Ch. – 2- People as Resource- Extra Questions and Notes

By | October 24, 2019

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 9 social science, social science class 9 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the text. 

Chapter-2
People as Resource

Very Short Answers:-

1.Which resource is superior to all resources?
Ans. Human resource.

2. What is meant by human capital formation ?
Ans. When the existing human resource is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it human capital formation.

3. Which type of investment is known as human capital investment ?
Ans. The investment made in the form of education, training and medical care is known as human capital investment.

Short Answers:-

1. What do you understand by human capital formation ? Highlight two initiatives each of Indian government to enhance health and education facilities.
Ans. (1) When the existing ‘human resource’ is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it human capital formation that adds to the productive power of the country just like physical capital formation.
(2) The improvement in the health status of the population has been the priority of the country. Over the last six decades, India has built up a vast health infrastructure.
(3) `Sarva Siksha Abhiyan’ is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all the children in the country. India’s IT revolution is striking instance of how the importance of human capital has acquired a higher position than that of material resources making the role of human capital significant in the production process.

2. Describe two revolutions taken place in Indian economy which prove that investment in human capital can bring higher position for the country.
Ans. (1) Indian’s Green Revolution is a dramatic example of how the input of greater knowledge in the form of improved production technologies can rapidly increase the productivity of scarce land resources.
(2)Also India’s Information and Technology (IT) revolution is a striking instance of how the importance of human capital has come to acquire a higher position than that of material plant and machinery.

3. Define human capital and human capital formation. Name any two sources of human capital formation.
Ans. (1) Human capital is the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in them.
(2) When the existing ‘human resource’ is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it human capital formation. This adds to the productive power of the country just like ‘physical capital formation’.
(3) These are the sources of human capital formation :
(i) Education
(ii) Health or medical care ; and
(iii) Training.

4. Explain the importance of human resource.

Or

“Development of population into human resource leads to development of nation.” Explain with three examples.
Ans. (1) Human resource is a way of referring to a country’s working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities.
(2) If human resource is developed with education and health, it becomes human capital that adds to productive power of the country.
(3) Even it is superior to other resources as it can make use of other resources — land, capital, etc.

5. What is meant by ‘People as Resource’ ? Explain how is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital ?

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How is human resource different from other factors of production ? Explain it in three points.

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Highlight the importance of human resource as compared to other resources.

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How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
Ans. (1) ‘People as resource’ is a way of referring to a country’s working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities.
(2)Human resource is different from land and capital because they only can make use of land and capital with their knowledge.
(3) They add to the productive power of the country whereas land and capital can not become useful on their own.

6. Explain any three differences between the physical and the human capital.

Or

Explain any three differences between physical capital and human capital.
Ans.
Physical Capital
Human Capital

(1) It is the variety of inputs required at every stage during production.

(2) Tools and machines, building, etc. can be used in production over many years.

(3) Tools, machines, generators etc. are examples of physical capital.
(1)Labour which works on the physical capital is called human capital.

(2) Human capital can produce the output because they have the experience to do a particular work.

(3) The human can go for any profession like farmers, farm labourers, factory workers, managers, officers, scientists, etc.

7. What is human capital formation? How has it helped India?
Ans. (1) When the existing ‘human resource’ is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it human capital formation.
(2)(i) It increases people’s level of productivity and efficiency as well as the productive power of the country
(ii) Information Technology (IT) revolution is, perhaps, the most important example of the application of human knowledge and skills.

Long Answers:-

1. “The nature of human resource is different from other resources like land and physical capital.” Justify the statement with special reference to a highly populated country like India.
Ans. The nature of human resource is different from other resources like land and physical capital in the following ways :
(1) Human resources can make use of land and capital. Land and capital cannot become useful on its own.
(2) For a highly populated country like India; for many decades a large population was considered a liability rather than an asset. It can be turned into a productive asset by investment in human capital through education, training, medical care, etc.
(3) Investment in human resource via education and medical care can have higher rate of return in future.
(4) Countries like Japan have invested in Human Resource especially in the field of education and health. These people have made efficient use of other resources like land and capital. Efficiency and technology have made these countries rich and developed.
(5) The advantages of a more educated or a healthier population spreads to those also who themselves were not directly educated or given healthcare.

2. Describe the role of human capital in the production process. Name two investments that can improve the quality of human capital.
Ans. (1) (i) Human capital is the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in the , maple. When the existing human resource is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it human capital formation.
(ii) This adds to the productive power of the country just like physical capital formation.
(iii) This an be directly seen in the form of higher incomes earned because of higher productivity of the more educated or the better trained persons as well as higher productivity of berithiser peopie.
(iv) It is the human resource that can make wise use of land and capital.
(2) Two martunents that can improve the quality of human capital are :
(i) Investment in education
(ii) Investment in healthcare

3.Haw can we say that people is a resource ? Give one positive and one negative aspect of a large population.
Ans.(1) People as a resource is a way of referring to a country’s working people in tents of then existing productive skills and abilities. The productive aspect of population emphasise, ra ability to contribute to the creation of Gross National Product. When the existing human regnant is developed by becoming more educated and healthy, it adds to the productive power of the crsultry just like physical capital formation. Hence, we can say that people are a resource.
(2) (i) Positive aspect : It has the ability to contribute to the Gross National Product like other resources. If the large populations are given good education and medical care along with training, their productive capacities are enhanced. More educated and healthier people can earn sore and contribute more to the economy.
(ii) Negative aspect : It creates the problems of providing the food, education and health facilities to the population.

4. ‘Poverty results in low nutrition which results in retarded growth and less development of skill. Such people become liability for the economy”. Justify the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. (1) The story of Vilas mentioned in the textbook proves that poverty results low nutrition which further results in retarded growth and less development of skill. Such people become liability for the economy.
(2) Vilas’s father Mahesh was a fisherman who passed away when he was only two years Vilas’s mother earned only 20 to 30 a day by selling fish.
(3) Vilas became a patient of arthritis. His mother could not afford to take him to the doctor. He could not go to school either.
(4)After sometime, his mother fell sick and there was no one to look after her. Vilas, too, was forced to sell fish in the same village and like his mother earned only a meagre income.
(5) This is absolutely true that illiterate and unhealthy population is a liability for the economy.

5. Give examples to prove that population is an asset for the economy rather than a liability.
Ans. (1) When the existing human resource is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it human capital formation that adds to the productive power of the economy just like physical capital formation.
(2)The secret of Japan’s phenomenal economic progress lies in its human capital. It has invested heavily in its human resource which is the most important resource.
(3) Careful investment on people especially in the field of education and health has helped in the human capital formation. It is Japan’s biggest asset. It has greatly added to the productive power of Japan.
(4) It is the human resource that can make wise use of land and capital. The later can not become useful on their own. The Japanese have made a very efficient use of their available resources like land and capital.
(5) In this way, Japan has converted its large population into a productive asset by investing on human capital, training of industrial and agricultural workers in the use of modern technology, useful scientific researches and so on.

