Ch. – 1- The Story of Village Palampur- Extra Questions and Notes

By | October 24, 2019

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 9 social science, social science class 9 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the text.

Chapter-1
The Story of Village Palampur

OVERVIEW

Very Short Answers:

1. Which is the major economic activity of people in Palampur?
Ans. Fanning is the major economic activity of people in Palampur.

Long Answers:-

1. Describe the role of infrastructure in the development of the economy.
Ans. (1) Infrastructure provides support services in the main areas of industrial and agricultural production.
(2) These services include electricity, roads, railways, ports, dams, telecommunication facilities, hospitals, schools and colleges. Some of these facilities have a direct impact on the working of the system of production while others give indirect support by building the social sector of the economy.
(3) Infrastructure is the support system on which depends the efficient working of a modern industrial economy.
(4) Modern agriculture also largely depends on it for speedy and large-scale transport of seeds, pesticides, fertilizers and the products by making use of modern roadways, railways and shipping facilities.
(5) Infrastructure contributes to the economic development of a country both by increasing the productivity of the factors of production and improving the quality of life of its people.

2. Explain any five points that make the Palampur a well-settled village.

Or

State any three infrastructure facilities available in the village Palampur necessary for economic development.

Or

State any five reasons to show that Palampur is a developed village.

Or

Describe the infrastructural development in Palampur. How does it support the various occupations?

Or

Describe five ways through which the farmers of Palampur are able to grow more from the same land.

Or

How can you say that Palampur is a well-developed village? Give examples to prove this.
Ans. We can definitely say that Palampur is a well-developed village. This has the following reasons:
(1) Palampur is well-connected with neighbouring villages and towns.
(2) Many means of transport are visible on the village road starting from bullock carts, Congas, bogeys to motor vehicles like motorcycles, jeeps, tractors and trucks.
(3) Most of the houses in the village have electric connections.
(4) Palampur has two primary schools and one high school.
(5) There is a primary health centre run by the government and one private dispensary where the sick people are treated.
(6) There is a fairly well-developed system of irrigation. Electricity powers all the tube wells in the fields and is used in various types of small business.

ORGANISATION OF PRODUCTION

Very Short Answers:-

1. What is meant by fixed capital?
Ans. Generators, turbines, computers, tools, machines, buildings, etc. can be used in production over many years and so are called fixed capital.

2. What type of capital is required as first priority to set up a jaggery manufacturing unit?
Ans. Sugarcane crushing machine is fixed capital that is required as a first priority to set up a jaggery manufacturing unit.

3. Which items come under working capital?
Ans. Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital.

4. What is the aim of production?
Ans. The aim of production is to produce the goods and services that we want.

5. Give two examples of fixed capital.
Ans. Machines and buildings.

6. Which capital is known as working capital?

Or

Name any one of the working capital.
Ans. Raw materials.

7. What do raw material and money in hand call in the process of production?
Ans. The working capital.

8. The clay used by a potter is an example of which type of capital?
Ans. Raw material.

9. Farmer’s plough is an example of which factor of production?
Ans. Working capital.

10. Mention any two factors of production.

Or

Name any two factors of production.
Ans. Land and labour.

11. Which raw material is used by a weaver?
Ans. Yarn.

Short Answers:-
1. Describe the role of human capital in the production process. Name two investments that can improve the quality of human capital.
Ans. (1) All the other factors like land, labour and physical capital cannot become useful on its own. They are put to use by human resources. The knowledge and enterprise that is required to use the land, labour and physical capital to produce goods and services for the satisfaction of human wants are called human capital. In fact, human capital is the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in them.
(2) Investment in education and medical care can improve the quality of human

2. Classify the following into land, labour and capital:
(a) Orange pickers, (b) Packaging machines, (c) Water, (d) Wood,
(e) Money.
Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans. (1) Classification of the following into land, labour and capital:
(a) Orange pickers Labour
(b) Packaging machinesFixed Capital
(c) WaterLand
(d) WoodLand
(e) MoneyWorking Capital
(2) Reasons: (a) Orange pickers work in other person’s farm for wages, hence, they considered as labour.
(b) Packaging machines require investment and are considered as fixed capital, are used repetitively for many years in the production process for packaging.
(c) and (d) Water and Wood are natural resources, they fall under the land factor of products.
(e)Money: Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital.

Long Answers:-
1. Define production. Explain the role of labour in production.
Ans. (1) Creation of goods and services for the satisfaction of human wants is called Production. This is done by combining the factors of production i.e., land, labour, physical Vital and human capital.
(2)(i) Labour is the important factor of production. This refers to the people who will do the work.
(ii) Some production activities require highly perform the necessary tasks. They are called skilled workers.
(iii) Some other production activities require workers who can do manual work. They are unskilled work. Each worker is providing the labour necessary for production.

2. Describe the modern methods of farming used by the farmer of Palampur village.
Ans. (1) Modern methods of fanning refer to the use of High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc. in order to increase the production from the same piece of land.
(2) The farmers of Palampur have set up tube wells for irrigation and made use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farming.
(3) Electricity came early to Palampur. People say that the electric-run tube wells could irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively. By mid-1970s, the entire cultivated area of 200 hectares in Palampur was irrigated.
(4) In Palampur, the yield of wheat grown from the traditional varieties was 1300 kg. per hectare. With the HYV seeds, the yield went up to 3,200 kg. per hectare.
(5) There was a large increase in the production of wheat. Farmers now have greater amounts of surplus wheat to sell in the markets.

3. State the importance of growing more than one crop on a piece of land.
Ans. (1) To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping. It is the most common way of increasing Production on a given piece of land.
(2) For example, the farmers of Palampur grow at least two main crops many are growing potato as the third crop in the past fifteen to twenty years. With a better system of irrigation, farmers of Palampur were able to grow more than one crop.
(3)In the developing nations like India where agriculture still remains the main occupation and the size of population is increasing fastly, the productivity of the land under cultivation is important for its food needs.
(4) When two or more crops are grown on the same piece of land, the crop yield increases.
(5) If one crop fails; the farmer may get some or adequate return from other crops.

