Important Full Forms of GK | Learn 650 + General Abbreviations Easily | Ultimate List

By | July 3, 2023

Knowing the full forms of commonly used acronyms in daily life is very important. We are providing important full forms of GK for your reference. These full forms of gk are helpful for your knowledge of quizzes as well as at several places. In this blog post, we’ve compiled a list of important full forms related to GK that will help you a lot in your daily life and even in some exams. From popular political terms to scientific jargon and everything in between, read on for an enlightening dose of GK trivia.

Important Full Forms of GK

Sr. No.AbbreviationFull FormShort Detail
1ATMAutomated Teller MachineATM stands for Automated Teller Machine, which is an electronic banking device used for various financial transactions such as cash withdrawal, depositing funds, checking account balances, and transferring money between accounts. It provides convenience and accessibility to account holders, operating 24/7.
2CEOChief Executive OfficerCEO stands for Chief Executive Officer, who is the top executive in an organization responsible for making major corporate decisions and managing overall operations to ensure long-term success.
3CFOChief Financial OfficerCFO stands for Chief Financial Officer, who is the head of financial management in an organization, responsible for financial planning, budgeting, reporting, and analysis.
4DIYDo It YourselfDIY stands for Do It Yourself, referring to the practice of self-made or self-repaired projects undertaken by individuals without professional assistance.
5FAQFrequently Asked QuestionsFAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions, which are commonly asked queries and their corresponding answers provided by organizations, websites, or service providers to address user concerns efficiently.
6GPSGlobal Positioning SystemGPS stands for Global Positioning System, which is a satellite-based navigation system that provides location and time information anywhere on Earth. It enables users to determine their precise position, velocity, and time using signals received from a network of satellites.
7HDMIHigh-Definition Multimedia InterfaceHDMI stands for High-Definition Multimedia Interface, which is a digital interface used for transmitting high-quality audio and video signals between devices. It is commonly used to connect devices such as TVs, monitors, DVD players, and gaming consoles, providing high-definition audio and video transmission.
8HTMLHypertext Markup LanguageHTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, which is the standard programming language used to create and structure web pages. It utilizes various tags and elements to define the structure, content, and layout of web documents, allowing browsers to interpret and display the information correctly.
9IBMInternational Business MachinesIBM stands for International Business Machines, which is a multinational technology company that provides hardware, software, and consulting services. IBM is known for its innovations in computing technology and has a significant presence in various industries, including cloud computing, artificial intelligence, and enterprise solutions.
10ICUIntensive Care UnitICU stands for Intensive Care Unit, which is a specialized department in a hospital that provides comprehensive and continuous care for critically ill patients. It is equipped with advanced medical equipment and staffed by healthcare professionals trained in critical care medicine.
11IOSiPhone Operating SystemIOS stands for iPhone Operating System, which is the operating system developed by Apple Inc. for its mobile devices, including iPhones, iPads, and iPods. iOS provides a user-friendly interface, app ecosystem, and security features tailored for Apple devices.
12NASANational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA stands for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which is the United States’ space agency responsible for civilian space exploration and research. NASA conducts missions, develops spacecraft and technologies, and explores scientific discoveries related to space and aeronautics.
13PDFPortable Document FormatPDF stands for Portable Document Format, which is a file format used for presenting and exchanging documents independent of software, hardware, or operating systems. PDF files preserve the formatting, fonts, and images of the original document and are widely used for sharing and printing documents.
14PINPersonal Identification NumberPIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which is a numeric password used for authentication or access to various systems, such as ATMs, credit/debit cards, and digital devices. PINs provide a secure way for individuals to verify their identity and protect their personal information.
15RAMRandom Access MemoryRAM stands for Random Access Memory, which is a type of computer memory that enables quick access to data for the processor. RAM stores data that is actively being used by the computer, allowing for faster retrieval and execution of instructions compared to other storage devices.
16RSVPRépondez s’il vous plaît (Please respond)RSVP is an abbreviation of the French phrase “Répondez s’il vous plaît,” which translates to “Please respond.” It is commonly used on invitations to request confirmation of attendance or regrets for an event.
17USBUniversal Serial BusUSB stands for Universal Serial Bus, which is a widely used interface for connecting devices to a computer or other electronic devices. USB allows for the transfer of data, power supply, and communication between devices, such as printers, keyboards, external storage, and smartphones.
18WiFiWireless FidelityWiFi stands for Wireless Fidelity, which refers to a technology that allows electronic devices to wirelessly connect to the internet or communicate with each other using radio waves. WiFi networks provide high-speed and convenient internet access in homes, offices, public spaces, and other locations.
19VPNVirtual Private NetworkVPN stands for Virtual Private Network, which is a secure network connection that allows users to access the internet privately and securely. It creates an encrypted tunnel between the user’s device and the internet, ensuring confidentiality and protecting sensitive data from potential threats or surveillance.
20AIDSAcquired Immunodeficiency SyndromeAIDS is a chronic and potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV weakens the immune system by attacking and destroying certain cells, specifically CD4+ T cells, which are crucial for fighting off infections and diseases.
21AM/FMAmplitude Modulation/Frequency ModulationAM stands for Amplitude Modulation, which is a method of transmitting radio waves by varying the amplitude of the signal. FM stands for Frequency Modulation, which is a method of transmitting radio waves by varying the frequency of the signal. Both AM and FM are widely used for broadcasting radio signals.
22BBCBritish Broadcasting CorporationBBC stands for British Broadcasting Corporation, which is a public service broadcaster based in the United Kingdom. The BBC produces and broadcasts a wide range of news, entertainment, educational, and cultural programming across various platforms, including television, radio, and online.
23CPUCentral Processing UnitCPU stands for Central Processing Unit, which is the primary component of a computer responsible for executing instructions and performing calculations. It serves as the “brain” of the computer, processing data and controlling the operations of the system.
24DNADeoxyribonucleic AcidDNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid, which is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions for the development, functioning, and reproduction of living organisms. DNA consists of a unique sequence of nucleotides and plays a fundamental role in heredity and the transmission of genetic information.