6. How is investment in human capital similar to investment in physical capital ? Mention three similarities.

Or

What is meant by human capital formation ? How does investment in human capital yield a return just like investment in physical capital ? Explain by giving examples.
Ans. Investment in human capital is similar to investment in physical capital.

This can be proved by the following facts :
(1) Human capital formation adds to the productive power of the country just like ‘physical capital formation’.
(2) Investment in human capital through education, training, medical care, yields a return just like investment in physical capital. This can be seen directly in the form of higher incomes earned because of higher productivity of the more educated or the better trained persons as well as the higher productivity of healthier people.
(3) Not only do the more educated and the healthier people gain through higher incomes, the society also gains in other indirect ways as in the case of physical capital. This is because, the advantages of more educated or a healthier population spreads to those also who themselves were not directly educated or given healthcare.

7. Define human capital formation. Explain any four benefits of investment in human capital.
Ans. (1) When the exisiting `human resource’ is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it human capital formation.
(2) The following are the benefits of investment in human capital :
(i) More educated or the better trained persons or the healthier people earn higher income.
(ii) These people have higher productivity.
(iii) Not only do the more educated and the healthier people gain through higher incomes, the society also gains in other indirect ways.
(iv) As a result of investment in human capital, largo population becomes productive assets.
(v) Skilled and trained people are able to use other resources more efficiently.

8. “Human resource is an indispensable factor of production.” Justify.
Ans. (1) Human resource is an indispensable factor of every economic activity.
(2) Every productive activity needs land, labour, physical capital and human capital as its
factors of production. Out of these factors of production, labour and human capital are human factors (resource). Without these factors, productive activities are not possible.
(3) Human resource is not only the essential factor of production but it also activates other factors of production.
(4) The quality of human resource is the symbol of the economic and social status of people. As such, human development requires improvement.
(5) The healthy, educated, efficient and skilled people are the asset of the nation, whereas, unhealthy, uneducated, inefficient and unskilled people are a burden.

9. In what way is the human capital superior to other sources like physical capital? How can a large population be turned into productive assets? Explain any four methods.

Or

Why is human capital considered superior to other resources like land and physical capital? Name the factors that affect the quality of population. Explain how these factors help in human capital formation?
Ans. (1) Human capital is considered superior to the other resources like land and physical capital because the human resource can make use of land and capital but land and capital cannot become useful on their own.
(2)(i) The factors that affect the quality of population are: education and health.
(ii) When the human resource is developed providing more education and better health facilities, it is called human capital formation.
(iii) It adds to the productive power of the country. The more educated and healthier people are capable of higher productivity and they gain higher incomes.
(iv) In this way, by providing education, health facilities, training to use new technology and scientific research, a large population can be turned into productive assets.

10. Explain how investment in education creates the virtuous cycle of human development.

Or

What does a ‘virtuous cycle’ created by educated parents mean? Explain.
Ans. (1) A child, too, with investments made on her/his education and health can yield a high return in future and contribute more to society.
(2) Educated parents invest more heavily on the education of their children.
(3) This is because they realize the importance of education.
(4) They are also conscious of the importance of proper nutrition and hygiene.
(5) A virtuous cycle is, thus, created.

11. People are the greatest resource that a country has. Explain.

Or

Why is human resource important for development?
Ans. (1) The ‘working people’ make the most important segment of the population of a country. When we talk about people as ‘resource’, we refer to particularly this productive working Population.
(2)(i) It is the productive skills and abilities of the people that this productive population contribute to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
(ii) The GDP refers to the total value of all goods and services produced by a country in one year.
(3) People become the greatest resource or an asset of a country when we make an Investment in their education, training and healthcare.
(4) Investment turns people into human capital.
(5) It is the human resource that makes use of land and physical capital. The later cannot become useful on their own.

12. Japan has a scarcity of natural resources yet it is a developed and rich country. Describe briefly three steps that helped Japan to become a developed country.

Or

Despite the insufficient availability of natural resources, Japan has emerged as a rich and developed nation.’ Justify the statement with three significant factors responsible for making Japan rich.
Ans. (1) The secret of Japan’s phenomenal economic progress lies in its human capital. It has invested heavily in its human resource which is the most important resource.
(2) Its existing dedicated human resource has been further developed by becoming more educated and healthy.
(3) Careful investment in people especially in the field of education and health has helped in the human capital formation. It is Japan’s biggest asset. It has greatly added to the productive power of Japan.
(4) It is the human resource that can make wise use of land and capital. The latter cannot become useful on their own. The Japanese have made very efficient use of their available resources like land and capital.
(5) Japan has converted its large population into a productive asset by investing in human capital, training of industrial and agricultural workers in the use of modern technology, useful scientific researches and so on.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES BY MEN AND WOMEN

Very Short Answers:-

1. Name any two tertiary activities.
Ans. (1) Trade, (2) Banking.

2. In which sector are transport and communication included?
Ans. Transport and communication fall under the tertiary sector.

3. Name any one activity of the secondary sector.
Ans. Manufacturing of the product.

4. State three main determinants of earning of an individual in the market.
Ans. Three main determinants of earning of an individual in the market are.
( 1) Education, (2) Skill, and (3) Training.

5.Banking is included in which sector of activity?
Ans. The tertiary sector.

6.Which activity falls under tertiary activity?
Ans. Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services. insurance, etc. are included in the tertiary sector.

7.Which sector includes manufacturing?
Ans. The secondary sector.

8. Name any two economic activities associated with the secondary sector.
Ans. (1) Manufacturing; and (2) Quarrying

9. Which category, the activity of a mother cooking for her children is put to?
Ans. Non-economic activities.

10. What is a non-market activity ?
Ans. Non-market activities are the activities associated with the production for self-consumption.

Short Answers:

1. Which is the most labour absorbing sector of the Indian economy? What trend has been recently noticed in terms of dependence of population on this sector and what is the reason for that?
Ans. (1) Agriculture is the most labour absorbing sector of the Indian economy.
(2) The trend is noticed that there has been a decline in the dependence of the population on the agriculture sector.
(3) This has been mainly because of low productivity, seasonal unemployment and disguised unemployment in this sector. Some of the surplus-labour in agriculture has moved to either the secondary or the tertiary sector. Non-farm activities have become the source of earning for even the landless labourers.

2. In India, female workforce participation is seriously low. Explain the reasons for this.
Ans. (1) Due to historical and cultural reasons, there is a division of labour between men and women in the family. Women generally look after domestic chores and men work in the olds or workplaces.


(2) Women are not paid for their service delivered in the family. Their work is not accounted In the National Income which is a sum total of goods and services produced in a country.
(3) Education and skill are the major determinants of the earnings of any individual in the market. A majority of women have meagre education and low skill formation. So, their participation in the workforce is very low.

3. Explain any two differences between economic and non-economic activities.

Or

Explain any three differences between economic and non-economic activities.
Ans.
Economic activity Non-economic activity
(1) The activity which gives us income in return is called economic activity.