4. Explain the four requirements for the production of goods and services. What are the ‘ items that come under physical capital?
Ans. (1) They areland, labour, physical capital and human capital.
(i) Land: This refers to land and other natural resources like water, forests, minerals, etc.
(ii) Labour: This means the people who do work. A worker provides the labour necessary for production.
(iii) Physical Capital: Variety of inputs required at different stages of production. The tools, machines, raw materials and money in hand used during the production are physical capital.
(iv) Human Capital: This refers to knowledge and enterprise to be able to put together land, labour and physical capital and produce an output either for own use or to sell in the market.

(2)The items that come under the physical capital are as under:

Physical capital: It can be fixed capital and working capital :
(i) Fixed capital: Tools, machines, buildings, etc. that are used over many years in the production process.
(ii) Working capital: Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital. Unlike tools, machines and buildings these are used up in production.

5. Explain any three requirements for the production of goods and services.

Or

Explain any three factors of productions.
Ans. The following are the requirements for the production of goods and services:
(1) Land: The first requirement is land and other natural resources such as water, forests, minerals.
(2) Labour: This refers to the people who do the work. Some production activities require highly educated workers to perform the necessary tasks. Other activities require workers who can do manual work.
(3) Physical Capital: This includes the variety of inputs required at every stage during production.

There are two types of physical capital:
(i) Fixed Capital: Tools, machines, buildings can be used in production over many years, and are called fixed capital.
(ii) Working Capital: Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital.
(4) Human Capital: We need knowledge and enterprise to be able to put together land, ‘about, r and physical capital and produce an output either for our use or to sell in the market. This is called human capital.

6. What is the aim of production? Describe its requirements.

Or

State the aim of production. Describe the four requirements of production.

Or

Explain the aim of production. Highlight four requirements of production with examples,

Or

What is the aim of production? State any four requirements needed for the production of goods and services.
Ans. (1) The aim of production is to produce the goods and services that we want.
(2) There are four requirements for the production of goods and services :
(i) Land: The first requirement is land and other natural resources e.g., water, forest, minerals.
(ii) Labour: This refers to the people who do the work. This includes skilled and unskilled labour. Some production activities require highly educated workers to perform the necessary tasks. .Other activities require workers who can do manual work.
(iii) Physical capital: This is classified into fixed capital and working capital.
(a) Fixed capital: This includes tools, machines and buildings that can be used in production over many years.
(b) Working capital: Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital.
(iv) Human capital: This is the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in them.
7. Explain the term physical capital. Mention its different types with examples.

Or

Explain the meaning of ‘Physical Capital’. Explain its two types with the help of suitable examples.
Ans. (1) Physical capital includes the variety of inputs required at every stage during production.
(2) The following are two types of physical capital:
(i) Fixed capital: This includes tools, machines and buildings that can be used in production over many years. For example, machines, buildings, etc.
(ii) Working capital: Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital. For example, bamboo used for paper and wheat for biscuits is raw materials. Production requires a variety of raw materials. Also, some money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items. Remarkably, unlike fixed capital, the components of working capital are used up in production.

8. Explain the basic requirements for the production of goods and services. Which one is the most important?

Or

Explain the four requirements for the production of goods and services. Explain the importance of anyone.

Or

What are the various requirements of production? Explain them.
Ans. (1) (i) The first requirement is the land. We also need other natural resources such as water, forests, minerals, etc.
(ii) The second requirement is labour, i.e., people who do the work. Different production activities require different types of workers, such as highly educated, skilled or those doing some manual work. Each worker provides the labour necessary for production.
(iii) The third requirement is physical capital, comprising various inputs required during production. It has two components. Tools, machines and buildings fall under ‘fixed capital’.
They can be used in production for many years. Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital. These are used up in production.
(iv) The fourth requirement is human capital. Knowledge and enterprise are needed to put together land, labour and physical capital in order to produce an output
(2)Human capital is the most important as it can make use of other capitals.

9. Which capital do you consider the best — land, labour or human? Give three reasons.

Or

Which capital would you consider the best — land, labour, physical resource and human capital?
Ans. (1) Human capital is considered to be the best.

(2)(i) This is because it is the main asset of the economy.
(ii) Investment in human capital will yield higher income and productivity. WI) Society gains through educated and healthy human capital.
(iv) It is the skilled human capital that will make land and physical capital useful.

FARMING IN PALAMPUR

Very Short Answers:-

1. Name the third crop grown in Palampur as a part of multiple cropping other than the two main crops.
Ans. Potato is the third crop grown in Palampur as a pan of multiple cropping other than two main crops.

2. What percentage of people are dependent on farming in Palampur?
Ans. 75% of the people are dependent on farming in Palampur for their livelihood.

3. How did the introduction of Green Revolution affect the cost of cultivation?
Ans. This is because, modern farming methods used under the Green Revolution require more inputs which are manufactured in industry e.g., chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc

4. What is multiple cropping?
Ans. To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping.

5. Modern farming methods require which type of machinery?
Ans. Modern farming methods require the inputs or machinery which are manufactured in industry.

6. In which season is wheat grown in Palampur village?
Ans. In the winter season, wheat is grown in Palampur village.

7. Which is the main reason for growing three different crops in a year in Palampur?
Ans. The main reason why farmers are able to grow three different crops in a year in Palampur is the well-developed system of irrigation.

8. Which state in India has the highest consumption of chemical fertilizers?
Ans. The consumption of chemical fertilizers in Punjab is the highest in the country.

9. Why should modern farming methods be increased?
Ans. Modern farming methods are the way of increasing production from the same piece of land.

10 When is Kharif crop grown?
Ans. Kharif crop is grown in the rainy season.

11. What is ‘growing more than one crop on a piece of land during the year’ known as?

Or

Name the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land.

Or

Which is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land?


Ans. Multiple cropping.

12. What is meant by yield?

Or

How is yield measured?
Ans. Yield is measured as crop produced on a given piece of land during a single season.

13. What does H.Y.V. stand for?
Ans. High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of seeds.

14. Who provides capital to the small farmers at a high rate of interest?

Or

In the village Palampur, from whom do the small farmers use to borrow money to arrange capital?
Ans. Large farmers, village moneylenders or the traders.