25DVDDigital Versatile DiscDVD stands for Digital Versatile Disc, which is an optical disc storage medium used for storing and playing back digital data, including movies, videos, and computer files. DVDs have higher storage capacity than CDs and are commonly used for distributing movies and other multimedia content.
26FYIFor Your InformationFYI stands for For Your Information, which is an abbreviation used to convey that the information being shared is provided for the recipient’s awareness or reference.
27HIVHuman Immunodeficiency VirusHIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which is a virus that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases.
28IQIntelligence QuotientIQ stands for Intelligence Quotient, which is a measure of a person’s cognitive abilities and intellectual potential. It is typically determined through standardized tests and provides an indication of relative intelligence compared to a peer group.
29JPEGJoint Photographic Experts GroupJPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, which is a commonly used image compression format. JPEG files employ a lossy compression technique to reduce file size while preserving visual quality and are widely used for storing and sharing digital images.
30LCDLiquid Crystal DisplayLCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display, which is a flat-panel display technology used in many electronic devices, including televisions, computer monitors, and smartphones. LCDs utilize liquid crystals that can be manipulated to control the passage of light, resulting in the display of images or text.
31LEDLight-Emitting DiodeLED stands for Light-Emitting Diode, which is a semiconductor device that emits light when an electric current passes through it. LEDs are energy-efficient, long-lasting light sources used in various applications, including lighting, displays, and indicators.
32PCPersonal ComputerPC stands for Personal Computer, which is a general-purpose computer designed for individual use. PCs are commonly used for tasks such as word processing, web browsing, multimedia playback, and gaming.
33ROMRead-Only MemoryROM stands for Read-Only Memory, which is a type of computer memory that stores data permanently and cannot be easily modified or erased. ROM is used to store firmware, software instructions, and other data that need to be retained even when the power is turned.
34SIMSubscriber Identity ModuleSIM stands for Subscriber Identity Module, which is a small removable smart card used in mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. The SIM card securely stores the subscriber’s information, including their unique identifier and network authentication data, allowing them to connect to a mobile network and access communication services.
35SMSShort Message ServiceSMS stands for Short Message Service, which is a text messaging service available on mobile phones and other communication devices. SMS allows users to send short text-based messages to other phone numbers, typically limited to a maximum length of 160 characters per message.
36UFOUnidentified Flying ObjectUFO stands for Unidentified Flying Object, which refers to any object or phenomenon observed in the sky that cannot be readily identified or explained. UFOs are often associated with claims of extraterrestrial spacecraft or other unexplained aerial phenomena.
37URLUniform Resource LocatorURL stands for Uniform Resource Locator, which is the address used to identify and locate resources on the internet. A URL typically consists of a protocol (such as HTTP or HTTPS), domain name, and path, providing a unique address for accessing web pages, files, or other online resources.
38Wi-FiWireless FidelityWi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity, which is a technology that allows electronic devices to connect to a wireless local area network (WLAN) and access the internet. Wi-Fi uses radio waves to transmit data between devices, providing wireless connectivity for devices such as smartphones, laptops, and routers.
39CRMCustomer Relationship ManagementCRM stands for Customer Relationship Management, which refers to a set of strategies, practices, and technologies used by businesses to manage and analyze interactions with their customers. CRM systems help organizations enhance customer satisfaction, streamline sales and marketing processes, and improve customer retention and loyalty.
40DSLRDigital Single-Lens ReflexDSLR stands for Digital Single-Lens Reflex, which is a type of digital camera that uses a mirror and a prism system to reflect light from the lens into the viewfinder. DSLR cameras provide high-quality images, manual controls, and the ability to change lenses, making them popular among photography enthusiasts and professionals.
41ETAEstimated Time of ArrivalETA stands for Estimated Time of Arrival, which is an approximation of when a person or an object is expected to arrive at a specific location. ETA is often used in transportation, logistics, and navigation to provide information about the expected arrival time to customers, recipients, or travelers.
42GIFGraphics Interchange FormatGIF stands for Graphics Interchange Format, which is a file format used for storing and displaying animated or static images. GIFs support multiple frames and can be used to create short animated sequences or looping images commonly used in online communication and social media.
43ISPInternet Service ProviderISP stands for Internet Service Provider, which is a company or organization that provides internet access to individuals, businesses, and other entities. ISPs offer various types of internet connections, such as broadband, DSL, cable, or fiber optic, allowing users to connect to the internet and access online services.
44LTELong-Term EvolutionLTE stands for Long-Term Evolution, which is a standard for wireless communication and high-speed data transmission used in mobile networks. LTE provides faster and more efficient data transfer rates, enabling activities such as streaming, video calling, and online gaming on mobile devices.
45MbpsMegabits Per SecondMbps stands for Megabits Per Second, which is a unit of measurement used to quantify data transfer speed in telecommunications and computer networks. It represents the rate at which data can be transmitted or received, with higher Mbps values indicating faster data transfer capabilities.
46MP3MPEG Audio Layer 3MP3 stands for MPEG Audio Layer 3, which is a popular digital audio encoding format. MP3 files compress audio data while maintaining a good balance between file size and sound quality. MP3 is widely used for storing and playing back music and other audio recordings.
47NGONon-Governmental OrganizationNGO stands for Non-Governmental Organization, which is a non-profit organization that operates independently of government control. NGOs are typically driven by a social, environmental, or humanitarian mission and work to address various issues, provide services, and advocate for positive change.
48OTGOn-The-GoOTG stands for On-The-Go, which refers to a technology that allows portable electronic devices, such as smartphones and tablets, to directly connect and interact with peripherals, such as USB drives, keyboards, or cameras. OTG enables devices to function as hosts, expanding their connectivity and functionality.
49PNRPassenger Name RecordPNR stands for Passenger Name Record, which is a unique identifier used in the travel industry to store and retrieve information about a passenger’s itinerary. PNRs contain details such as flight/train reservations, seat assignments, and contact information, facilitating the management of travel arrangements.
50RSSReally Simple SyndicationRSS stands for Really Simple Syndication, which is a web feed format used to distribute frequently updated content from websites, blogs, and other online sources. RSS allows users to subscribe to their favorite sources and receive updates in a standardized format, simplifying the consumption of new content.
