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GSM — Global System for Mobile Communications
GSM Full-Form refers to Global System for Mobile Communications. GSM is a cellular technology that is most widely used all over the world in the present times. This technology was first deployed in the year 1991, and since then, its use has risen steadily. In the February month of the year 2004, the number of subscriber points reached the one billion mark. Now, the same is more than three billion and is still increasing. Initially, the designing of the GSM system was done as the 2G or second-generation cellular technology.
Among the basic goals of this system, one of them was to offer a system that has the capability of achieving higher capacity as compared to the analogue systems of the first generation. Through this technology, it became possible to accommodate more users within the accessible bandwidth. Additionally, for retaining privacy, the techniques of digital speech encoding started getting used. When the analogue technologies of cellular were used in the earlier times, it was easy to use a scanner receiver for listing the calls. This problem is not present in the case of GSM.
Network Structure of GSM
The network of GSM is divided into multiple different sections. These sections are the BSS or Base Station Subsystem, GPRS core network, NSS or Network and Switching System and the OSS or the operations support system. The BSS or Base Station Subsystem relates to the communications that are made using the mobile system on the network. It handles the traffic, as well as the signals that are transferred between the NSS or the Network Switching Subsystem and the mobile phone. It is also responsible for carrying out the speech channel’s transcoding, and it allocates the radio channels to the mobiles. Additionally, it carries out the transmitting and receiving of the signals, and other tasks pertaining to the radio network.
The GPRS core network allows the transmission of the IP packets by the WCDMA, 3G and 2G mobile networks to the external networks like the Internet. The main functions of this section of the network are to manage session and mobility and to provide transportation for the IP packet services in the WCDMA and GSM networks. It also supports lawful interception and billing. The NSS or Network Switching Subsystem is responsible for carrying out the functions like the mobility management and call switching for the mobile phones that are roaming on the base station’s network or the base station subsystem.
The operators of the mobile phones own and deploy the NSS, and allow the communication of the mobile devices with not only each other but also with telephones that are connected to the wider PSTN or Public Switched Telephone Network. The OSS or Operational Support Systems are used for managing mobile networks by service providers. The system helps by supporting management functions like network configuration, network inventory, fault management and service provisioning. Its other functions include service delivery, service assurance, network management systems, service fulfilment and customer care.
Carrier Frequencies of GSM
Numerous ranges of carrier frequencies are used by the GSM networks to operate. The majority of the 2G or second-generation GSM networks operate in either nine-hundred megahertz or eighteen hundred megahertz frequency bands. In places where these bands are already allotted to other purposes, for example, in the US and Canada, the frequency bands like eight hundred and fifty megahertz and nineteen hundred megahertz are used. In certain nations, four hundred megahertz, and four hundred and fifty megahertz frequencies are assigned, since these bands were used in the systems of the first generation. In Europe, the majority of the 3G or third generation networks operate in the frequency bands of twenty-one megahertz.