15. During which season do farmers of Palampur grow jawar and bajra?
Ans. Rainy season.

16. Which term is used for production for self-consumption?
Ans. Subsistence farming.

17. In which states did the Green Revolution become more popular?

Or

Which three Indian states were the first to try out the modern farming methods.
Ans. Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.

Short Answers:-

1. What is meant by the Green Revolution? Name any two states which were first to try out the modern farming methods in India.
Ans. (1) The Green Revolution is the name given to the new agricultural technology or techniques of farming adopted in the late 1960s in India. It involves using High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of seeds, modern irrigation facilities, chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
(2)Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out the modern farming methods in India.

2. Mention the season to which rabi crops belong to. Which is the main crop of this season? Name a state that benefited from this crop from the Green Revolution.
Ans. (1) Rabi crops are grown in the winter season.
(2) Wheat, barley, peas, grams are some examples of rabi crops. The major rabi crop in India is wheat.
(3) Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh benefited from this crop under the Green Revolution.

3. Give three reasons why small farmers have to arrange capital by borrowing.
Ans. Small farmers have to arrange capital by borrowing. This has the following reasons :
(1) Modern farming methods require a great deal of capital so that the farmer now needs more money than before.
(2) Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital.
(3) Since they borrow from large farmers or the village money-lenders or the traders who charge a high rate of interest from them. So, they are always in the debt-trap.

4. Highlight the basic constraint in raising production from a farm.
Ans. (1) Inequality in land distribution: There is an unequal distribution of land in our country which is the major constraint in raising production from a farm. As we have seen in Palampur village where about one-third of 450 families are landless.
(2) Indifferent farmers: Most of the farmers in the country are reluctant to adopt modem farming methods.
(3) Unirrigated land: Indian farmers are still dependent on monsoon. Whereas rainfall in some areas, mainly in Deccan and Central India, is not adequate as well as it is uncertain. So, artificial irrigation is quite necessary for these areas.

5. What factors have led to the reduction of water level in Palampur?
Ans- (1) Continuous use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced the water table below the ground.
(2) While environmental resources like soil fertility and groundwater are built-up over many years. So, once destroyed, it is very difficult to restore them.
(3)There is often misuse of groundwater. We must take care of groundwater and the environment to ensure the future development of agriculture.

6. State three reasons for the variation in the wages of farm labours all over India.
Ans. There is a wide variation in the wages of farm labours in the country. They generally get the wages less than the minimum wages set by the government. The reasons for the variation in the farm wages are as follows :
(1) The farm labourers come either from landless families or the families cultivating small plots of land. They are poor and helpless. They work on daily wages. They regularly have to look for work. Since there is heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in the country, these labourers agree to work for less than the minimum wages.
(2) Most agricultural labourers are from low castes and the depressed classes. They have little courage to evaluate themselves.
(3) Farm labourers are generally illiterate and ignorant. They are not organised in unions. So, it is difficult for them to bargain with landowners and secure good wages.
7. Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in the industry. Why?
Ans. (1) Of course, it is a fact that modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in the industry.
(2) For examples, tractors for ploughing, harvesters for harvesting, threshers for threshing, chemical fertilizers for higher output, diesel for fuel, pesticides for agricultural diseases, pumping sets for irrigation as well as other electrical equipment and machinery tools for dams, canals, etc. These all are manufactured in industry
(3) So, in order to increase agricultural production, modern farming methods require more inputs that are manufactured in the industry.

8. Chemical fertilizers have harmful effects. Give three arguments in favour of the statement.

Or

How can the use of chemical fertilizers be harmful ? Give your opinion.

Or

Why does chemical fertilizer reduce soil fertility?
Ans. (1) Scientific reports suggest that in many areas, the Green Revolution is associated with the loss of soil fertility due to increased use of chemical fertilizers.
(2) Overuse of chemical fertilizers has polluted the groundwater, rivers and lakes. Water has become unsafe for drinking.
(3) Chemical fertilizers also pollute agricultural produce. That is why it is advocated in favour of organic farming in place of modern farming.

9. How do small farmers obtain capital for farming? What is its consequence? Explain.
Ans. (1) Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers or the moneylenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation.
(2) Consequence: The rate of interest on such loans is very high. The small farmers are put to great distress to repay the loan.

10. What are H.Y.V. seeds? Write its one merit and a limitation.
Ans. (1) The term, H.Y.V. stands for High Yielding Varieties of seeds.
(2)(i) Merit: These seeds make it possible to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant. They help in increasing the total production.
(ii) Limitation: These seeds require much use of water, fertilizers and pesticides. Too much use of these inputs harms or reduces soil fertility.

11. Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than the minimum wages?

Or

Why are farm labourers paid less in Palampur?

Ans. (1) There is heavy competition for work among the farm labourers.
(2) People are ready to work for lower wages.
(3) The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is 60 per day. But, it is not followed by the landlords of Palampur.

Long Answers:-

1. Explain the harmful effects of the Green Revolution in Indian fanning.

Ans. (1) Modern farming methods used under the Green Revolution have overused the natural resource base affecting the environment adversely.
(2) In many states like Punjab and Haryana, loss of soil fertility has been reported due to the increased use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides.
(3) Continuous and increased use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced the water level much below the ground. Many wells have gone dry.
(4) Overuse of chemical fertilisers has also polluted groundwater, rivers and lakes.
(5) Environment resources like soil fertility and groundwater are built up over many years. Once destroyed, it is very difficult to restore them.

2. Explain the problems which arise due to the unequal distribution of land.
Ans. (1) The land is important for farming and unfortunately, the unequal distribution of land gives rise to many socio-economic problems.
(2) A large number of small plots are scattered around.
(3) The unequal distribution of cultivated land results in low productivity.
(4) As a result, there is an increase in poverty and unrest in the society.
(5) It results in low productivity from land. Those who have no land or a small piece of land become idle for many months in a year and have to face unemployment.

