum occur under the earth? Mention the major producing centers of petroleum in India.

Or

 Describe the occurrence of petroleum in India.                                   

Ans. (1) (i) The occurrence of petroleum in India is associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.

(ii) In regions of folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the unfold. The oil bearing layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow. The oil is prevented from rising or sinking by intervening non-porous layers.

(iii) Petroleeum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.

(2) (i) Major petroleum producing centers in India : Mumbai High (63%), Gujarat (18%), Assam (16%). (ii) Ankeleshwar is the most important field of Gujarat.

 (iii) Igbo, Naharkatiya and Moran-Ugrian in Assam are important oil fields in the state.

14.How is energy a basic requirement for the economic development of the country? Explain with examples.

Ans. Energy is the basic requirement for economic development.

(1) Every sector of the national economy—agriculture, industry, service needs inputs of energy. Energy is required to run machines in industries, agricultural equipments, transport, communications, etc.

(2) The economic development plans implemented since independence necessarily required increasing amounts of energy to remain operational.

(3) To run our international trade or to export, import various goods, efficient transport system is required which again requires energy resources.

15.Explain the distribution and importance of petroleum.  

Or

 Explain the role of petroleum in the economy of our country. Highlight its distribution.

Ans. (1) Petroleum is important because:

(i) It provides fuel for heat and lighting.

(ii) It provides lubricants for machinery.

 (iii) It provides raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.

(iv) Petroleum refineries act as a nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertilizer and numerous chemical industries.

(2) Four oil fields of India are :

(i) Ankeleshwar (Gujarat),

(ii) Mumbai High,

(iii) Igbo and Naharkatiya (Assam) and

(iv) Moran-Ugrian (Assam).

16.Give three differences between hydro and thermal electricity. Which one of the two is better and why?

Ans. (1) Difference between hydro and thermal electricity:

Hydro-electricity-(1) Hydro electricity is generated by fast flowing water. (2) Hydro power station uses water to generate electricity which is a renewable resource. (3) It is pollution free. (4) Dams are helpful not only in generating electricity but also serve various other purposes like irrigation, etc.

Thermal electricity- (1) Thermal electricity is generated using coal, petroleum and natural gas. (2) The thermal power stations use non-renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity. (3) It pollutes the atmosphere. (4) In thermal power plants only electricity is generated.

 (2) Hydro-electricity is better because it is generated by fast flowing water which is a renewable resource. The multi-purpose projects which are constructed to generate electricity are also useful for various other purposes like irrigation, controlling floods, fisheries, etc.

 17.Describe the features of different types of coal found in India.

Or

Which is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India? Assess the importance of its different forms.                                                                                                                            

 Ans. Coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India.

 (1) Peat: Decaying plants in swamps produce peat. It has a low carbon and high moisture contents and low heating capacity.

(2) Lignite is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content. The principal lignite reserves are in Naively in Tamil Nadu and are used far generation of electricity.

(3) Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures is bituminous coal. It is the most popular coal in commercial use. Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.

(4) Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal.

(5) In India, coal occurs in rocks series of two main geological ages, namely Godwin, a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are about 55 million years old. Godwin coal is located in Deodar Valley. Tertiary coals occur is Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

Very Short Answers:-

1.How are to bar gas plants’ beneficial to the farmers?                       

Ans. Goober gas plants provide twin benefits to the farmers in the form of energy and improved quality of manure.

2.Why should the use of cattle cake as fuel be discouraged?                      

 Ans. The use of cattle cake as fuel should be discouraged because it consumes most ‘equable manure which could be used in agriculture.

3.What is contained in the monazite sand?

Ans. Thorium is contained in the monazite sand.

4.Name two places where geo-thermal projects are located in India.

Ans. Parfait Valley in Himachal Pradesh and Pug Valley in Latah.

5.Which nuclear power plant is located in Tamil Nadu?

 Ans. Kalpak am

6.India is referred to as a ‘Super Power’ in the world in which non-conventional sources of energy?

Ans. Wind Power

7.What does the decomposition of organic matter yield?

Ans. Gas

8.Which nuclear power plant is located in Rajasthan?

 Ans. Rabat Bhatia

9.Where does the largest wind farm cluster is located?

 Ans. Tamil Nadu

10.Which nuclear power plant is located in Uttar Pradesh?

Ans. Nar aura

11.In which state is Kaila nuclear power plant located?

Ans. Karnataka

12.What are the raw materials used for manufacturing of biogas?

