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The Making of a Scientist Long Answer
Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:
1.’Success is failure turned inside out’. Prove the above statement with instances from the journey taken by Richard Albright from losing at the science fair to winning at the international fair.
Ans. Success is the fruit of failure. It never comes straight but through failure. This can be seen in the life of Richard Albright. Although he earned top grades in school, on everyday things he was just like every other kid. He faced many failures in his life but every failure strengthened his will to succeed. When he was in seventh grade he participated in County Science Fair with his slides of frog tissues. But he could not win a prize. This made him determined to win the prize and in his eighth grade, he again participated in the science fair with the experiment of viral disease in monarch caterpillars and won the prize. The very next Year he participated with his experiment of whether viceroy butterflies copy the monarch butterflies in order to save their life from the birds and this project won Albright, third prize in overall county science fair.
His experiment regarding gold spots of monarch liar which he built a device that showed. That the spots produced hormones necessary for the full development of butterflies won third prize in international science and engineering fair.
Next year his advanced experiments on the monarch pupa won him first place at the international science fair. Thus, for Richard Albright, we can say that success is failure turned inside out.
2. How does Richard Albright become a scientist?
Ans. Richard Ebright had been a curious child even when he was in kindergarten. His curiosity prompted him to collect rocks, fossils, coins and butterflies. His mother’s encouragement and his bright mind also contributed to making him a success. His mother got him all that he needed to develop his scientific bent of mind. His response to Dr Fredrick A. Urquhart to collect butterflies for his research gave him an opportunity in his endeavours. Then in the seventh grade, he got a hint of what real science is when he entered a country science fair and lost. He realized that winners had tried to do real experiments, not simply make a neat display. Thereafter, Ebright worked sincerely on every science project he got every year in school. Then he stood first in a county fair that gave him entry into international science and engineering fair where he won third place. He then went on to win the highest honours and graduated from Harvard. His high school research into the purpose of the spots on a monarch pupa eventually led him to his theory about cell life. Thus he became a renowned scientist.
3.”Richard Ebright was a successful scientist who gave a new theory of cells to the scientific world.” Elucidate.
Ans. Ebright tried experiments on butterflies for a science fair. In his project, in the second year of high school, he tried to explain the purpose of twelve tiny gold spots on a Monarch pupa. He found out that those spots produced a hormone necessary for the full development of a butterfly. He continued with his experiments even after graduation using sophisticated instruments of the university. He discovered the chemical structure of the hormone. He came across his new theory of cell life. It gave an answer to one of the questions — “How a cell can read the blueprint of DNA.“
4. Ebright’s backbone was his mother. How did she contribute to his learning? What kind of work did she find for him even at the dining table? What values did Ebright imbibe from his mother?
Discuss the role of Ebright’s mother in making him a scientist.
Ans. Ebright’s mother played an important role in making him a scientist. She motivated him to learn new things. She took him on trips, bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, mounting material and other equipment.
Every evening mother and son worked together at the dining table. If Ebright had nothing to do, she would find his work — learning work. He was a keen learner, liked learning and got `A’ grade throughout his schooling. She also bought him a book, `The Travels of Monarch X’, which opened the world of science to him. Ebright’s mother helped him to become a scientist by sustaining his interest in the scientific field.
Q.5. How did Ebright’s mother encourage him to become a scientist?
Ans. Ebright’s mother recognized his curiosity and encouraged him. She took him on trips. She also bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras and other equipment so that he could follow his hobbies. Ebright’s mother was his friend until he started going to school. She would bring home friends to him. Ebright’s mother would find work for him if he had nothing to do. She found learning tasks for him. He had a great hunger for learning. He earned top grades in school. By the time he was in second grade, he had collected 25 species of butterflies. One day his mother other gave him a children’s book. It opened the world of science to Ebright.
Q.6. Which book proved to be a turning point in Ebright’s life?
Ans. One day, Ebright’s mother gave him a book. That book was ‘The Travels of Monarch X’. It described readers were monarch butterflies migrate to Central America. This book fascinated him. At the end of the book, deere invited to help study butterfly migrations. They were asked to tag butterflies for research by Dr Frederick of Toronto University, Canada. Anyone who found a tagged butterfly was asked to send the tag to Dr Frederick. Ebright started tagging monarch, butterflies. The butterfly collecting season around Reading lasts only six weeks in late summer. He realized that chasing the butterflies one by one won’t enable him to catch many. So he decided to raise a flock of butterflies.