3. Distinguish between traditional methods of farming and modern methods of farming.
Ans.
Traditional methods of farming Modern methods of farming

(1) This method of farming involves manual ploughing of the field row by row,

(2) This is time-consuming,

(3) This method uses traditional and labour-intensive technology. Farmers use the manure of farm animals.

(4) This involves the traditional method of hand watering which is time-consuming.

(5) However, they are more environment-Friendly and sustainable. This involves man-power but less chemical and technological power. This results in organically grown commodities—safer for humans and mother nature.
(1) Ploughing is done using a tractor.

(2) This is less time-consuming with better results and productivity.

(3) Advance technology, better pest control, HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used.

(4) Watering crops are much easier with pumping sets and electric-run tubewells.

(5) It affects our environment adversely

4. “Scientific reports indicate that modern farming methods have overused the natural resource base.” Explain the statement with five examples.
Ans. (1) Land being a natural resource is necessary to be careful in its use. Modern farming methods use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. They cause the soil to lose its fertility. It also pollutes the groundwater.
(2) Continuous use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced water-table below the ground.
(3) Environmental resources like soil fertility and groundwater are built up over many years; once destroyed it is very difficult to restore them.

5. Distinguish between the condition of a farmer who is working on his own farm and a landless labourer.
Ans.
Farmer working on his own farm Landless labourer

(1) Fanner who is the owner of the farm may or may not work on his own farm. They employ farm labourers or landless labourers to work on their farms.

(2) They have full right over the crops grown on the land.

(3) The owner of the farms have all rile, farming equipment that are used in Farming activities like thresher machine, harvester, tractors, pumping-sets, etc.
(1) They usually work on other farmer’s fields.

(2) They do not have right over the crops grown on the land they work. Instead, they are paid wages by farm owners for whom they work.

(3) A farm labourer might be employed on a daily basis or for one particular season or for a particular farm activity like harvesting or the whole year. They barely manage two square meals of a day. They are always in a debt-trap.

6. Why do farmers require capital? How do farmers in Palampur arrange the required capital for farming?
Ans. (1) Modern farming methods require a great deal of capital. The farmer now needs more money than before to buy chemical fertilizers, pesticides, pump-sets, farm machinery, diesel, HYV seeds, etc. Besides, they need cash to buy water and repair their farm instruments.
(2)(i) Small farmers in Palampur village have to borrow money to arrange capital for farming. They borrow from large farmers or the village money-lenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. They are put to great distress to repay the loan like in the case of Savita.
(ii) In contrast to the small farmers, the medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming. They are thus, able to arrange the capital needed for farming.

7. What changes have taken place in production techniques in agriculture in the last 30 years? Explain.
Ans. (1) Earlier Persian wheels were used by farmers to draw water from the wells and irrigate small fields. Now, people use electric run tubewells that could irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively.
(2) Now, farmers are able to grow three different crops in a year due to the well-developed system of irrigation. To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping.
(3) Till the mid-1960s, the seeds used in cultivation were traditional ones with relatively low yields whereas the Green Revolution in the late 1960s introduced the Indian farmer to the cultivation of wheat and rice using High Yielding Varieties (HYV) seeds.
(4) Earlier farmers used cow-dung and other natural manure as fertilizers. Now, they use chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farming.
(5) Instead of using a wooden plough, farmers now use tractors for ploughing. The farm machinery like tractors and threshers made ploughing and harvesting faster.

8. How do large farmers utilise surplus farm products to arrange for the capital needed for farming?
Ans. (1) The large farmers sell the surplus farm products and a part of the earnings is saved and kept for buying capital for the next season. Thus, they are able to arrange for the capital for farming from their own savings.
(2) They may plan to use their earnings to buy another tractor, thresher, pump-set, etc. This machinery would increase their fixed capital.
(3) The large farmers use their savings for lending to small farmers like Savita. They also use the savings to arrange for the working capital for farming in the next season. Some farmers might also use the savings to buy cattle, trucks, or to set up shops.
9. “Due to modern farming methods, Indian cropping system has changed drastically.” Explain the statement.
Ans. (1)It is absolutely true that due to modern fanning methods, Indian cropping system has changed drastically. The main reason why farmers are able to grow three different crops in a year in Palampur is due to the well-developed system of irrigation.
(3) Earlier the seeds used in cultivation were traditional ones with relatively low yields. Modern farming methods introduced High Yielding Verities seeds, the HYV seeds promised to Varieties (HYV) of seeds. Compared to the produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant.
(3) Under modern farming methods, people use chemical fertilizers and pesticides in place of cow dung and other natural manure as fertilizers.
(4) Modern farming methods require more irrigation facilities. Higher yields are possible oat, from a combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc.
(5) Fanners use tractors, threshers for ploughing and harvesting faster.

10. ‘Modem farming methods require more mechanical inputs and hence our farming has become dependent on industry” Justify the statement.
Ans. (1) Modern farming methods include use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc. and the machinery which are manufactured in industry.
(2) In modem methods of farming ploughing, harvesting, threshing, etc. are done by machines like thresher, harvesters, sprinkling machines, tractors etc. which are manufactured in industry.
(3) Even for irrigation, the tubewells, the pumping-sets are used that are manufactured in the industry.

11. Explain the negative impact of modern farming on the environment.


Ans. (1) Overuse of natural resources adversely affects the ecological balance.
(2) Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can pollute ground water and alter the biology of rivers and lakes.
(3) Pesticides generally kill useful insects.
(4) Continuous use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced the water-table below the ground.
(5) Similarly, the continuous use of chemical fertilizers has led to degradation of soil health. Punjab farmers are now forced to use more and more chemical fertilizers and other inputs to achieve the same production level. Also, this increases the cost of production.

12. Compare organic farming with modern method of farming. Which one is better and why?
Ans. (1)
Organic Farming Modern Methods of Farming

(i)Organic farming is a form of agriculture.

(ii) It relies on techniques as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control.
(iii) It uses herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and strictly prohibits the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

(Iv) It does not affect the environment in a negative manner.
(i)The modern method of farming is the way of increasing agricultural production.