Ans. Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas.

 Short Answers:-

1.Which is the most efficient source of energy for rural India? Describe any two benefits of it.

Ans. (1) Firewood and cattle dung cake are the most efficient sources of energy for rural India.

 (2) According to one estimate, more than 70 per cent energy requirement in rural households is met by these two sources of energy. Benefits of this energy:

(i) It is used as a source of energy. (ii) It improves the quality of manure.

2.Distinguish between Biogas and Natural gas.

Ans.

(1) Biogas is the man-made energy resource.

(2) It is prepared by using shrubs, farm above the oil (petroleum).

(3) It is used as an industrial raw material in rural areas in the petrochemical industry.

(4) Natural gas reserves are found in rural areas.

(5) Use of compressed natural gas for It improves the quality of manure popularity in the country

Long Answers:-

1.Mention any six non-conventional sources of energy.

Ans. Non-conventional sources of energy are as follows:

(1)Nuclear or Atomic Energy: (i) It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms.

(ii) When such an alteration is made, much energy is released in the form of heat and this is used to generate electric power.

(2) Solar Energy: (i) Photovoltaic technology convert sunlight directly into electricity. (ii) Solar energy it fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas.

(3) Wind Power: (i) India have great potential of wind power. (ii) The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai.

(4) Biogas: (1) Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas. (ii) Biogas plants provide twin benefits to the farmers in the form of energy and improved quality of manure.

(5) Tidal Energy: (i) Oceanic tides are used to generate electricity. (ii) In India the Gulf of Khambhat, the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat and Genetic delta in Sunder ban regions of West Bengal provide ideal conditions for utilizing tidal energy

(6) Geo-thermal Energy: (i) Goo-thermal energy refer to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth. (ii) Geo-thermal energy exists because; the Earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth.

2.What is meant by geothermal energy and how is it produced? Explain.          

Or

Define geothermal energy. How does this energy exist?

Ans. (1) Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth.

(2) (i) Geothermal energy exists because, the Earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth. (a) Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths.

(iii) Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot.

(iv) It is so hot that when it rises to the earth’s surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity. There are several hundred hot springs in India, which could be used to generate electricity. Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy—(i) Parfait Valley in Himachal Pradesh; and (ii) Pug Valley, Latah.

3.Mention the two most widely used sources of energy in rural India. Why is their usage being discouraged? Give any two reasons.                            

 Ans. (1) Firewood and cattle dung cake are the most widely used sources of energy in rural India. According to one estimate, more than 70% energy requirement in rural households is met by these two sources of energy.

(2) Their usage is being discouraged for the following reasons:

(i) The continuation of these two sources of energy is increasingly becoming difficult due to decreasing forest areas.

(ii) Moreover, using dung cake too is being discouraged because it consumes most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture.

4.In which state of India, the largest wind farm cluster is located? Explain any two benefits of this energy.                                                                                                                                    

Ans. (1) The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai.

(2) Two benefits of this energy: (i) It is a renewable source of energy.

(ii) It is pollution-free and eco-friendly.

5.How is tidal energy produced? Mention the area which provides ideal conditions for producing tidal energy.                             

Or

 How is tidal energy produced? State the major area of its availability.

Ans. (1) (i) Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity. (ii) Floodgate dams are built across inlets.

(iii) During high tide, water flows into the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed.

(iv) After the tide falls outside the gate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea via a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine.

(2) In India, the Gulf of Kutch, provides ideal conditions for utilizing tidal energy.

6.How can solar energy solve the energy problem to some extent in India? Give your BOO.

Or

 “Solar energy has a bright future in India.” Support the statement with suitable

Ans. (1) Being a tropical country there are enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy in India.

 (2) Solar energy is fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas.

(3) The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur, near Buhl, where solar energy is used to sterilize milk cans.

(4) Increasing use of fuels have caused serious environmental problems.

(5) It is expected that use of solar energy will be able to minimize the dependence of rural households on firewood’s and dung cakes.

(6) It will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.

7.Explain any five reasons for the importance of non-conventional soul.

Or

Why do non-conventional sources of energy have a bright future? Explain any five reasons.

Ans. The use of non-conventional sources of energy is becoming necessary because: (1) The growing consumption of energy has resulted in the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas.

 (2) Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future, which in turn, has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy.

(3) Moreover, increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems.

(4) India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water, wind and biomass.

(5) Non-conventional sources of energy are less expensive and renewable.