(2) Aims of this activity are to get income.

(3) Examples: Rickshaw-pulling, cleaning house for money, selling vegetables, work in factories, hospitals, banks, farms, etc.

(1) The activity which does not give us any income in return is called non-economic activity.

(2) Aims of this activity are not to get income.

(3) Examples: Doing social work, helping the poor, educating the illiterate without any charge, the work of social reformers.

Long Answers:-
1. Besides the biological fact that women are not less capable to work, still they have been witnessing severe discrimination in terms of wages. Describe its reasons and explain how they can obtain the same status as men.
Ans. (1) Despite woman workforce is equally capable of men, they witness severe discrimination in terms of wages due to the following reasons :
(i)Education and skill are the major determinants of the earning of any individual in the market. Majority of women have meagre education and low skill formation which results in lower wages compared to men.
(ii) Due to cultural and historical reasons, there is a division of labour between men and women in family. Women generally look after domestic chores and men work in the field and workplace. As a result, women are not paid for their services delivered in the family and it is not counted in National Income.
(iii) Absence of job security and basic facilities like maternity leave, childcare, etc. other social security systems are also important reasons for women witnessing discrimination.
(iv) Legal protection is also meagre in the unorganised sector.
(2)(i) Emphasis should be given on girl education, improving their health and social status as the female literacy rate is much lower than that of the male.
(ii) Creating safety for women at workplace can enormously increase women participation in the workforce.
(iii) Skill development programmes for girls should be started and implemented honestly.

2. How have the various activities been classified into sectors ? Give one example of each sector.

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In what ways various economic activities have been classified into sectors ? Give one example of each sector.

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Explain three types of economic activities with example.

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What are the various activities are undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?

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What is meant by economic activities? Describe the three types of economic activities and give one example of each.

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What is the rationale of dividing all economic activities into primary sector, secondary sector and the tertiary sectors? Explain with examples.
Ans. (1) Those activities that add value to the national income are called economic activities. On the basis of the occupational structure, the various activities have been classified into three main categories or sectors, i.e., the primary, the secondary and the tertiary sectors.
(2)(i) The Primary Sector: It comprises activities that are directly concerned or associated with procuring or producing things from materials provided by nature. Examples of primary sector activities are agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry, farming, mining and quarrying.
(ii) The Secondary Sector: When the primary goods are processed to produce other goods, this activity is then known as secondary sector activity. Processing may be done manually or by machines. Manufacturing is included in the secondary sector. It implies making things or goods on a large scale.
(iii) The Tertiary Sector: For the effective functioning of these two sectors, we need a network of strong and developed support services which are called tertiary activities. Trade, transport, communication, education, banking, health, tourism, services, insurance, etc. are included in the tertiary sector. All these activities add value to the National Income.

3. Explain any three differences between market activities and non-market activities. Under which activity would you classify government services?

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Explain any three differences between market and non-market activities.

Or

What are the economic activities? What are the differences between market and non-market activities?

Or

Distinguish between market and non-market activities.

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What are the two types of economic activity? State two characteristics of each.
Ans. (1) Any activity which adds value to National Income is called economic activity. Two Ps of economic activities are as follows
(2)
(i) Market activities (ii) Non-market activities
(a) These economic activities involve remuneration or payment to anyone who does some creative or constructive work. Manufacturing, banking, construction work, etc. provide examples of market activities.

(b) These are socially useful activities which are performed for pay or profit.

(c) Market activities comprise the production of goods and services.

(d) Goods may be produced in the secondary sectors. Services may be both with public and non-market activities. (a) These economic activities involve production for self-consumption.

(b) These are not done for pay or profit.

(c) These activities generally comprise consumption and processing of primary products. They may lead to the production of some fixed assets.

(d) The household activities performed within the domestic domain are included in the Social work is also the private sectors. included in this category.

(3) Since the very purpose of the government services is the welfare of the common people, these can be classified as non-market activities.

QUALITY OF POPULATION

Very Short Answers:
1. What enhances the National Income, cultural richness and the efficiency of governance?
Ans. Education enhances the National Income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.

2. Santa Shiksha Abhiyan is a significant step towards providing education to children of which age group?
Ans. Six to fourteen years.

3. Which state has poor health indices and a few medical colleges?

Or

Name two states of India which have poor health indices and a few medical colleges.
Ans. Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

4. What is Infant Mortality Rate?
Ans. Infant Mortality Rate indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1,000 live children born in that particular year.

5.What is the main aim of `Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’?
Ans. To provide elementary education to all the children in the age group of 6-14 years.

6. What was the expenditure percentage of GDP in 1951-52 on education?
Ans. 0.64%

7.Which state has the highest literacy rate in India?
Ans. Kerala.

8. What is Birth Rate?
Ans. Birth Rate is the number of babies born there for every 1,000 people during a particular period of time.

9. Why had `Mid-day Meal Scheme’ been implemented?
Ans. Mid-day Meal Scheme is to provide some nutritional food to the students during the day.

10. What do you mean by the Death Rate?
Ans. The death rate is the number of people per 1,000 who die during a particular period of time.

Short Answers:-
1. Which two states in India have poor health facilities in comparison with others? State the ways by which health facilities in these states can be improved.
Ans. (1) The states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India have poor health facilities in comparison with others.
(2)(i) The government expenditure on health should be increased.
(ii) The private sector should play important role in its social responsibility and Contribute to building up health infrastructure especially on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model.
(iii)People should be made aware of the importance of health in their life and encouraged to keep sanitation and avail health facilities.

2. How can education contribute towards the growth of society? Explain in three prints.
Ans. (1) Education contributes significantly towards the growth of society. It plays an important role in developing the existing human resource into human capital formation. It further add-a to the productive power of a nation.
(2) It opens new horizons for an individual. It provides new aspiration and develops the value of life.
(3) Not only to an individual, but education contributes towards the growth of society also. It enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of the government.

3. State the aim of Tenth Plan with regard to higher education. What strategy is being followed to attain it?
Ans. (1) The aim of Tenth Plan with regard to higher education is to increase the enrolment in higher education of the 18 to 23 years age group from the present 6% to 9% by the end of the plan period.
(2) The following strategy is being followed to attain it :
(i) The strategy focuses on increasing access, quality, adoption of states-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology.
(ii) The plan also focuses on distant education, the convergence of formal, non-formal, distant and IT education institutions.

4. Explain any two factors on which the quality of the population depends.
Ans. These are the factors on which the quality of population depends :

(1) Literacy Rate: It measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group. It indicates the education level of the country. Education adds to the productive power of a nation. It provides vital input for the growth of one’s personality. Better knowledge and skills provided by education greatly help in the better utilization of a country’s natural resources.
(2) Life Expectancy at birth: It denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. It indicates the health of a person of the country. A healthy worker is able to devote more time to his work. His good health enables him to work more efficiently. A healthy person has more strength, energy and stamina to do any work. His health helps him to realize his potential and mission in life.