(ii) It uses new techniques of farming. It requires the optimum use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

(iii) It focuses on chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
(iv) It affects our environment adversely

Organic farming is better with a view to sustainability, health and safety, It is baited on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintains and enhances ecological harmony.

13. Describe the role of the farmers after the crop is harvested and production is complete.
Ans. (1) The farmers retain a part of the product say, wheat for the family’s consumption and sell the surplus wheat.
(2) Small farmers have little surplus wheat because their total production is small,
(3) So, it is the medium and large farmers who supply wheat to the market,
(4) The traders at the market buy the wheat and sell it further to shopkeepers in the towns and cities.
(5) A part of the earnings is saved and kept as buying capital for the next season. They also use their savings to lend to small farmers, to buy cattle, trucks or to set up shops.
14. State the importance of growing more than one crop on a piece of land.
Ans. (1) Growing more than one crop on a piece of land during a year is called multiple cropping.
(2) It is the most common way of increasing production. All farmers in Palampur have been practising this since the electric-run-tubewells were installed in the village.
(3) When two or three crops are grown on the same piece of land, the crop yield increases. For example, most farmers in Palampur raise three crops a year and earn more income.
(4) In spite of growing three crops in a year, soil fertility is maintained or can be maintained. This is done by rotating cereals with pulses, legumes, fodder crops, etc. which do nitrogen fixation in the soil.
(5) Another advantage in this cropping system is if one crop fails, the farmer may get some or adequate return from other crops.

15. When did the Green Revolution take place in India? What factors were responsible for it?
Ans. (1) Green Revolution took place in India in the late 1960s.
(2)(i) Till the mid-1960s, the seeds used in cultivation were traditional ones with relatively low yields.
(ii) India was dependent on other countries for its food needs.
(iii) The US became reluctant to supply wheat due to political reasons.

16. How is the distribution of land among farmers related to the productivity from the land?
Ans. (1) In India, small farmers account for 80% of the total farmers who have less than 2 hectares of land. They cultivate only on 36% of the total cultivable land.
(2) On the other hand, medium and large farmers account for only 20% of the total number of farmers in India who have more than two hectares of land. They cultivate on 64% of the total cultivable land.
(3) Such an unequal distribution of land results in low productivity from the land. Those who have no land or a small piece of land become idle for many months of the year and have to face underemployment. On the other hand, large farmers are unable to manage their big piece of land. This results in low productivity from land.

17. Differentiate between land and capital. State the most important factor of production for modern farming methods.
Ans. (1) (i) The land is a free natural resource or gift of nature. On the other hand, capital is a man-made factor of production.
(ii) The land is fixed asset and a passive factor of production while capital is an active factor of production i.e., it changes with time.
(2) The most important factor of production for modem farming methods is capital. This is because the modem farming methods require a great deal of capital. Farmers now need more money than before as modern methods of farming to require more inputs which are manufactured in the industry.

18. Describe any four modern methods of farming which heralded the Green Revolution. Write one harmful effect of the Green Revolution.
Ans. (1) The following are mode Methods of farming which heralded the Green Revolution :
(i)A well-developed system of irrigation provide assured supply of water for agriculture.
(ii) Use of HYV seeds makes it possible to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant. Use of fertilizers and insecticides helps in increasing production and obtaining the best results.
(iii) Use of modem machinery is made in all farming operations. It increases efficiency and production.
(iv) Multiple cropping is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land.
(2) Modern farming methods used under the Green Revolution haw really over-used the natural resource base. Its overall weakness affects our environment.

19. What was the Green Revolution and how did it solve the food crisis in India? Explain.

Or

How did the Green Revolution solve the food crisis in India? Explain.
Ans. (1) Green Revolution is the term used to describe the sudden and rapid increase especially in the production of wheat and rice through a new strategy of agricultural development introduced in the late 1960s in India. Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out the modern farming methods in India.
(2)(i) Use of advanced technology, i.e., HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticide3, well-developed system of irrigation, etc. increased the production of foodgrains solving the food crisis in India.
(ii) This led to higher income growth and reduced poverty.
(iii) Also, this resulted in the commercialisation of agriculture.

20. Explain the ill-effects of the Green Revolution.

Or

How has the environment been adversely affected by the Green Revolution? Explain.

Or

Write any three negative effects of Green Revolution on the environment.

Or

Explain any three negative effects of Green revolution.
Ans. The following are the ill-effects of Green Revolution:
(1)Modern fanning methods used under the Green Revolution have really overused the natural resource base. Its overall weakness affects our environment.
(2) In many areas, especially in Punjab and Haryana, loss of soil fertility has been reported due to the increased use of chemical fertilizers. They kill useful bacteria and other micro-organisms in the soil.
(3) Continuous and increased use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced the water table much below the ground. Many wells have gone dry
(4) Overuse of chemical fertilizers has also polluted the groundwater, rivers and lakes. Water has become unsafe for drinking.
(5) Remarkably, the environmental resources like soil fertility and groundwater are built-up over many years. Their destruction is easy but the restoration of the same is very difficult. The future development of agriculture depends on how well we take care of our environment.

21. How are the farmers in the village Palampur able to grow more crops from the same land? Explain in five points.
Ans. (1) The main reason why farmers are able to grow three different crops in a year in Palampur is due to the well-developed system of irrigation.
(2) Electricity came early to Palampur. Most of the houses have electric connections.
(3) Its major impact was to transform the system of irrigation. Persian wheels were earlier used by farmers to draw water from the wells and irrigate small fields.
(4) People say that the electric-run tubewells could irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively.
(5) The first few tubewells were installed by the government. Soon, however, farmers started setting up private tubewells. By mid-1970s, the entire cultivated area of 200 hectares was irrigated.
(6) To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping. It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land.

22. How do the chemical fertilizers affect the soil, groundwater, rivers and lakes? What were the effects of use of chemical fertilizers in Punjab?