51SaaSSoftware-as-a-ServiceSaaS stands for Software-as-a-Service, which is a software delivery model where applications are hosted and provided to users over the internet. With SaaS, users can access and use software applications without the need for installation, maintenance, or infrastructure management.
52SOPStandard Operating ProcedureSOP stands for Standard Operating Procedure, which is a documented set of step-by-step instructions or guidelines that outline how to carry out specific tasks or operations. SOPs are used to ensure consistency, efficiency, and compliance with established protocols in various industries and organizations.
53SUVSports Utility VehicleSUV stands for Sports Utility Vehicle, which is a type of vehicle designed for both on-road and off-road use. SUVs typically feature a spacious interior, high ground clearance, and the ability to accommodate passengers and cargo comfortably. They are popular for their versatility and often offer four-wheel drive capabilities.
54TBTerabyteTB stands for Terabyte, which is a unit of digital information storage equal to approximately one trillion bytes. It is commonly used to measure large amounts of data storage capacity, such as in hard drives, solid-state drives, and cloud storage services.
55WANWide Area NetworkWAN stands for Wide Area Network, which is a network that covers a large geographical area, connecting multiple local area networks (LANs) together. WANs enable the transmission of data and communication across long distances, typically through public or private telecommunications networks.
56CCTVClosed-Circuit TelevisionCCTV stands for Closed-Circuit Television, which refers to a system of video cameras and monitors used for surveillance and security purposes. CCTV systems capture and record video footage of specific areas or premises, allowing for monitoring, crime prevention, and evidence gathering.
57EODEnd of DayEOD stands for End of Day, which refers to the close of a business day or a specific time period. EOD is often used in financial, accounting, and operational contexts to mark the completion of daily tasks, processes, or reporting.
58FMCGFast-Moving Consumer GoodsFMCG stands for Fast-Moving Consumer Goods, which refers to products that are sold quickly and at a relatively low cost. FMCG products are typically consumed or replenished frequently, such as food and beverages, personal care items, cleaning products, and over-the-counter medications.
59GPRSGeneral Packet Radio ServiceGPRS stands for General Packet Radio Service, which is a mobile data service used in 2G and 3G cellular networks. GPRS allows mobile devices to transmit and receive data packets, enabling internet access, email services, and various mobile applications.
60HRHuman ResourcesHR stands for Human Resources, which refers to the department within an organization responsible for managing and overseeing various aspects of employee-related functions. HR encompasses activities such as recruitment, hiring, training, benefits administration, employee relations, and compliance with labor laws.
61HTTPSHypertext Transfer Protocol SecureHTTPS stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure, which is the secure version of the HTTP protocol used for transferring data between a web browser and a website. HTTPS employs encryption and authentication mechanisms to ensure secure and private communication, commonly used for online transactions and protecting sensitive information.
62MRIMagnetic Resonance ImagingMRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which is a medical imaging technique that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to generate detailed images of the internal structures of the body. MRI is commonly used for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions.
63NFCNear Field CommunicationNFC stands for Near Field Communication, which is a short-range wireless communication technology that allows devices in close proximity to exchange data. NFC is often used for contactless payment systems, mobile device pairing, data transfer, and access control.
64OTPOne-Time PasswordOTP stands for One-Time Password, which is a temporary and unique password that is valid for a single login session or transaction. OTPs are commonly used as an additional security measure for authentication purposes, providing an extra layer of protection against unauthorized access.
65PHPHypertext PreprocessorPHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor, which is a popular server-side scripting language used primarily for web development. PHP is embedded within HTML code and allows developers to create dynamic web pages, interact with databases, and perform various server-side functions.
66POPPost Office ProtocolPOP stands for Post Office Protocol, which is an internet standard protocol used for retrieving email messages from a mail server to a client device. POP enables users to download and store their email locally, typically removing the messages from the server in the process.
67QAQuality AssuranceQA stands for Quality Assurance, which refers to the process of ensuring that products, services, or processes meet the required quality standards. QA involves systematic evaluation, testing, and monitoring to identify and address any deviations or issues that could impact quality.
68RIPRest in PeaceRIP stands for Rest in Peace, which is an expression used to convey condolences or express respect for someone who has passed away. It is commonly used as a tribute to honor the deceased.
69SATScholastic Assessment TestSAT stands for Scholastic Assessment Test, which is a standardized test administered to high school students in the United States as part of the college admissions process. The SAT measures students’ readiness for college-level academics and is used by many colleges and universities as a factor in the admissions decision.
70SEOSearch Engine OptimizationSEO stands for Search Engine Optimization, which is the practice of optimizing a website’s content, structure, and other elements to improve its visibility and ranking in search engine results. SEO techniques aim to increase organic (non-paid) traffic to a website by making it more relevant and accessible to search engines.
71TGIFThank God It’s FridayTGIF is an acronym for “Thank God It’s Friday,” which is a popular expression used to express relief, excitement, or anticipation for the end of the workweek and the arrival of the weekend.
72ZIPZone Improvement PlanZIP stands for Zone Improvement Plan, which refers to the postal code system used in the United States. ZIP codes are used to facilitate efficient mail sorting, delivery, and address identification by assigning unique numerical codes to specific geographic areas.
73ADAnno DominiAD stands for Anno Domini, which is a Latin phrase meaning “in the year of our Lord.” AD is used in the Gregorian calendar to denote years after the birth of Jesus Christ.
74AKAAlso Known AsAKA stands for Also Known As, which is used to indicate an alternative name or alias for a person, place, or thing.
75B2BBusiness-to-BusinessB2B stands for Business-to-Business, which refers to commercial transactions or relationships between two businesses rather than involving consumers. B2B interactions involve the exchange of goods, services, or information between companies, such as manufacturers, wholesalers, and suppliers.
76B2CBusiness-to-ConsumerB2C stands for Business-to-Consumer, which refers to commercial transactions or relationships between a business and individual consumer. B2C interactions involve the sale of goods, services, or information directly to the end-user or consumer.
77CIOChief Information OfficerCIO stands for Chief Information Officer, which is a senior executive position responsible for managing an organization’s information technology (IT) strategy, systems, and operations. The CIO oversees the implementation and use of technology to support the organization’s goals and objectives.