5. Why will a firm not like to employ a worker having ill-health? How does it affect the

Or

“Illiterate and unhealthy population are a liability for the economy”. Justify the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. (1) (i) The main objective of a firm is to maximise its profit. So, any firm would not like to employ a worker having ill-health because he/she may not work efficiently as a healthy worker due to ill-health.
(ii) An unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organisation or the economy.
(2) It affects the working environment adversely. An unhealthy person can infect healthy persons of the organisation also.
6. What is the Mid-day Meal Scheme? Explain any two of its purposes.
Ans. (1) Mid-day Meal Scheme is to provide some nutritional food to students during the day.
2(i) Mid-day Meal Scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children in schools.
(ii) It aims at improving the nutritional status of the children. This policy could add to the literate population of India.

7. What are the differences between the working conditions of educated and uneducated women ? Mention any three of them.
Ans.
Uneducated women
Educated women

(1) Because of low skill formation, they are paid low as compared to men.

(2) They work where job security is not there, activities relating to legal protection is meagre, irregular and low income.

(3) There is an absence of basic facilities like maternity leave, childcare and other social security systems.
(1) They are paid at par with the men.

(2) They work in the organized sector, are paid high salary and have job security

(3) They have basic facilities like maternity leave, childcare and other social security systems.

Long Answers:-
1. Skill formation is one of the major instruments for improving the quality of population. Write the steps taken by the Government of India for the same.
Ans. Government of India has taken several initiatives in this direction which are as under:
(1) There is a provision made for providing universal access, retention and quality in education with special emphasis on girls.
(2) There is also an establishment of pace-setting of schools like Navodaya Vidyalayas in each district.
(3) Vocational streams have been developed to equip large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills. The plan outlay on education has increased from Z 151 crore in the First Plan to? 3,766.90 crore in the Eleventh Plan.
(4) The Eleventh Plan has endeavoured to increase in enrolment in higher education of the 18 to 23 years age group to 15% by 2011-12 and to 21% by Twelfth Plan. The strategy focuses on increasing access, qualities, adoption of states-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of Information Technology.
(5) The plan also focuses on distant education, convergence of formal, non-formal, distant and IT education institutions. Over the past 60 years, there has been significant growth in the number of university and institutions of higher learning in specialised areas.

2. On the one hand India is getting popularity for its medical tourism and on the other side life expectancy in our country is very low. Suggest some measures to get rid of this imbalanced status.
Ans. (1) Basic health facilities should be provided at reasonable prices to common people.
(2) The number of government health/medical institutions should be increased for poor people.
(3) The treatment of chronic diseases should be at subsidised rate and the malpractices and high charges by private practitioners should be chocked.
(4) Medical facilities should be improved especially in remote rural areas. Doctors should be encouraged to go there.
(5) People shot be aware for the importance of hygiene and their health

3. How education and skill formation are the major determinants of the earning of any individual in the market? Explain.
Ans. (1) Several Years of education add to the quality of labour”. This enhances his total productivity.
(2) Ital productivity adds to the growth of the economy. This, in turn, pays an individual through salary or in some other form of his choice.
(3) Investment in human resource via education, skill and medical care, can give high rates of return in the future. This investment in people is the same as investment in hand and capital.
(4) Education helps individuals to make better use of the economic opportunities available before him.
(5) As we saw, education was an important input for the growth of Sakal. It opened. new horizon for him provided new aspiration and developed values of life. Education.contributes towards the growth of society also. It enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.

4. Analyse the data and give a reason for such a high success in increasing education infrastructure and enrolment.

Year No. of universities Students Teachers No. of colleges
1950-51 30 2,63,000 24,000 750
2012-13 723 28,00,000 4, 00092, (in 2007-08) 37,204

Ans. (1) (i) The above table shows the phenomenal rise in the number of universities, colleges, students and teachers between 1950-51 and 2012-13.
(ii) The number of universities rose from 30 to 723 i.e., 2410%.
(iii) Students increased from 2,63,000 to 28,00,000 i.e., 1065%.
(v) The number of teachers also increased by 2050% during this period.
(vi) Similarly, the number of colleges increased from 750 to 37,204 i.e., 4961%.
(2) Such a high success in increasing education infrastructure and enrolment has the following reasons :
(i) The plan outlay on education has increased from t 151 crore in the First Plan to 3,766.90 crores in the Eleventh Plan.
(ii) The expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP rose from 0.64% in 1951-52 to 3.3% in 2013-14.
(iii) There is a provision made for providing universal access, retention and quality in Lary education with a special emphasis on girls.
(iv) There is also an establishment of pace-setting of schools like Navodaya Vidyalaya in each district.
(v) The Eleventh Plan endeavoured to increase the enrolment in higher education of the, n to 23 years age group to 15% to 2011-12 and to 21% by twelfth Plan. access, quality, adoption of states specific curriculum
(vi) The strategy focuses on increasing Modification vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology

5. Female literacy rate in India is still far behind the men. What are the reasons for it Explain?
Ans. (1) Parents do not consider girls as earning members of family, as after marriage, they have to leave their parents’ house. So, their education is just considered as wastage of money and time. For this reason, parents prefer to send boys to schools but not girls specially in rural areas. In urban areas the scenario is fast changing.
(2) Poverty is the root cause of many problems in India and also of low female literacy rate. More than 1/3rd population of India is living below the poverty line.
(3) Though government is putting efforts to make primary education compulsory and free, parents are yet not ready to send their girls to schools. They lack in awareness.
(4) In most of rural/tribal/remote areas lack of easy accessibility to school is another reason for low female literacy rate.
(5) Another barrier to female education in India is the lack of female teachers. As India is still gender-segregated society, it is a very important factor in low female literacy rate in India. But in spite of all reasons, we should encourage the girl child in getting education to create balanced and educated society.

6. ‘Healthy and educated people help to maintain a sophisticated society and developed nation.” Support the statement with five arguments.
Ans. This statement is strongly supported by giving the following five arguments :
(1)Education and health add to the quality of labour. This enhances his total productivity. Total productivity adds to the growth of the economy. This in turn, pays an individual through salary.


(2) Healthy and educated people enter the higher end and well-paid job markets.
(3) They are employed in white-collar jobs and maintain a higher social strata.
(4)The developed nations are known by their investment in education and health resulting in higher productive capacities.
(5) The educated and healthy people are sophisticated and provide higher education and health care to their family and children too.

7. ‘Training and education play an important role in treating population as an asset for a country? Justify.
Ans. (1) Human resource is the most significant resource compared to land and capital as it uses the physical resources efficiently.
(2) Population, especially in developing nations, is abnormally large, it is essential to improve the quality of population and turn it from a liability to an asset.
(3) Training and education play a pivotal role in improving the quality of population so that the large population becomes an asset and contribute to the productive aspects of population. This is because, education and skill are the major determinants of the earning of any individual in the market.