Or

Which Indian state has the highest consumption of chemical fertilizer? What are its consequences?
Ans. (1) (i) Chemical fertilizers provide minerals which dissolve in water and are immediately available to plants.
(ii) But these may not be retained in the soil for long. They may escape from the soil and pollute groundwater, rivers and lakes.
(iii) Chemical fertilizers can kill useful bacteria and other micro-organisms in the soil. This means sometime after their use, the soil will be less fertile than ever before.
(2)(i) The consumption of chemical fertilizers in Punjab is the highest in the country.
(ii) The continuous use of chemical fertilizers has led to the degradation of soil health.
(iii) Punjab farmers are now forced to use more and more chemical fertilizers and other inputs to achieve the same production level. This means the cost of cultivation is rising very fast.

23. How far do you agree that the distribution of cultivated land is unequal in Palampur Where do you find a similar situation in India? Explain.
Ans. (1) (i) I do agree that the distribution of cultivated land is unequal in Palampur.
(ii) It is clear from the fact that about 150 families of the total 450 families of Palampur are landless. They have no land for cultivation.
(iii) Of the remaining families, 240 families cultivate small plots of land less than 2 hectares in size.
(iv) While 60 families of this village possess more than 2 hectares of land each, a few of them possess 10 hectares each or more land.
(2)(i) I find a similar situation throughout the Indian States.
(ii) Small farmers account for 80% of the total farmers who possess only 36% of the total cultivated area.
(iii) While 20% of the total farmers, i.e., medium and large farmers have 64% of the total cultivated area.

24. “Green Revolution is associated with loss of soil fertility” In the light of the statement mention five problems caused by modern fanning.

Or

How has the environment been adversely affected by the Green Revolution? Explain.
Ans. (1) Modern farming methods under the Green Revolution, have really overused the natural resource base. Its overall weakness affects our environment.
(2)In many areas e.g., Punjab, loss of soil fertility has been reported due to the increased use of chemical fertilizers.
(3) Continuous and increased use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced the water-table much below the ground. Many wells have gone dry.
(4) Overuse of chemical fertilizers has also polluted the groundwater, rivers and lakes.
(5) Environmental resources like soil fertility and groundwater are built up over many years. Their destruction is easy but the restoration of the same is very difficult.

25. Farmers of which two states were the first to use modern farming methods in India? Mention any four positive effects of it.
Ans. (1) The farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to use modem farming methods in India.
(2)(i) Modern farming methods increased the productivity of the land.
(ii) It increased foodgrain production in the country
(iii) It brought the Green Revolution in the 1960s which resulted in a high increase in the production of cereal grains, particularly wheat and rice.
(iv) Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and the Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out the modern farming methods in India.

26. Why is it important to develop irrigation facilities? Explain.

Or

Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?
Ans. (1) Rainfall in some areas is not adequate as well as it is uncertain in Deccan and central India, Punjab, Rajasthan, etc. In these areas, artificial irrigation is quite necessary. Without it, cultivation is almost impossible here.
(2) There are certain areas where rainfall is adequate but is concentrated in a short period of the year. The rest of the year is dry. So in these areas, irrigation facilities will be helpful in growing more than one crop in a year.
(3) In addition, there are certain food and cash crops such as rice, wheat, sugarcane, which require an adequate and regular supply of water.
(4) Moreover, HYV seeds need plenty of water.
(5) only a small part of the land in our country is under irrigation. Hence, it should be increased.

27. What problems do farm labourers face in terms of employment? Explain any three problems.
Ans. (1) Farm labourers are landless labourers. They have no right over the crops grown on the land on which they work.
(2) Wages of farm labourers vary widely from region to region, from crop to crop and from one farm activity to another.
(3) There is also a wide variation in the duration of employment. It may be on a daily basis, or for one farm activity say, harvesting, or for the whole year.
(4) Large farmers in Palampur are now increasingly using farm machinery. So, the working days of these farm labourers are getting further reduced due to mechanised farming.
(5) They are bound to be in debt-trap by village moneylenders due to various malpractices and high rate of interest.

28. How has electricity helped the farmers in Palampur?

Or

How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur? Describe in three points.
Ans. (1) It enabled to use the tube-wells. As a result, the entire cultivated area of 200 hectares of Palampur came under irrigation facilities.
(2) There were often mutual conflicts among farmers because of their due share of ponds or canal water. But, now they get rid of such quarrels.
(3) Electricity became helpful to run threshers for faster harvesting and for dams, etc.
(4) It helped in establishing small-scale industries and in self-employment.
(5) It helped in setting up the jaggery manufacturing unit.

29. State any five reasons as to why farm labourers are considered poor.

Or

State the condition of landless labours in India. Or Describe the condition of the farm labourers.
Ans. They are poor because :

(1) Farm labourers are generally landless.
(2) They have no permanent jobs. They have to look for work on a daily basis.
(3) They are not even paid minimum wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set Y the government is 60 per day, but they get only 35-40.
(4) They have a large family.
(5) They are illiterate, unhealthy and unskilled.

30. Where and why has the Green Revolution been started in India? What methods were used? Explain.
Ans. (1) Green Revolution was started in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.
(2) It was started to increase production on the same piece of land.
(3) Methods: Use of (i) HYV seeds, (ii) Fertilizers, (iii) Irrigation, (iv) Pesticides.
(4) Ploughing and harvesting have become faster.
(5) Farmers sell surplus food in the market. India has become self-sufficient in foodgrain production.

31. Explain the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land. Write two suitable examples to support your answer.

Or

State three main reasons why farmers were able to grow three different crops in a year in Palampur.

Or

How are the farmers in the village Palampur able to grow more crops from the same land? Explain in five points.

Or

Describe any three ways by which production can be increased from a fixed plot of land.

Or

Suggest any five methods to increase the production on the same land.
Ans. (1) Different ways of increasing production:
(i)Multiple Cropping: No land is left idle. More than one crop is grown on the same field in a year.
(ii) Modern Farming Methods: They include use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, tractors, threshers, etc.
(iii) Well-developed System of Irrigation: It refers to use of electric-run tubewells.
(2)Examples : (i) In Palampur, multiple cropping is done. During Kharif season farmers grow jawar and bajra followed by the cultivation of potato between October-December. In rabi season, wheat is produced.
(ii) In Palampur, modern farming methods provide a high yield. With HYV seeds, the yield has increased from 1300 kg to 3200 kg per hectare.