78CVCurriculum VitaeCV stands for Curriculum Vitae, which is a document that provides a summary of a person’s education, work experience, skills, and accomplishments. A CV is typically used in academic and professional contexts, especially when applying for jobs, scholarships, or academic positions.
79DNDDo Not DisturbDND stands for Do Not Disturb, which is a feature or setting commonly found in electronic devices, such as smartphones. When activated, DND mode blocks incoming calls, notifications, and other distractions to ensure uninterrupted focus or privacy.
80ASAPAs Soon As PossibleASAP is an acronym for As Soon As Possible, which is used to convey the urgency or promptness required for a particular task, action, or response. It signifies the need for immediate attention or action without unnecessary delay.
81RIPRest In PeaceRIP stands for Rest In Peace, which is an expression used to convey condolences or express respect for someone who has passed away. It is commonly used as a tribute to honor the deceased.
82COOChief Operating OfficerCOO stands for Chief Operating Officer, which is a senior executive position responsible for overseeing the day-to-day operations of a company. The COO is typically responsible for managing and optimizing the organization’s operational processes, ensuring efficient and effective functioning.
83DSLRDigital Single-Lens ReflexDSLR stands for Digital Single-Lens Reflex, which refers to a type of digital camera that uses a mirror and prism system to reflect light from the lens to the viewfinder. DSLRs offer advanced features, interchangeable lenses, and high-quality image capture, making them popular among professional and enthusiast photographers.
84DSPDeputy Superintendent of PoliceDSP stands for Deputy Superintendent of Police, which is a rank in the police department, particularly in some countries. The DSP typically holds a supervisory role and assists the Superintendent of Police in maintaining law and order, enforcing regulations, and investigating crimes.
85IQIntelligence QuotientIQ stands for Intelligence Quotient, which is a measure of a person’s cognitive abilities and intellectual potential. It is typically determined through standardized tests and compares an individual’s performance to the average performance of others in their age group.
86CSTChhatrapati Shivaji TerminusCST stands for Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, which is a historic railway station located in Mumbai, India. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and serves as a major transportation hub, connecting various railway lines and facilitating the movement of passengers and goods.
87CSTCentral Standard TimeCST also stands for Central Standard Time, which is a time zone observed in several regions, particularly in North America. CST is usually six hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-6) and is commonly used in parts of the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
88OKOll Korrect or Olla KallaOK is a widely used term that originated from various sources, including “oll korrect” and “olla kalla.” It is used to signify agreement, acknowledgement, or approval. OK has become a universal term in the English language and is recognized globally.
89AMAnte MeridianAM stands for Ante Meridian, which refers to the time period from midnight to noon. It is used to denote the morning hours before noon in the 12-hour time format.
90PMPost MeridianPM stands for Post Meridian, which refers to the time period from noon to midnight. It is used to denote the afternoon and evening hours in the 12-hour time format.
91ATMAutomated Teller MachineATM stands for Automated Teller Machine, which is an electronic banking device that allows customers to perform various financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, balance inquiries, fund transfers, and more. ATMs are commonly found in banks, retail locations, and other convenient areas.
92NCRNational Capital RegionNCR stands for National Capital Region, which refers to a specific geographic area that serves as the capital region of a country. The term is often used to denote the primary city or region where the administrative, political, and economic center of a nation is located.
93STDSexually Transmitted DiseaseSTD stands for Sexually Transmitted Disease, which refers to infections or illnesses that are primarily transmitted through sexual contact. Common examples of STDs include HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, and genital herpes.
94STDSubscriber Trunk DialingSTD, in a telecommunication context, stands for Subscriber Trunk Dialing. It refers to a telephone system feature that allows subscribers to make long-distance calls within a specific area without the need for operator assistance. The term is primarily used in certain countries and regions.
95TRPTelevision Rating PointTRP stands for Television Rating Point, which is a metric used to measure the popularity and viewership of television programs or channels. TRPs provide an estimate of the percentage of households or individuals watching a particular show during a specific time period.
96PROPublic Relations OfficerPRO stands for Public Relations Officer, which is an individual responsible for managing and maintaining the public image and reputation of an organization or individual. PROs handle media relations, communication strategies, press releases, and other activities to create a positive public perception.
97PINPostal Index NumberPIN stands for Postal Index Number, which is a numerical code used in postal systems to identify specific geographic areas for efficient mail sorting and delivery. PIN codes are used in various countries, including India, where they help in the precise addressing of mail.
98IDIdentity DocumentID stands for Identity Document, which refers to an official document that serves as proof of a person’s identity. Examples of ID documents include passports, driver’s licenses, national identification cards, and government-issued identity cards.
99VIPVery Important PersonVIP stands for Very Important Person, which is a term used to describe someone who holds a high social status or importance. VIPs are often given special treatment, privileges, or access to exclusive events or services due to their prominent position or influence.
100RPORecruitment Process OutsourcingRPO stands for Recruitment Process Outsourcing, which is a business strategy where an organization outsources some or all of its recruitment processes to an external service provider. RPO aims to streamline and optimize the hiring process, improve candidate quality, and reduce recruitment costs.
101TVCThrust Vector ControlTVC stands for Thrust Vector Control, which refers to a technology used in aerospace engineering and rocketry. TVC allows for the manipulation or adjustment of the direction of thrust produced by engines to control the movement and stability of an aircraft, spacecraft, or missile.
102TVCTotal Variable CostsTVC stands for Total Variable Costs, which refers to the sum of all costs that vary in direct proportion to the level of production or sales. In business and economics, TVC includes expenses such as raw materials, direct labor, and other variable inputs that change based on the quantity produced.
103SFCSpecial Frontier ForceSFC stands for Special Frontier Force, which is a specialized paramilitary unit or special forces unit in the military. SFC is often tasked with conducting unconventional operations, special reconnaissance, and intelligence gathering in border areas or other challenging terrains.
104PMIPurchasing Managers’ IndexPMI stands for Purchasing Managers’ Index, which is an economic indicator used to measure the health and performance of the manufacturing or services sector in an economy. PMI is derived from surveys conducted among purchasing managers and provides insights into factors such as new orders, production levels, and employment.