8. Rural areas have been witnessing low literacy rate in comparison to urban area which will result in low development of rural economy. Mention the steps taken to improve literacy rates in rural areas.
Ans. (1) People should be made aware of the important* of education, in rural areas.
(2) Schools should be opened in every village.
(3) ranchers should be encouraged to go to remote rural areas.
(4) Vocational education should be encouraged. The government should equip a large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
(5) There should be special provision for providing universal access, retention and quality in elementary education with a special emphasis on girls. Mid-day meal scheme should be implemented strictly to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status.

9. Which five-year plan focuses on higher education and technical education? Describe its aim and strategy.
Ans. (1) The Eleventh Five Year Plan focuses on higher education and technical education.
(2)(i) The Eleventh Plan endeavoured to increase the enrolment in higher education of the 18-23 years age group to 15% by 2011-12 and 21% by Twelfth Plan.
(ii) The strategy focuses on increasing access, quality, adoption of states-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology
(iii) The plan also focuses on distant education, the convergence of formal, non-formal, distant and IT education institutions.
(iv) Over the past 60 years, there has been significant growth in the number of university and institutions of higher learning in specialised areas.

10. Describe the educational achievements in India since independence.
Ans. (1) There is a provision made for providing universal access, retention and quality of elementary education with a special emphasis on girls.
(2) There is also an establishment of pace-setting of schools like Navodaya Vidyalaya in each district.
(3) Vocational streams have been developed to equip a large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
(4) The plan outlay on education has increased from 151 crores in the First Plan to Z 43,825 crore in the Tenth Plan.
(5) The literacy rates have increased from 18% in 1951 to 65% in 2001. Serve Siksha Abhiyan is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years.

11.
Year Doctors Nursing personnel Beds Hospital and dispensaries
1951 61,800 18,054 1,17,198 9,209
2001 5,03,900 7,37,000 8,70,161 43,322

Above data shows development in health infrastructures in Indira. Analyse reasons behind it.
Ans. (1) The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness.
(2) Health is an indispensable basis for realising one’s well-being. Henceforth, improvement in the health status of the population has been the priority of the country.
(3) Our national health policy, too, aimed at improving the accessibility of healthcare, family welfare, and nutritional service with special focus on underprivileged segment of population.
That is why, over the last some decades, India has built up a vast health infrastructure and manpower required at primary, secondary and tertiary care in Government as well as in the private sectors.

12. Explain the role of health in human capital formation.
Ans. (1) Healthier people have higher productivity. The health of a person helps him. to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness.
(2) Health is an indispensable basis for realizing one’s well-being- On the other band 4r, the unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organization indeed.
(3) It is seen that a healthy worker is able to devote more time to his work. His good heat enables him to work more efficiently.
(4) A healthy person has more strength, energy and stamina to do any work. His health helps him to realize his potential and mission in life.
(5) His health provides the ability to fight illness and overcome many difficulties in life He becomes an asset for any organisation and the nation as well.
(6) An improvement or investment in the health status of the population leads to human capital formation.

13. How does the quality of the population decide the growth rate of the country?

Or

Explain any three factors on which the quality of the population depends.
Ans. (1) The quality of the population certainly decides the growth rate of the country It depends upon the literacy rate, health of a person indicated by life expectancy and skill formation acquired by the people of the country. A literate and healthy population is an asset for the economy.
(2) More educated, better-trained persons and healthier people have higher product’s So. they earn higher income.
(3) A literate and healthy population can utilize natural resources m the best possible mariner Better knowledge and skills provided by education greatly help in the better utilization el a country’s natural resources.
(4) It contributes to the growth of society and enhances cultural richness.
(5) It is seen that a healthy worker is able to devote more time to his work. His good health enables him to work more efficiently. A healthy person has more strength, energy and mamba to do any work. His health helps him to realize his potential and mission in life.

14. What all efforts have been taken by the government in the field of education?

Or

Describe any three steps taken by the government in the field of education.

Or

Describe any three policies of the Indian Government in the field of education.

Or

Describe the provisions made by the Indian Government for the development of education and health ore sector for the growth of society.

Or

Education has been one of our goals in five-year plans. It contributes to the growth of society. Explain the statement.
Ans. (1) The government has made a provision for providing universal access, retention and quality in elementary education with a special emphasis on girls. The policy of the government focuses on increasing access, quality, adoption of state-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of IT.
(2) There has been universalisation of free and compulsory elementary education.
(3) The expenditure on education as ap percentage of GDP has risen. It was 0.64% in 1951-52 that rose to 3.98% in 2002-03.
(4) The government focuses on distant education, reducing gender gaps and enrolment in higher education.
(5) There is also an establishment in the pace of setting up of schools like Navodaya Vidyalaya in each district. The government has also launched Sarva Siksha Abhiyan that is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of six to fourteen years.

15. Mention any five steps in the Tenth Five Year Plan to increase enrolm education.

Or

Describe the role of the Tenth Five Year Plan in increasing enrolment in higher education of the 18 to 23 years age group.
Ans. The following are the important steps taken in the Tenth Five Year Plan to increase enrolment in higher education :
(1) The Tenth Plan endeavoured to increase the enrolment in higher education from the present 6% to 9% by the end of the plan period.
(2) The planning strategy focuses on increasing access, quality, adoption of states-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology.
(3) The plan also focuses on distant education, the convergence of formal, non-formal, distant and IT education institutions.
(4) Special emphasis has been given on vocationalisation of education.
(5) There has been significant growth in the number of university and institutions of higher learning in specified areas.

16. “Education is a very important input for the growth of India”. Justify the statement.
Ans. Education is really a very important input for the growth of India. This has the following reasons :
(1) Education opens a new horizon for the people, provides new aspiration and develops values of life.
(2) It contributes towards the growth of society also.
(3) It enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.
(4) Education develops the existing human resource into human capital formation. It further adds to the productive power of a nation.
(5) It provides vital input for the growth of one’s personality. Better knowledge and skill provided by education greatly help in the better utilization of a country’s natural resources.

17. State the importance of improving the accessibility of healthcare facilities in a country.

Or

“Health should be treated as an important asset for human capital.” Analyse the statement with reference to our national health policy.
Ans. The importance of improving the accessibility of healthcare facilities in a country are as follows :
(1) The accessibility of healthcare facilities in a country will improve the health status of a country.
(2) A healthy worker is able to devote more time to his work. His good health enables him to work more efficiently.
(3) A healthy person has more strength, energy and stamina to do any work. His health helps him to realize his potential and mission in life.
(4) His health provides the ability to fight illness and overcome many difficulties in life. He becomes an asset for any organisation and the nation as well.
(5) Healthier the people, the more they work, the more they produce and earn. In this way, hit helps to increase the income of the country

18. Describe five unfavourable effects of population growth in a country like India.
Ans. (1) Population growth increases pressure on land. It increases labour force that further puts pressure on the single most important natural resource i.e., land in an agrarian economy like India.
(2) It increases the burden on the availability of food, health, education and other public facilities. problems of feeding the growing population become immense.
(3) The natural disasters of flood or drought are more damaging as the population grows.
(4) As the population grows, there is underutilisation of the labour force in the country.
(5) Unchecked growth in population causes a vicious cycle in the society. Also, the rising population of unemployed young people is prone to adopt anti-social activities.