32. What is meant by the Green Revolution? Highlight its need and impact.
Ans. (1) In 1960s, the Green Revolution was introduced in India to get much greater yield by using High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
(2) Traditional seeds were very low yielding. To increase production, it was necessary to adopt modern farming methods.
(3) (i) The HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant.
(ii) Higher yields were possible only from a combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc.
(iii) Farmers had greater amounts of surplus wheat to sell in the market.

33. Write one difference between each of the following with examples : (a) Fixed Capital and Working Capital

(b) Land and Capital

(c) Modern Farming Method and Multiple Cropping Method.
Ans. (a)
Fixed Capital Working Capital
(i)The fixed capital comprises tools, machines and buildings.

(ii) It can be used in production for many years e.g., machines.
(i)The working capital includes raw materials and money in hand.

(ii)It is used up in day-to-day processes of production e.g., raw materials.(b)
Land Capital
(i)The land is a free natural resource or gift of nature.

(ii) It is a fixed asset and a passive factor of production. (i)Capital is a man-made factor of production.

(ii) It is an active factor of production. It changes with time,

(c)
Multiple Cropping Method Modern Farming Method
(i)Multiple cropping method refers to growing more than one crop on the same piece of land during a year.

(ii) It is the most common way of increasing production. All farmers in Palampur have been practising this since the electric-run- tubewells were installed in the village. (i)Modern methods of farming make use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation methods for more farm output.
(ii) It was mainly associated with the Green Revolution in the late 1960s.

34. Explain the distribution of land among farmers in Palampur.

Or

How is land distributed amongst the farmers of Palampur? Explain.

Or

Describe the land distribution of the farmers of Palampur?
Ans. (1) In Palampur, about 1/3rd of 450 families are landless.
(2) Of the remaining families who own land, 240 families cultivate small plots of land less than 2 hectares in size.
(3) On the other hand, more than half the area of the village is covered by plots that are quite large in size.
(4) 60 families of medium and large farmers cultivate the land of more than 2 hectares.
(5) A few of the large farmers have land extending over 10 hectares or more.

35. What is land? Suggest any three ways to sustain the land.
Ans. (1) The land is the basic natural resource required as a factor or an input in any production activity, Various activities or human activities take place on land which is a fixed asset.
(2) (i) The land is a free gift of nature. So, it is necessary that we should be very careful in use. We must avoid pollution of land.
(ii) Soil is a vital part of the land and the basis of agricultural activities. So, it becomes necessary that we should use bin-compost and eco-friendly methods in place of using chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
(iii) We have to see that modern farming methods are used scientifically in such a way that the natural resource base that the land provides is saved from further damage.
(iv) Some farming practices can if used carefully and judiciously, certainly help in making land sustainable. Such practices include the intensity of cropping, rotation of crops, multiple cropping, fallowing, etc.
(v) We should give encouragement to community agriculture system or co-operative farming, instead of individual farming which is often exploitative. This could be another way of sustaining land productivity.

36. What are modern farming methods? Explain their drawbacks.

Or

What do you understand by modern farming methods? Explain.
Ans. (1) Modern farming methods use new techniques of farming. It requires the optimum use of the following inputs :
(i)Chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
(ii) HYV seeds of different crops.
(iii) Continuous and assured irrigation facilities.
(2)(i) The modern farming methods require the farmer to start with more cash than before.
(ii) There has been a loss of soil fertility due to the increased use of chemical fertilizers.

37. What is meant by Green Revolution? Mention some of its features.

Or

What is meant by Green Revolution? What are its features?

Or

What are the important features of Green Revolution?
Ans. (1) Green Revolution is the name given to the new agricultural technology or techniques of farming adopted in the late 1960s in India. It led to rapid and high output in the agricultural production, particularly the foodgrains.
(2)(i) Its most significant feature was the use of high yielding and early maturing varieties of seeds, called HYV seeds, in some selected areas of the country
(ii) These high-yielding varieties of seeds required the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides on a large scale.
(iii) Modern irrigation techniques were used. Continuous and assured irrigation facilities were a prime necessity.
(iv) Agriculture was selectively mechanised. Agricultural machinery comprising tractors, harvesters, threshers, etc. was used on an increasingly large scale. These devices saved time and created efficiency in agricultural operations.
(v) Some other incentives included fair prices of crops, better marketing facilities, easy bank loans, transport facilities, etc.

38. Why do modern farming methods require more capital? Explain.
Ans. (1) Modern farming methods need inputs like chemical fertilizers, pesticides, tractors, etc. which are manufactured in industry. So, they require the farmer to start with more cash than before.
(2) In modern farming methods, HYV seeds are used which require more irrigation.
(3) In traditional method, the farmers use cow-dung as a natural fertilizer, which they do not need to buy while chemical fertilizers need more cash to buy from the market.
(4) Modern farming is machine-oriented. Hence, farmers need more capital to purchase them.
(5) To operate the machines, semi-skilled or skilled manpower is required which needs more investments.

39. How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from obtaining capital by small farmers?
Ans. (1) (i) The medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming as they have large or big landholdings. They are, thus, able to arrange their capital needs for themselves.
(ii) The banks are also helpful to them in providing big loans because they can provide banks with the required collaterals.
(2)(i) On the other hand, most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for their capital needs.
(ii) They borrow from large farmers or the village money-lenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation.

NON-FARM ACTIVITIES IN PALAMPUR

Very Short Answers:-

1. In which type of activity is dairy farming included?
Ans. Agriculture and related activities.

2. At present, what is the percentage of the people who are engaged in rural areas in non-farm activities in India?
Ans. 24%

Short Answers:-
1. Describe the three features of small-scale manufacturing as a non-farm activity in Palampur.
Ans. (1) Less than 50 people are engaged in manufacturing in Palampur.
(2) Manufacturing in Palampur involves very simple production methods and are d one on a small-scale.


(3) Manufacturing activities are carried out mostly at home or in the fields with the help of family labour. Labourers are hired rarely.