Q7. What experiments did Ebright do about monarch butterflies?
Ans. Ebright wrote to Dr Frederick for ideas. In reply, the famous scientist gave him many suggestions for experiments. These experiments kept Ebright busy all through high school. He also won many prizes in the county and international science fairs. Ebright tried to find the cause of a viral disease that killed all monarch caterpillars. He thought the disease might be carried by a beetle. He tried raising caterpillars in the presence of beetles. But he didn’t get any real results. But he showed his experiment in the science fair and won. The next year his science fair project was testing the theory that viceroy butterflies imitate monarchs. By copying monarchs, the viceroys escape being eaten by birds. This project was placed first in the zoology division and third overall in the county science fair.
Q.8. How did Ebright discover an unknown insect hormone?
Ans. In his second year in high school, Ebright’s research led to his discovery of an unknown insect hormone. Indirectly, it led to his new theory on the life of cells. He tried to answer a very simple question. What is the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa? To prove Ebright and one other student built a device that showed that the spots were producing a hormone. It was necessary for the butterfly’s full development. This project won Ebright first place in the county fair and entry into the International Science and Engineering Fair. There he won third place for zoology.
Q.9. How did Ebright get the idea for his new theory about cell life? How can this theory be beneficial?
Ans. One day, Ebright was seeing the X-ray photos of the chemical structure of cells. He got the idea for his new theory about cell life. Those photos provided him with the answer to one of biology’s puzzles: how the cell can ‘read’ the blueprint of its DNA. DNA is the substance in the nucleus of a cell that controls heredity. It is the blueprint for life. Ebright and his college room-mate James R. Wong drew pictures and constructed plastic models of molecules to show how it could happen. At the Harvard Medical School, Ebright began experimenting to test his theory. If the theory proves correct, it will be a big step towards understanding life processes. It might also lead to new ideas for preventing some types of cancer and other diseases.
Q10. Give a character sketch of Richard Ebright highlighting his achievements and his added interests.
Ans. Richard H Ebright was a many-faceted genius. He was a competent scientist, a lovable son, a respecting pupil and above all, a man with varied interests and hobbies. But first and foremost, he was a scientist. His fame rests on his wonderful works and achievement on butterflies. By the time he was in the second grade, Ebright collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around in his hometown. Ebright was a great learner. He learnt an important lesson at his first county science fair. He learnt that winners do real experiments than making a neat display. The book, Travels of Monarch X opened the world of science to the eager young collector. One of his famous projects was based on the theory that viceroy butterflies copied monarch butterflies to escape being eaten by birds. This project was placed first in the zoology division. Later, Ebright showed that the spots on a monarch pupa produced a hormone necessary for the butterfly’s development. He also proved that DNA controls heredity and is the blueprint for life.
Richard Ebright got all his encouragement, help and inspiration from his mother. He was her only companion and they spent almost every evening at the dining table. She encouraged his interest in learning. She bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras and other instruments for him. Dr Urquhart helped him with new suggestions and ideas. His Social Studies teacher, Richard A Weiherer, opened his mind to new ideas and made him competitive.
Richard Ebright was more than a scientist. He found time for other interests and hobbies. He was a champion debater and public speaker. He was a good canoeist and an expert photographer. He had a first-rate mind, competitive spirit and scientific curiosity.
Q11. Describe Richard Ebright’s various achievements in science, particularly his great work on the monarch butterflies. Who did Ebright look to for getting fresh ideas and suggestions?
Ans. Richard Ebright had all the necessary ingredients that are required in the making of a scientist. He had a first-rate mind, was competitive and had the will to win. Above all, he was a great collector and never lost his scientific curiosity. His scientific journey started very early. While he was still in the second grade, he had collected all the species of butterflies found around his hometown. The Travels of Monarch X was the book that changed his life. It opened the world of science to the eager collector. His failure at his first county science fair taught him an important lesson. He learnt that winners do real experiments. One of the most important projects of Richard Ebright was to prove that viceroy butterflies try to look like monarch butterflies. They do so to avoid being eaten by birds. Ebright also proved that twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa produced a hormone that was necessary for the butterfly’s full development. His other project won first place for zoology at the International Fair. It showed that if cells are fed the hormone from the gold spots, they can develop into normal butterfly wing scales. The crowning achievement of Ebright’s brilliant scientific career was his work on the chemical structure of a hormone. He proved that a cell can read the blueprint of its DNA and thus DNA controls heredity and is the blueprint for life.