19. How can literacy rate improve the quality of a population? Give five arguments in support of your answer.

Or

What are the advantages of education?
Ans. (1) Education adds to the productive power of a nation. So, it offers a good job and salary.
(2) It opens a new horizon for an individual, provides new aspiration and develops good values of life.
(3) It provides vital input for the growth of one’s personality. Literacy rate and skill formation greatly help in the better utilisation of a country’s natural resources.
(4) Education contributes towards the growth of society and enhances the national income.
(5) It also enhances personal income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.

20. How does education play an important role in ‘human capital’ formation? Express your viewpoints.

Or

Education is an important tool to convert a human into human capital.” Justify the statement.

Or

What is the role of education in human capital formation?
Ans. (1) Education plays an important role in human capital formation. It adds to the Productive power of a nation.
(2) It provides a vital input for the growth of one’s personality. Education and skill formation greatly help in the better utilisation of a country’s natural resources.
(3) Education opens new horizon for an individual, provides new aspiration and develops good values of life.
(4) It contributes to the growth of society and enhances its cultural richness.
(5) It also enhances the personal income and the efficiency of governance.

21. Mention any three steps taken by government to improve literacy rate in India.

Or

Highlight the steps taken by the government to improve the literacy level in India.
Ans. (1) Navodaya Vidyalayas have been set up.
(2) Vocational streams have been developed.
(3) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has been launched.
(4) The government has taken several measures to increase the enrolment rate at elementary level.
(5) There has been provision for Mid-day Meal to encourage attendance.

22. “When the skilled manpower is not physically fit for work, there will be loss of national productivity and bring the situation of the global burden of disease .” In light of this statement, explain the role of health in human capital formation.
Ans. (1) Role of health : (i) The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness.
(ii) An unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organisation. Hence, it should be the priority of the country.
(iii) Our National Health Policy too aims at improving the accessibility of healthcare.
(2)Role of education : (i) Educated people earn higher incomes on account of higher productivity which adds to the growth of the economy.
(ii) It opens new horizons provides new aspirations and develops values of life.

23. Why has the improvement in the health status of the population been the basic priority of a country ? Give three reasons.

Or

Explain the need for healthcare facilities to have a healthy population in India.

Or

Describe the role of health in our lives. Give any three points.
Ans. (1) Health helps a person to realise his potential. Healthier the people, the more they work, the more they produce and earn.
(2) It provides the ability to fight illness.
(3) It proves to be an asset for the country
(4) It makes a person realise his well-being.
(5) It helps to increase the income of the country.

24. What do you understand by human capital formation? Highlight two initiatives each of Indian Government to enhance health and education facilities.
Ans. (1) When existing human resource gets developed by becoming more educated and healthy, it is called human capital formation that adds to the productive power of a country
(2) (i) Initiative to enhance education :
(a) The government has launched Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
(b) It has made provision for the Mid-day Meal Scheme.
(c) Navodaya Vidyalaya and vocational streams have been initiated.
(ii) Initiative to enhance health :
(a) It has taken various steps to improve the accessibility of healthcare and family welfare.
(b) It has made provisions for nutritional service, building health infrastructure.

25. Highlight the main elements of the National Health Policy. Describe any two achievements in this field.

Or

Mention any three features of National Health Policy.
Ans. (1) The main elements of the National Health Policy are as follows :
(i)It aims at improving the accessibility of healthcare.
(ii) It has provision for family welfare.
(iii) It provides for nutritional services with a special focus on underprivileged.
(2)Achievements : (i) Life Expectancy has increased.
(ii) Infant Mortality Rate has come down.
(iii) Death Rate has reduced.
(iv) Birth Rate has come down.

26. Describe five main features of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

Or

Explain the significant steps taken by the government under ‘Serve Shiksha Abhiyan’.

Or

Sarva-Shiksha Abhiyaan is one of the successful steps to increase literacy rate. Describe its features and importance.
Ans. (1) To strengthen the primary school system, the scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was started in 2001.
(2) All 6-14 age children were expected to complete eight years of schooling by 2010.
(3) It began as a time-bound initiative or programme of the Central Government in partnership with the state, the local government and the community to achieve the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
(4) This programme has covered the entire country with a special focus on the educational needs of girls, SCs/STs and other children.
(5) Along with it, bridge courses and back-to-school camps were started to increase the enrolment in elementary education. The Mid-day Meal Scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children as well as to improve their nutritional status.

UNEMPLOYMENT

Very Short Answers:-

1.Where is the disguised unemployment prevalent?
Ans. In the agriculture sector.

2. What does the increase in unemployment indicate?
Ans. The increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy.

3. What name has been given to the unemployment when people do not find job during, come months of a year?
Ans. Seasonal unemployment.
4. What type of unemployment is seen in rural India?

Or

What are the two types of unemployment that exist in rural India?
Ans. In the case of rural area, there exist seasonal unemployment and disguised unemployment.

5. What is workforce population?

Or

Which age group forms the workforce population?
Ans. The workforce population includes people from 15 years to 59 years of age group.

6.What is meant by seasonal unemployment?
Ans. Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year.

7.Which type of unemployment is common in urban areas?

Or

Which type of unemployment is commonly found in urban areas?
Ans. Educated unemployment.

8. In which sector is disguised unemployment mostly found?
Ans. Agriculture sector.

Short Answers:-

1. Why do people migrate? Explain.
Ans. (1) Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of the population.
(2) In India, people migrate from rural to urban areas in search of jobs. Agriculture is the most labour absorbing sector of the economy. In recent years, some of the surplus-labour in agriculture has moved to either the secondary or the tertiary sector for better wages.
(3) People migrate for education and health purposes. Some people migrate to urban areas for a better standard of living.

2. Explain the employment scenario in the three sectors of economic activities.
Ans. Employment scenario in the three sectors of economic activities can be explained as under :
(1) Around 60% of the people in India are employed in the primary sector mainly agriculture Producing only about 209E of G.D.P.
(2) The secondary sector share has increased in the last 30 years to around 16%.
(3) The tertiary sector has seen a remarkable improvement in its employment in recent years. Around 25% of the people are employed b in the tertiary sector.

3. “Employment structure is characterised by self-employment in the primary sector.” Explain the statement.
Ans. (1) The whole family contributes to the field even though not everybody is really needed. So, there is disguised unemployment in the agriculture sector.
(2) All the family members also have a share in what has been produced.
(3) The concept of sharing of work in the field and the produce raised reduces the hards hiP of unemployment in the rural areas. But, this does not reduce the poverty of the family.

4. Which is the most labour absorbing sector of the Indian economy? What trend has been recently noticed in terms of dependence of population on this sector and what is the reason for that?
Ans. (1) Agriculture is the most labour absorbing sector of the Inuttatnioencoonnomagry.
(2) In recent years, there has been a decline in dependence of the population on agriculture.
(3) This decline is mainly due to : (i) Disguised unemployment.
(ii) Surplus labour in agriculture has moved to either the Secondary or Tertiary Sector.