105PMIProject Management InstitutePMI stands for Project Management Institute, which is a global professional association for project management practitioners. PMI provides certifications, standards, resources, and networking opportunities to support the development and advancement of project management professionals.
106VVIPVery Very Important PersonVVIP stands for Very Very Important Person, which is an extension of the term VIP. It is used to describe individuals who hold an exceptionally high level of importance, influence, or prestige. VVIPs often receive the highest level of priority and special treatment in various contexts.
107NRLMNational Rural Livelihood MissionNRLM stands for National Rural Livelihood Mission, which is a poverty alleviation program launched by the Government of India. NRLM aims to promote sustainable livelihoods and improve the socio-economic conditions of rural households by enhancing access to financial services, skill development, and livelihood opportunities.
108IRDPIntegrated Rural Development ProgramIRDP stands for Integrated Rural Development Program, which was a poverty alleviation program implemented in India. IRDP aimed to uplift rural communities by providing financial assistance, training, and support for income-generating activities, infrastructure development, and social welfare initiatives.
109RPMRevolutions Per MinuteRPM stands for Revolutions Per Minute, which is a unit of measurement used to quantify the rotational speed of a spinning object. It represents the number of complete rotations or revolutions that an object makes in one minute.
110MISManagement Information SystemMIS stands for Management Information System, which refers to a computerized system that collects, stores, processes, and presents data and information to support decision-making, planning, and control within an organization. MIS integrates various technologies, software, and databases to provide timely and accurate information to managers.
111MRIMagnetic Resonance ImagingMRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the internal structures of the body. MRI uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to generate detailed cross-sectional images of organs, tissues, and bones, aiding in the diagnosis and monitoring of various medical conditions.
112CFLCompact Fluorescent LampCFL stands for Compact Fluorescent Lamp, which is a type of energy-efficient light bulb. CFLs use fluorescent technology to produce light and consume less energy compared to traditional incandescent bulbs, making them a popular choice for lighting applications.
113VISAVisa International Service AssociationVISA refers to Visa International Service Association, which is a global financial services corporation that facilitates electronic funds transfers and payment transactions. Visa provides credit and debit card services, allowing individuals and businesses to make secure and convenient transactions worldwide.
114TTETravelling Ticket ExaminerTTE stands for Travelling Ticket Examiner, which is a railway staff member responsible for inspecting tickets, verifying passenger identities, and maintaining ticketing and reservation-related duties on trains. TTEs ensure compliance with railway rules and regulations during travel.
115DJDisc JockeyDJ stands for Disc Jockey, which refers to an individual who plays and mixes recorded music for an audience. DJs are commonly seen in clubs, parties, radio stations, and other entertainment venues, where they use their skills to create a seamless flow of music and engage the audience.
116PNRPassenger Name RecordPNR stands for Passenger Name Record, which is a unique alphanumeric code assigned to a traveler’s reservation or booking in the transportation industry. PNRs contain essential information such as passenger details, flight or train numbers, itinerary, and seat assignments.
117DNADeoxyribonucleic AcidDNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid, which is a molecule present in all living organisms. DNA carries genetic information and serves as the building block of life, containing instructions for the development, functioning, and reproduction of organisms.
118NDANational Democratic AllianceNDA stands for National Democratic Alliance, which is a political coalition or alliance formed by multiple political parties in India. The NDA is a center-right political grouping that aims to work together on common goals and principles to govern and implement policies.
119RCCReinforced Cement ConcreteRCC stands for Reinforced Cement Concrete, which is a composite material commonly used in construction. RCC consists of concrete, which provides compressive strength, and reinforcement, such as steel bars, to enhance its tensile strength and durability.
120HRHuman ResourceHR stands for Human Resource, which refers to the personnel or department within an organization responsible for managing and administering various aspects related to employees. HR functions include recruitment, training, compensation, employee relations, and strategic workforce planning.
121MPMember of ParliamentMP stands for Member of Parliament, which is an individual elected by the citizens to represent them in the legislative body of a country. MPs participate in lawmaking, policy discussions, and represent the interests of their constituents in the parliamentary system.
122UPAUnited Progressive AllianceUPA stands for United Progressive Alliance, which was a political coalition of center-left parties in India. The UPA formed a government at the national level and aimed to implement progressive policies, social welfare programs, and inclusive governance.
123PVCPoly Vinyl ChloridePVC stands for Poly Vinyl Chloride, which is a synthetic plastic polymer. PVC is widely used in various industries for its versatility, durability, and cost-effectiveness. It is commonly used in construction materials, pipes, electrical insulation, clothing, and many other applications.
124PVCPermanent Virtual CircuitPVC, in a networking context, stands for Permanent Virtual Circuit. It refers to a pre-established, dedicated virtual communication path between two network nodes. PVCs are commonly used in technologies like Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Frame Relay to ensure reliable and efficient data transmission.
125SLRSingle Lens ReflexSLR stands for Single Lens Reflex, which is a type of camera that uses a mirror and prism system to provide the photographer with an optical viewfinder. SLR cameras allow for interchangeable lenses and provide a direct optical representation of the scene being photographed.
126SSBServices Selection BoardSSB stands for Services Selection Board, which is a body responsible for conducting selection tests and interviews for the recruitment of officers in the Indian Armed Forces. SSB assesses candidates’ aptitude, personality, and suitability for commissioning into the Army, Navy, and Air Force.
127SSFSpecial Security ForceSSF stands for Special Security Force, which typically refers to a specialized unit responsible for providing high-level security and protection to specific individuals, institutions, or sensitive areas. SSFs are often deployed to safeguard VIPs, government installations, and critical infrastructure.
128SUVSport Utility VehicleSUV stands for Sport Utility Vehicle, which is a type of vehicle that combines features of a passenger car with off-road capabilities. SUVs typically have a higher ground clearance, larger body size, and are designed for both on-road and off-road driving.
129NEWSNorth East West SouthNEWS is not an acronym; it simply represents the four cardinal directions: North, East, West, and South. The term is commonly used to refer to information or updates from all directions or to indicate comprehensive coverage.