Long Answers:-
1. Explain the importance of non-farm activities in the rural economy.
Ans. (1) Non-farm activities are increasingly playing an important role in the development of rural areas in India where agriculture is declining in its contribution to the economy.
(2) The rural non-farm sector provides employment and income to many rural folks. In Palampur village, about 25% of working people are engaged in activities other than agriculture.
(3) It improves the marketing links between the village entrepreneurs and the large business firms located in towns. For example, ‘dairy’ is found to be the common non-farm activity where milk is transported to faraway towns and cities.
(4) It includes human resource development and women participation with a view to making the activities self-sustaining in the changing competitive environment.
(5) It also curbs the migration from rural to urban areas in search of employment. This is because of the seasonal nature of employment and disguised unemployment in the agriculture sector.

2. List the non-farm activities in village Palampur. Which one activity do you feel to be important? Explain.

Or

Mention any four non-farm activities of village Palampur. Which activity do you feel most useful for the villagers? Give any two reasons.

Or

Name any four non-farm production activities practised in Palampur. Give a brief description of any three.

Or

Describe non-farming activities of production in village Palampur.
Ans. (1) The following are the non-farm activities in the village, Palampur
(i)Dairy: This is a common activity in many families of Palampur. People feed their cattle with grass, jowar and bajra. Milk is sold in nearby village. It is sent to the collection centre for further transportation to cities.
(ii) Small-scale manufacturing: People use very simple production method. These activities are mostly done by family members. These are carried out mostly at home.
(iii) Shop-keeping: People buy products from wholesale market in the city and sell in villages. Items include wheat, rice, sugar, oil, biscuits, soaps, candles, etc. Some opened shops at bus stop to sell eatables.
(iv) Transport: There are various means of transport in the village Palampur like rickshaw, tonga, jeep, tractors and trucks, etc. They carry people and goods. The number of people associated with this activity is continuously increasing.
(v) Self-employed: There are various coaching institutes like computer centre. There are also stitching lesson centres. Various centres train more and more people in non-farm activities.
(2) I feel small-scale manufacturing to be important due to the following reasons :
(i) It would fetch high returns.
(ii) Labour and raw materials would be easily available there.

3. What can be done, so that more non-farming activities can be started in the villages?

Or

What can be done to increase non-farm activities in Indian villages?
Ans. (1) The villagers should be made aware of the features and benefits of different non-farm production activities. If they know how they can earn more money from these activities, they will certainly start and expand such activities.
(2) The government should provide loan to the villagers at a lower rate of interest so that they could start these activities.
(3) Easy and cheap transport facilities will certainly encourage non-farm production activities.
(4) The government should provide marketing assistance to the villagers because their products are often unstandardised.
(5) The development of small-scale enterprises in villages is hampered by the present low level of technical knowhow and shortage of trained and experienced personnel. So, the government should provide training for them to encourage such activities.

4. What are the various farming and non-farming activities in village Palampur?

Or

What is the main production activity in Palampur? Explain any four non-farm activities done in this village.
Ans. (1) Farming activities covering 75% of the population in Palampur: This is the main production activity in Palampur.
(i)These activities are related to agriculture or.cultivation of crops.
(ii) Farming activities include ploughing the land, sowing seeds, irrigating fields, manuring and weeding, spraying insecticides, harvesting the crop, etc.
(2) Non-fanning activities: Only 25% of the people working in Palampur are engaged in activities other than agriculture. These are as follows :
(i) Dairy-keeping: Milk is sold in Raiganj.
(ii) Small-scale manufacturing: It is mostly carried out at home or in the fields.
(iii) Shop-keeping: Some people in Palampur are involved in trade. Shop-keepers buy various goods and eatables in the cities and sell them through small general stores in the village.
(iv) Some people are also engaged in transport services. They include rickshaw wallahs, tonga wallahs, jeep, tractor and truck drivers and those driving bullock cart and bogey.

5. Explain any five efforts which can be made to increase non-farming production activities in villages.
Ans. (1) Increased infrastructure is the most important priority for the future.
(2) Small-scale sector, especially in rural areas, needs to be protected by capital investment restrictions so that they are not taken away by corporates.
(3) Forward linkages of the non-fanning sector serve as inputs to other sectors. In backward linkages, the non-farming sector demands the outputs.
(4) Education and health of the people especially in rural areas need to be looked after.
(5) It is very important to create general awareness among the villagers regarding the scope and variety of new non-farm activities which could be started by them in their homes or outside. The existing activities need to be improved.

6. Name any four non-farm activities. Suggest any three measures to be taken to promote them.
Ans. (1) Examples of non-farm activities are :
(i)Dairy farming

(ii) Small-scale manufacturing

(iii) Shop-keeping

(iv) Transportation

(2) Measures to enhance non-farm activities :
(i) The government should provide cheaper loans and people should be encouraged to use savings as working capital.
(ii) New markets should be looked for.
(iii) There should be well-connected roads, transport and communication.

VALUE-BASED QUESTIONS

1.”There are many factors responsible for the poor economic condition of farm labourers 24 villages,”
As the Main-head you visited a nearby village with your school-mates. The Principal has asked you to give a report on the conditions of farm labourers there or the factors responsible for them. Prepare the list of the factors.
Ans. (1) Landlessness. (2) Seasonal unemployment.
(3) Indebtedness. (4) Illiteracy and ignorance.
(5) Use of traditional tools in farming.

2. “Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers or the village money-lenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. They are put to great distress to repay the loan.”
(1) Generally what are the terms on which small farmers are given loan by money-lenders and big farmers?
(2) What is the alternative form of loan a farmer can take nowadays and what is its value?
Ans. (1) (i) Small farmers are given a loan at high rate of interest e.g., 24% per annum. (ii) They have to promise to work on his field as a farm labourer during the busy harvest season at wages lower than the market rate.
(2) (i) These days a farmer can take a loan from a bank. Value :
(a) Low rate of interest. (b) No unjust terms and conditions.
(ii) Small farmers can take a loan from the co-operatives also. Value :
(a) Low rate of interest. (b) No unjust terms and conditions.

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