Long Answers:-

1. Suggest some measures in the education system to solve the problem of educated employment.
Ans. (1) Vocational education should be encouraged so that after education people do not have difficulty in getting jobs as they would be better trained for work.
(2) There should be more use of Information Technology in our education system.
(3) More opportunities should be made available in the tertiary sector where more educated employed people could find jobs.
(4) Entrepreneurial development provides another area for the growth of employment opportunities. So, self-employment should be encouraged. In addition to capital, business needs parties and organisational skills. They develop through proper training.
(5) There is unemployment among technically qualified person on one hand, while there a dearth of technical skills required for economic growth. The government should take initiatives to tackle this problem.

2. Describe the different types of unemployment found in India.
Ans. (1) Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the current goes, cannot find jobs.
(2) Different types of unemployment found in India are as under :
(i) Seasonal unemployment: Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependent on agriculture usually face such a few problems. There are certain busy seasons when sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing are done, but when the plants are growing, there is not much work.
(2) Disguised unemployment: People appear to be employed but are actually not employed. Sometimes in agricultural families, eight people are working on the farm, whereas only five people are needed to do that work. Thus, three persons are surplus and are called as disguisedly unemployed.
(3) Educated unemployment: This refers to the situation when many youths with matriculation, graduation and post-graduation degrees are not able to find a job. A study showed that unemployment among graduate and post-graduate has increased faster than among matriculates. This type of unemployment is a common phenomenon in urban areas.

3. India is a country of villages and if people living in villages are suffering from the problem of unemployment, then how could a nation grow? Explain the nature of the problem. Suggest some measures t& rectify it.
Ans. (1) The people of Indian villages are suffering especially from seasonal and disguised unemployment.
(i)Seasonal unemployment: This happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependent upon agriculture usually face such kind of problem.
(ii) Disguised unemployment: In such a situation, people appear to be employed but actually they are unemployed. Sometimes, more people are engaged in an activity or a job than actually required. This usually happens among family members engaged in an agricultural activity
(2) Unemployment leads to wastes of manpower resource. It tends to increase economic overload. Unemployment has a detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy.
(3)(i) We should develop infrastructure for the economic development of the country. When the economy develops, employment opportunities are created.
(ii) Construction of rural roads, bridges, dams, provision of drinking water, power and sanitation works may provide adequate employment opportunities in villages.
(iii) Agro-based industries should be developed.
(iv) Self-employment should be encouraged.
(v) The government should take initiatives regarding employment generating programmes such as the development of cottage and small-scale industries, investment in basic industries, modernisation of agriculture, etc.

4. Unemployment gives birth to various socio-economic problems.” Give three arguments to support this statement.
Ans. (1) Unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resource. People who are an asset for the economy turn into a liability.
(2) There is a feeling of hopelessness and despair among the youth. The inability of educated people who are willing to work to find gainful employment implies a great social waste.
(3) Unemployment tends to increase economic overload. The dependence of the unemployed on the working population increases. The quality of life of an individual as well as of society is adversely affected.
(4) When a family has to live on a bare subsistence level there is a general decline in its health status and rising withdrawal from the school system.
(5) Unemployment has a detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy. Increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy. It also wastes the resource, which could have been gainfully employed.

5. Why is educated unemployment, a peculiar problem of India? Suggest three measures to mitigate this problem.
Ans.(1) India has a huge population and every year a large number of people come out with graduation and post-graduation degrees from various educational institutions. Employment generation is not keeping pace with the number of educated people. That is why educated unemployment has become a peculiar problem of India.
(2) Three important measures to mitigate this problem are as under :
(i)Emphasis should be given on vocationalisation of education so that people could become employable.
(ii)There is an urgent need to change the mindset towards becoming an entrepreneur rather than doing a job.
(iii) The government should focus on economic development of the country. Rapid economic development provides more and better employment opportunities.

6. “Unemployment leads to low income, low saving and hence, low demand and low production. This is the identification of depressed economy.” Support the statement with three arguments.
Ans. (1) Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the going wages cannot find Jobs. In this way, unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resources and its productivity. Low productivity of a person leads to his/her low income.
(2) Saving of a person depends upon the income of a person. So, if there is low income, the saving of that person will also below. Besides, due to lower-income, people cannot purchase goods in sufficient quantity.
(3) If the demand for the product declines, producers will be discouraged to continue its production in the same quantity due to the possibility of loss in the business. So, there will be low production and low employment opportunities. In this way, a vicious cycle — unemployment low-income low saving and low demand -* low production low employment opportunities -* unemployment is created.
This is the identification of a depressed economy.

7. What are the two types of unemployment found in rural areas? Now does unemployment affect the overall growth of an economy? Explain by giving four points.
Ans. (1) In the case of rural areas, there are seasonal as well as disguised unemployment.
(i) Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. This is due to season l nature of Indian agriculture.
(ii) Disguised unemployment is the situation of unemployment, where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential.
(2)(i)UnemPloyment has a detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy. Increase unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy.
(ii) It wastes the manpower resource, be which could have been gainfully employed.
(iii) If people cannot be used as an r resource, they naturally appear as a liability to the economy.
(v) People who are an asset for the economy, turn into a liability. There is a feeling of hopelessness and despair among the youth.
(v) Unemployment tends to increase economic overload. The dependence of the unemployed 00 the working population increases.

8. Which age group is known as workforce population? Explain the existing employment structure in the agricultural sector in India. Also, explain major problems.
Ans. (1) The workforce population includes people from 15 years to 59 years.
(2)(i) Agriculture is the most labour absorbing sector of the economy. More than two-thirds of the total population in India is engaged in this sector.
(ii)Moreover, the employment structure is characterised by self-employment in the agricultural sector.
(3)The major problems of this sector are (i) disguised unemployment; and (ii) seasonal unemployment.
(i) The whole family contributes to the field even though not everybody is really needed. So, there is disguised unemployment in this sector. But all the family also have a share in what has been produced.
(ii) There are certain busy seasons when sowing, harvesting, weeding, threshing are done. But certain months do not provide much work to the people dependent on agriculture.

9. In which field India can build the maximum employment opportunity ? Give your opinion with examples.
Ans. (1) The service sector and small-scale manufacturing in India can build a maximum employment opportunity.
(2)(i) According to Planning Commission estimates, nearly 20 lakh jobs can be created in the education sector alone.
(ii) Village roads should be constructed so that agricultural labourers could get employment in the idle season.
(iii)Agro-based industries particularly small-scale and cottage industries e.g., pulse mills, rice mills, flour mills, cold storage, etc. should be encouraged.
(iv) Information and Technology i.e., the IT sector has also great potential to provide employment opportunities in India.