130BCBefore ChristBC, in a historical context, stands for Before Christ. It is used to denote years in the Gregorian calendar before the estimated birth year of Jesus Christ. BC is a common way to indicate dates in history before the advent of the Christian era.
131POPPlaster of ParisPOP stands for Plaster of Paris, which is a type of gypsum-based white powder used in construction, art, and crafts. POP is mixed with water to create a paste that hardens quickly, making it suitable for creating molds, sculptures, and decorative elements.
132CCCubic Capacity or Cubic CentimeterCC stands for Cubic Capacity or Cubic Centimeter, which is a unit of measurement used to indicate the displacement or volume of an engine cylinder. CC is commonly used to describe the engine size or power output of motorcycles, automobiles, and other vehicles.
133CCCash CreditCC stands for Cash Credit, which is a financial arrangement offered by banks or financial institutions to individuals or businesses. Cash Credit allows borrowers to withdraw funds up to a specified limit and repay the borrowed amount along with interest as per the terms agreed upon.
134PCSPersonal Communications ServicePCS stands for Personal Communications Service, which refers to a type of wireless telecommunications service that provides voice and data communication for individuals. PCS networks operate on various frequency bands and offer services such as mobile phone calls, messaging, and internet access.
135PCSProvincial Civil ServicesPCS stands for Provincial Civil Services, which refers to the administrative services in the state government of India. PCS officers hold various positions in the state bureaucracy and are responsible for implementing government policies, providing governance, and serving the public.
136PCSPublic Civil ServicePCS stands for Public Civil Service, which broadly refers to the collective body of government employees who work in various administrative, managerial, and support roles across different departments and agencies of the government.
137ODOverdraftOD stands for Overdraft, which is a financial facility provided by banks to their account holders. An overdraft allows customers to withdraw more money from their bank account than the available balance, up to a predetermined limit. Interest is charged on the overdrawn amount.
138ODOn DutyOD, in a work or employment context, stands for On Duty. It refers to the period during which an individual is officially assigned to carry out their work responsibilities or perform their duties as per their employment agreement.
139AKAAlso Known AsAKA stands for Also Known As, which is used to indicate an alternative name or alias that a person, entity, or concept is commonly known by. AKA is often used to provide additional or familiar names to refer to the same entity.
140BTWBy the WayBTW stands for By the Way, which is a phrase commonly used in informal communication to introduce additional information or make a side comment during a conversation or written message.
141DIYDo It YourselfDIY stands for Do It Yourself, which is a concept or approach where individuals engage in tasks, projects, or repairs by themselves without hiring professionals. DIY often involves acquiring necessary skills, tools, and materials to complete a task independently.
142FAQFrequently Asked QuestionsFAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions, which refers to a compilation of common questions and their respective answers related to a particular topic, product, or service. FAQs are commonly provided by organizations to address common inquiries and provide relevant information.
143NRINon-Resident IndianNRI stands for Non-Resident Indian, which refers to an Indian citizen or person of Indian origin who resides outside India. NRIs may be temporarily or permanently living in another country, while still retaining their Indian citizenship or heritage.
144BPOBusiness Process OutsourcingBPO stands for Business Process Outsourcing, which refers to the practice of contracting specific business functions or processes to external service providers. BPO services can include customer support, technical support, data entry, finance and accounting, and other non-core business activities.
145SMSShort Messaging ServiceSMS stands for Short Messaging Service, which is a text messaging service available on mobile phones and other communication devices. SMS allows users to send short text-based messages to one another, typically limited to a certain number of characters.
146EPSEncapsulated Post-ScriptEPS stands for Encapsulated Post-Script, which is a file format commonly used for storing and exchanging high-quality vector graphics or images. EPS files can contain both text and graphics and are widely used in print and graphic design industries.
147DIBDevice Independent BitmapDIB stands for Device Independent Bitmap, which is a bitmap image format that represents graphics or images independently of the specific output device or resolution. DIB files are commonly used in computer graphics and software development.
148ZIPZone Improvement PlanZIP stands for Zone Improvement Plan, which refers to the postal code system used in the United States. ZIP codes help facilitate efficient mail sorting and delivery by dividing geographical areas into specific zones or regions.
149CMDChairman & Managing DirectorCMD stands for Chairman & Managing Director, which typically refers to the highest-ranking executive in a company or organization. The CMD is responsible for leading the board of directors and overseeing the overall management and strategic direction of the organization.
150ICEIn Case of EmergencyICE stands for In Case of Emergency, which is a way to designate emergency contact information on a person’s mobile phone or identification documents. It allows emergency responders or others to quickly identify and contact someone’s designated emergency contacts.
151ICEIn-Circuit EmulatorICE, in the context of electronics or computer hardware, stands for In-Circuit Emulator. It refers to a hardware device or tool used for testing and debugging electronic circuits or microprocessors by emulating their behavior within a live circuit.
152HRDHuman Resource DepartmentHRD stands for Human Resource Department, which is a functional unit within an organization responsible for managing various aspects related to human resources. The HRD handles employee recruitment, training and development, performance management, compensation, and employee relations.
153UAEUnited Arab EmiratesUAE stands for United Arab Emirates, which is a country located in the Middle East. The UAE is a federation of seven emirates, including Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah, known for their economic development, tourism, and cultural diversity.
154RACReservation Against CancellationRAC stands for Reservation Against Cancellation, which is a type of ticket status in the Indian Railways system. When a ticket is in RAC status, it means that the passenger has a reserved seat or berth but may have to share it with another RAC or waitlisted passenger if additional bookings are made.
155GMTGreenwich Mean TimeGMT stands for Greenwich Mean Time, which is a time standard based on the mean solar time at the Prime Meridian (0 degrees longitude) located in Greenwich, London. GMT serves as a reference point for timekeeping around the world and is often used as the basis for other time zones.
156SITSpecial Investigation TeamSIT stands for Special Investigation Team, which refers to a group of law enforcement officers assembled to conduct an in-depth investigation into a specific case or incident. SITs are typically formed to handle complex or sensitive investigations that require specialized expertise or resources.