8.How is nuclear or atomic energy obtained? Write any one use of it. Which minerals are used to obtain this energy and mention any two states where these minerals are found?

 Ans. (1) Nuclear energy is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. When such an alteration is made, much energy is released in the form of heat.

(2) It is used to generate electric power.

(3) Uranium and Thorium are used to obtain nuclear energy.

(4) Uranium and Thorium are found in Jharkhand and Ravalli ranges of Rajasthan.

 (5) The Monazite sands of Kerala is also rich in Thorium.

9.Explain the importance of biogas for the rural people in India.

Ans. (1) Biogas plants can be easily set up in rural India because the raw material required for these plants like shrubs, farm wastes, animal and human wastes are available in rural areas.

(2) Biogas plants are set up at municipal, co-operative and individual levels.

 (3) Biogas plants provide twin benefits to the farmer in the form of energy and improved quality of manure.

(4) Biogas is by far the most efficient use of cattle dung.

(5) It improves the quality of manure and also prevents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of firewood and cow dung cake.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES

Long Answers:-

1.Define non-conventional sources of energy. How these energy sources are helpful in environmental conservation? Explain.                      

 Ans. (1) Non-conventional sources of energy: solar, wind, geo-thermal, tidal and biogas are called non-conventional sources of energy.

(2) These energy sources are helpful in environmental conservation in the following ways: (i) Non-conventional sources of energy are less expensive and renewable.

(ii) Natural gas is considered an environmental friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions. It does not cause air pollution or environmental degradation. Thus, it is the fuel for the present century.

(iii) Renewable energy technologies provide an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission and reducing global warming through substituting conventional energy sources.

(iv)They are considered as clean sources of energy and optimal use of these resources minimize environmental impact and produce minimum secondary waste.

2.Why should we conserve natural resources? Explain any three reasons.

Ans. (1) Natural resources like minerals require million of years to be created and concentrated. The geological process of mineral formation is very slow in comparison to the present rate of consumption.

(2) Natural resources are basic requirement for economic development. Every sector needs one or the other natural resource for its running.

 (3) Resources are mostly finite and non-renewable.

 (4) Continued extraction of resource leads to increasing cost as mineral extraction comes from greater depth along with decrease in quality.

 (5) India is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. We have to adopt a cautious approach for judicious use of limited resources.

3.’Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of sustainable energy.’ Analyze two reasons and any one way for the sustainable energy development.                                              

 Ans. (1) Reasons for the sustainable energy development: (i) Energy is a basic requirement for economic development.

 (ii) Every sector of national economy — agriculture, industry and service, needs inputs of energy.

(iii) Economic development plans require increasing amounts of energy to remain operational.

 (iv) Consumption of energy in all forms has been steadily rising all over the country.

(v) Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortage have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future.

(2) We should promote greater use of non-conventional sources of energy.

4.What measures can be adopted for conservation of energy in India?  

Or

Suggest five measures for the conservation of Energy Resources.

Or

 In the present day energy crisis what steps will you like to take for saving energy?  

Or

 ‘Consumption of energy in all forms has been rising all over the country. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development and energy saving.’ Suggest and explain any three measures to solve this burning problem.                                                                                

 Ans. (1) We should adopt a cautious approach for the judicious uses of our limited energy resources.

(2) We should use public transport system.

(3) We must switch off electricity when not in use.

(4) Use of power saving devices may reduce energy consumption.

(5) We should check power equipments.

(6) Greater use of non-conventional sources of energy may be an effective measure for conservation of energy in India.

5.Differentiate between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.

Ans.

 6.Why do you think the development of sustainable path of energy is essential? Justify the statement, “The earth has enough resources to meet the need of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.”

 Ans. (1) The development of sustainable path of energy is the development of energy sources not only at present but it should be continued and maintained for future generations. That is, energy resources should be used judiciously.

(2) In this machine-age, the consumption of energy is steadily increasing all over the country. If this trend continues, the existing power resources will not last for long time.

 (3) Our earth has enough non-renewable resources to meet our present and future needs for development if we use them in an economic manner.

7.Assam with its extensive tea gardens and high production of crude oil has a lot of potential for growth of tourism. What values are associated with promotion of tourism?

Ans. (1) Prosperity: Tourism brings on a large amount of income into local economy 18 the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists. Thus, it improves the standard of life of local people.

(2) Cultural Exchange: It promotes cultural exchange because tourists bring with themselves their cultures.

(3) Promotion of National Integration: Tourism promotes national integration and also supports local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.

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