10. Distinguish between Urban and Rural unemployment.
Ans. (1) Rural Unemployment: In rural areas, there are seasonal and disguised unemployment :
(i) Seasonal Unemployment: It is the situation when people don’t get jobs during some months of the year. People dependent upon agriculture usually face such kind of problem.
(ii) Disguised Unemployment: In the case of disguised unemployment, people appear to be employed but, they are actually unemployed. For example, suppose six persons have engaged a job but only four are required. So, two persons are disguisedly employed. This usually aliens among family members engaged in agricultural activity.
(2) Urban Unemployment : (i) Educated Unemployment: Urban areas have mostly educaMatti educated .unemployment. It has become a common phenomenon. Many youths with at et/nation Graduation and Post-graduation degrees are not able to find jobs. Unemployment Graduates and Post-graduates has increased over the years.
(ii) Seasonal Unemployment: This type of unemployment also exists in urban area, For example, in woolen industry, construction works. etc.

11. What problems do farm labourers face in terms of employment? Explain any three problems.


Ana. The farm labourers have to face the following problems in terms of employment.
(1)Farm labourers have to face seasonal unemployment Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependent on agriculture usually face such kind of problem- Certain months do not provide much work to the people dependent on agriculture.
(2) The wages for farm labourers are less than minimum wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is Rs. 60 per day, but Dala gets only Rs. 35-40.
(3) The farm labourers come under the unorganized sector. There is no provision of overtime, paid leave. holidays. leave due to sickness, etc

12. Explain the concept of disguised unemployment with suitable examples.
Ans. (1) Sometimes more people are engaged in an activity or a job than actually required. Such a situation is called disguised unemployment. In fact, this is the situation of underemployment where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential.
(2) This kind of underemployment is hidden in contrast to someone who does not have a job and is clearly visible as unemployed. Hence, it is also called disguised unemployment.
(3) For example, suppose six persons are engaged in a job but only four are required. So, two persons are disguisedly employed. If these extra persons are withdrawn, the total production does not or will not fall. This usually happens among family members engaged in an agricultural activity

13. How can unemployment lead to underutilization of manpower resource in a country? Mention three points.

Or

‘Unemployment has a detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy’. Justify the statement in five points.
Ans. (1)Unemployment refers to a situation when people who are willing to work at the can ongoing wages, cannot find jobs.
(2) Unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resource. People who are an asset for the economy, turn into a liability.
(3) The inability of educated people, who are willing to work, to find gainful employment, implies a great social waste.
(4) It tends to increase economic overload. The dependence of the unemployed on the working population increases. The quality of life of an individual as well as of society is adversely affected.
(5) Increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy. It also wastes the resources, which could have been gainfully employed. If people cannot be used as a resource, they naturally appear as a liability to the economy.

14. Explain any five effects of unemployment in India.

Or

What is meant by the term ‘Unemployment’? Explain any four effects of unemployment.

Or

Explain any three consequences of unemployment.
Ans. (1) Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the current wages, cannot find jobs.
(2)(i) Unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resource. People who are an asset for the economy, turn into a liability.
(ii) There is a feeling of hopelessness and despair among the youth. People do not have enough money to support their family.
(iii) The inability of educated people, who are willing to work, to find gainful employment, implies a great social waste.
(iv) Unemployment tends to increase economic overload. The de tendency of the unemployed on the working population increases. The quality of life of. p an individual as well as of society is adversely affected.
(v) Increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy. It wastes the resource, which could have been gainfully employed elsewhere. If people cannot be used as a resource, they naturally appear as a liability to the economy.

15. Define unemployment. Explain the nature of unemployment prevalent in rural and urban India.

Or

What does unemployment mean? What type of unemployment exists in rural and urban areas?

Or

Explain the term ‘unemployment’. Which type of unemployment is most dangerous separately for rural and urban area? How can unemployment in rural areas be minimized?
Ans. (1) Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the current wages, cannot find jobs.
(2) The nature of unemployment differs in rural and urban areas.
(i) In rural India: In case of rural area, there is seasonal and disguised unemployment :
(a) Seasonal unemployment: It happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependent upon agriculture usually face such kind of problem. Certain months do not provide much work to the people dependent on agriculture.
(b) Disguised unemployment: In case of disguised unemployment, people appear to be employed, but they are actually unemployed. For example, suppose six persons are engaged in a job but only four are required. So, two persons are disguisedly employed. If these two extra persons are withdrawn, the total production does not fall. This usually happens among family members engaged in agricultural activity.
(ii) In urban India: In case of urban areas, educated unemployment has become a common phenomenon. Many youths with matriculation, graduation and post-graduation degrees are not able to find jobs. According to a study, unemployment among graduates and post-graduates has increased faster than among matriculates. A paradoxical manpower situation is witnessed as surplus of manpower in certain categories co-exist with the shortage of manpower in others.

16. Explain the different types of unemployment found in rural India.

Or

Define unemployment and explain any two types of unemployment prevailing in rural areas.

Or

What type of unemployment is found in rural India? How can this problem be solved? Explain.

Or

Define seasonal unemployment. Give an example. How can we overcome this situation?
Ans. (1) Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the prevalent wages, cannot find jobs.
(2) (i) Rural Areas : (a) Seasonal Unemployment — It is the situation when people don’t get jobs during some months of the year. Agriculture sector suffers from this type of unemployment.
(b) Disguised Unemployment — People appear to be employed but they are really unemployed. The work requires the service of five people but engages eight people. Even if these extra people are removed, work must not be affected.
(ii) Urban Areas: Urban areas have mostly educated unemployment. It has become a common phenomenon. Many youths with Matriculation, Graduation and Post-Graduation degrees are not able to find jobs. Unemployment of Graduates and Post-Graduates has increased.
(3)(i) The government should encourage non-farm production activities.
(ii) Vocational education and training should be provided.
(iii) Loans should be given at a low rate of interest.

17. Distinguish between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment.
Or
Explain the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment. Why does educated unemployment become so widespread in urban areas?
Or
What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment? How can we remove the problem of unemployment in India?
Ans. Difference between disguised and seasonal unemployment :
Disguised Unemployment
Seasonal Unemployment

(1) This unemployment is hidden.

(2) The capacity of all persons is not used every day.

(3) It is present in agriculture and rural areas.

(4) For example, some work is done with 5 persons. Production is 500 tonnes of wheat. 3 persons are released from there. Still, production is the same i.e., 500 tonnes.
(1)This unemployment is on the basis of seasons only.

(2) Work of the whole year of a person is not used.

(3) It is present in rural as well as in urban areas.

(4) On the basis of season, people become unemployed. Examples, ice-cream seller, woollen cloth seller, etc.

18. Educated unemployment is a peculiar problem of India.” Justify the statement.
Ans. (1) Many youths with Matriculation, Graduation and Post-Graduation degrees are 00t able to find jobs.
(2) Unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resources.
(3) Educated people who are willing to work to find gainful employment, but do not find #6, implies a great social waste.
(4) There are technically qualified persons on one hand, while there is a dearth of technical oafs required for economic growth.
(5) If qualified people are not used as a resource, they become a liability to the economy.

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