157NSSNational Service SchemeNSS stands for National Service Scheme, which is a youth-oriented voluntary organization in India. The NSS aims to develop the personality of students through community service and social activities. NSS volunteers participate in various programs related to social welfare, health, education, and environmental conservation.
158MTAMail Transfer AgentMTA stands for Mail Transfer Agent, which is a software or service responsible for sending, receiving, and routing email messages across networks. MTAs facilitate the delivery of emails from the sender’s mail server to the recipient’s mail server.
159ICEInstrumentation and Control EngineeringICE stands for Instrumentation and Control Engineering, which is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, development, and implementation of systems for measuring, monitoring, and controlling various industrial processes. ICE professionals work with sensors, instruments, control systems, and automation technologies.
160UFOUnidentified Flying ObjectUFO stands for Unidentified Flying Object, which refers to any object or phenomenon observed in the sky that cannot be readily identified as a known aircraft, celestial body, or natural phenomenon. UFOs often spark curiosity and speculation about potential extraterrestrial or unexplained phenomena.
161ARPAdvance Reservation PeriodARP stands for Advance Reservation Period, which refers to the time duration within which advance bookings or reservations can be made for certain services or facilities. It is commonly used in the context of transportation systems like railways or airlines, where passengers can book tickets in advance within a specific time frame.
162DIBDirector of Intelligence BureauDIB stands for Director of Intelligence Bureau, which is a high-ranking position within the Intelligence Bureau (IB) of a country. The DIB is responsible for overseeing and directing intelligence gathering, analysis, and dissemination activities to support national security and policy objectives.
163IMSIntegrated Management SystemsIMS stands for Integrated Management Systems, which refers to a unified framework or approach for managing multiple aspects of an organization’s operations, such as quality, environment, health and safety, and information security. An IMS integrates various management systems into a cohesive and efficient system.
164NICNational Industrial ClassificationNIC stands for National Industrial Classification, which is a system used to classify and categorize industries and economic activities within a country. The NIC provides a standardized framework for organizing statistical data and facilitating economic analysis and reporting.
165ISAIndustry Standard ArchitectureISA stands for Industry Standard Architecture, which is a computer bus standard that was widely used in older IBM-compatible personal computers. ISA defined the architecture and electrical specifications for expansion slots and connectors, allowing the installation of various peripherals and expansion cards.
166ABGArterial Blood GasABG stands for Arterial Blood Gas, which refers to a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and acidity (pH) in the arterial blood. ABG analysis provides important information about the respiratory and metabolic functions of the body and helps in diagnosing and managing certain medical conditions.
167AIDSAcquired Immune Deficiency SyndromeAIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, which is a chronic and potentially life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to various infections and diseases.
168BDSBachelor of Dental SurgeryBDS stands for Bachelor of Dental Surgery, which is an undergraduate professional degree program in dentistry. It is awarded to individuals upon completion of their dental education and training, qualifying them to practice dentistry and provide oral healthcare services.
169BMDBone Mineral DensityBMD stands for Bone Mineral Density, which is a measurement of the amount of minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, present in a person’s bones. BMD testing is commonly used to diagnose osteoporosis and assess bone health and strength.
170BMIBody Mass IndexBMI stands for Body Mass Index, which is a numerical value calculated from a person’s height and weight. BMI is used as an indicator of body fatness and is commonly used to assess whether an individual’s weight is within a healthy range.
171CBCComplete Blood CountCBC stands for Complete Blood Count, which is a common blood test that provides information about the cellular components of the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. A CBC is used to evaluate overall health, detect infections or blood disorders, and monitor treatment responses.
172CMOChief Medical OfficerCMO stands for Chief Medical Officer, which is a high-ranking executive position in healthcare organizations. The CMO is responsible for overseeing and managing the medical and clinical aspects of an organization, including medical policies, patient care quality, and medical staff coordination.
173GMOGenetically Modified OrganismGMO stands for Genetically Modified Organism, which refers to any living organism whose genetic material has been altered or modified through genetic engineering techniques. GMOs are created to introduce specific traits or characteristics for various purposes, such as improving crop yields or enhancing disease resistance.
174HIVHuman Immunodeficiency VirusHIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system. HIV can lead to the development of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and is primarily transmitted through unprotected sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles, or from an infected mother to her child during childbirth.
175ICUIntensive Care UnitICU stands for Intensive Care Unit, which is a specialized medical unit within a hospital that provides intensive and critical care to patients with life-threatening conditions or severe illnesses. The ICU is equipped with advanced monitoring and life-support equipment to ensure close monitoring and immediate medical intervention.
176RBCRed Blood CellRBC stands for Red Blood Cell, which is one of the major components of blood. Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to various tissues and organs of the body. They contain a protein called hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its characteristic red color.
177RNARibonucleic AcidRNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a molecule that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, particularly in the synthesis of proteins. RNA is involved in gene expression and acts as a messenger between DNA (genetic material) and protein synthesis machinery within cells.
178WBCWhite Blood CellWBC stands for White Blood Cell, which is a type of blood cell that plays a vital role in the immune system’s defense against infections and diseases. White blood cells help to identify and destroy pathogens, produce antibodies, and regulate immune responses in the body.
179OPDOutpatient DepartmentOPD stands for Outpatient Department, which is a section or department within a hospital or healthcare facility that provides medical consultation, diagnosis, and treatment on an outpatient basis. Patients who do not require hospitalization and can receive medical care without staying overnight are treated in the OPD.
180DCDistrict of ColumbiaDC stands for District of Columbia, which is a federal district located in the United States. The District of Columbia is the capital of the United States and is home to the city of Washington, D.C., where the federal government is situated.
181PMPrime MinisterPM stands for Prime Minister, who is the head of government in many countries. The Prime Minister is typically the leader of the ruling political party or coalition and is responsible for leading the government, making policy decisions, and representing the country domestically and internationally.
182CMChief MinisterCM stands for Chief Minister, who is the elected head of the government in a state or province within a country. The Chief Minister is responsible for the administration, governance, and policymaking of the respective state or province.
183MLAMember of Legislative AssemblyMLA stands for Member of Legislative Assembly. An MLA is an elected representative who serves in the legislative assembly of a state or province. MLAs are responsible for representing the interests and concerns of their respective constituencies and participating in the lawmaking process.