Richard Ebright looked to Dr Urquhat for fresh ideas and suggestions. The book, The Travels of Monarch X, opened the world of science to him. He sent tagged butterflies to Dr Urquhart for his research works. Dr Urquhart’s new ideas and suggestions helped Ebright to achieve prizes and honours in the county and International Science Fairs.
Q12. How did The Travels of Monarch X open the world of science to Richard Ebright? Elaborate.
Ans. It is absolutely true that the book called The Travels of Monarch X changed the very course of Ebright’s life. That book told how monarch butterflies migrated to Central America. Richard Ebright was a passionate and eager collector. By the time he was in the second grade, he had collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown. Had he not got The Travels of MonarchX, Richard Ebright’s butterfly collecting would have ended. The book was a children’s book and was gifted to him by his mother. At the end of the book, readers were invited to help study butterfly migrations. They were asked to tag butterflies for research to Dr Urquhart. Soon, Ebright started sending tagged butterflies to Dr Urquhart of the University of Toronto, Canada. Then, Ebright started raising a flock of butterflies in his basement. For several years his basement was home to thousands of monarch butterflies in different stages of development.
Dr Urquhart had a dominating influence on Richard Ebright’s life. He made him do elaborate experiments on monarch butterflies. Ebright succeeded in proving that viceroy butterflies copy monarch butterflies to avoid being eaten by birds. He also showed how DNA controls heredity and is the blueprint for life.
Q13. Describe the contribution of his mother in Richard Ebright’s life. What role did she play in making Ebright a scientist?
Ans. They say that behind the success of a man stands a woman. And in Richard Ebright’s success as a scientist and also as a man, solidly stood his mother. Richard Ebright’s father had died when he was just in the third grade. “Richie was my life after his father died …,” said his mother. He was her only companion and they spent almost every evening at the dining table. Ebright’s mother encouraged his interest in learning. She knew that her son had a driving curiosity along with a bright mind. She took him on trips, bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, mounting materials and other equipment. She helped Ebright in many ways. She was an important link between Dr Urquhart and her son. She wrote to Dr Urquhart and after her advice, Ebright sent tagged butterflies to him in Canada. She knew that her son had a passion for collecting things. By the time he was in the second grade, Ebright had collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown. His interest in his butterfly collecting would have ended had she not got him a children’s book called The Travels of Monarch X. That book told how monarch butterflies migrated to Central America. It opened the world of science to the eager collector.
Q14. How did Richard Ebright’s not winning anything at his first County Science Fair motivate him to become a great scientist? What lessons did he learn from his failure there?
Ans. Richard Ebright had started the work of butterflies and insects from a very early age. His main work was based on butterflies, particularly monarch butterflies. By the time he was in the second grade, he had collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown. But he learnt the lesson of his life when he was in the seventh grade. He got a hint of what real science was. He entered the County Science Fair with a project. His project was slides of frog tissues, which he showed under a microscope. In the fair, he failed miserably. He didn’t get anything while everybody else had won something. It was really a very sad feeling for him. From his first county science fair, Ebright came to know what real science was. He also learnt a lesson of knowing what made a winner. He realised his mistakes. He had only made a neat display of frog tissues under a microscope. He realised that winners had tried real experiments.
From then onwards, he looked to Dr Urquhart for new ideas and suggestions. Dr Urquhart gave him a number of suggestions for experiments. Continuous research and experimentations won him great honours and prizes locally as well as internationally.
Q15.What other interests, besides science did Richard Ebright pursue? Why did Ebright respect and praise his Social Studies teacher so much?
Ans.No doubt, first and foremost, Richard Ebright was a scientist. He was interested in science, he first began to collect butterflies. But this scientist found time for other interests too. He was a man of many parts — a multifaceted genius. Not only did he collect butterflies but also took a deep interest in other activities. He collected rocks, fossils, and coins. He became an eager astronomer. He would indulge in star-gazing sometimes all night. Ebright also became a champion debater and public speaker. In this field, his Social Studies teacher turned Ebright’s tremendous energy towards the Debating and Model United Nations Clubs. He was a good canoeist and all-around outdoors-person. He was also an expert photographer. He excelled in nature and scientific exhibits. In brief, besides being a remarkable scientist, Richard Ebright enjoyed all pleasures, adventures, hobbies and entertainments that a happy and civilised living provided to him.