184MLCMember of Legislative CouncilMLC stands for Member of Legislative Council. An MLC is an elected representative who serves in the legislative council of a state or province. Some states or provinces have a bicameral legislature consisting of both a legislative assembly (with MLAs) and a legislative council (with MLCs).
185LDCLower Division ClerkLDC stands for Lower Division Clerk. An LDC is a clerical position in various organizations or government departments. LDCs typically perform administrative tasks such as data entry, record keeping, filing, and general office duties.
186UDCUpper Division ClerkUDC stands for Upper Division Clerk. A UDC is a higher-level clerical position in various organizations or government departments. UDCs typically handle more complex administrative tasks, including data processing, documentation, correspondence, and assisting in office management.
187ASMAssistant Station MasterASM stands for Assistant Station Master. An ASM is a staff member employed by a railway or transportation authority. They play a crucial role in managing train operations at railway stations, ensuring smooth coordination, passenger safety, and efficient train movements.
188Lt.Gov.Lieutenant GovernorLt.Gov. stands for Lieutenant Governor. A Lieutenant Governor is an official who serves as the deputy or representative of a Governor in certain political jurisdictions. The specific roles and responsibilities of a Lieutenant Governor can vary depending on the jurisdiction and governing structure.
189ITOIncome Tax Officer An ITO is an official working in the income tax department of a country. They are responsible for enforcing and administering income tax laws, conducting tax assessments, investigating tax evasion, and ensuring compliance with tax regulations.
190GPOGeneral Post OfficeA GPO is the central post office or main postal facility in a city or region. It serves as a hub for postal services, including mail sorting, distribution, and delivery, as well as offering various postal services to the public.
191HQHeadquarters It refers to the main administrative or operational center of an organization, company, or institution. The HQ is the central location from which key decisions are made, strategies are developed, and overall management and coordination are conducted.
192EOEErrors and Omissions ExceptedIt is a disclaimer commonly used to indicate that mistakes, inaccuracies, or omissions in a document or statement are excepted or excluded from liability. It implies that the document or statement may contain unintentional errors or omissions.
193PTOPlease Turn Over It is a notation often used on written or printed documents to indicate that there is more content on the other side or the next page. It is a prompt for the reader to continue reading or viewing the document by flipping or turning it over.
194PWDPublic Works DepartmentPWD stands for Public Works Department. It is a government department or agency responsible for the construction, maintenance, and management of public infrastructure such as roads, bridges, buildings, water supply systems, and other civil engineering projects.
195CPWDCentral Public Works DepartmentCPWD stands for Central Public Works Department. It is a government agency in India that is responsible for public works projects at the central level. CPWD undertakes construction and maintenance projects for various government departments and organizations.
196USAUnited States of AmericaUSA stands for United States of America. It is a country located in North America, consisting of 50 states, a federal district (Washington, D.C.), and several territories. The USA is known for its diverse culture, economic power, and political influence on the global stage.
197UKUnited Kingdom (England)UK stands for United Kingdom, specifically referring to England. The United Kingdom is a country in Europe that consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. However, the term “UK” is often informally used to refer to England alone.
198SDOSub Divisional OfficerSDO stands for Sub Divisional Officer. An SDO is a government official who holds a position of authority and administrative responsibility in a sub-division or sub-district. They perform various administrative, executive, and supervisory functions within their assigned jurisdiction.
199APJ Abdul KalamAvul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul KalamAPJ Abdul Kalam was a renowned Indian scientist and the 11th President of India. The full name APJ Abdul Kalam stands for Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam. He was widely respected for his contributions to aerospace and missile technology, as well as his advocacy for education and youth development.
200IPCIndian Penal CodeIPC stands for Indian Penal Code. It is the official criminal code of India that outlines and defines various offenses and punishments under Indian law. The IPC serves as a comprehensive legal framework for criminal justice and the prosecution of crimes in India.
201MHAMaster of Healthcare AdministrationMHA stands for Master of Healthcare Administration. It is a professional degree program designed to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills required for managerial and leadership roles in healthcare organizations. The MHA program focuses on healthcare management, policy, finance, and operations.
202MHAMinistry of Home AffairsMHA stands for Ministry of Home Affairs. It is a government ministry or department responsible for internal security, law enforcement, civil defense, and disaster management in a country. The Ministry of Home Affairs plays a crucial role in maintaining public safety and coordinating national security efforts.
203ICGIndian Coast GuardICG stands for Indian Coast Guard. It is a maritime law enforcement and search and rescue agency of India. The Indian Coast Guard is responsible for protecting India’s maritime interests, enforcing maritime law, preventing smuggling and piracy, and conducting search and rescue operations in Indian waters.
204IOFSIndian Ordnance Factories ServiceIOFS stands for Indian Ordnance Factories Service. It is a civil service organization in India that manages the country’s defense-related ordnance factories. The IOFS officers are responsible for the production, research, development, and quality assurance of defense equipment and ammunition.
205IASTInternational Alphabet of Sanskrit TransliterationIAST stands for International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration. It is a system used for transliterating Sanskrit and other Indian languages into the Roman script. IAST provides a standardized and phonetically accurate representation of Indian languages for academic and linguistic purposes.
206IAFIndian Air ForceIAF stands for Indian Air Force. It is the air arm of the Indian Armed Forces. The Indian Air Force is responsible for aerial defense, air combat operations, strategic airlift, and reconnaissance missions. It plays a vital role in safeguarding India’s airspace and maintaining national security.
207BEMLBharat Earth Movers LimitedBEML stands for Bharat Earth Movers Limited. It is a public sector company in India that specializes in manufacturing heavy equipment, machinery, and vehicles for various sectors such as mining, construction, defense, and rail transportation. BEML is involved in the production of earthmovers, excavators, trucks, and metro coaches.
208GRSEGarden Reach Shipbuilders & EngineersGRSE stands for Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers. It is a shipbuilding company in India that specializes in the construction of naval vessels, including warships, submarines, and auxiliary ships. GRSE plays a vital role in strengthening India’s maritime capabilities and supporting the country’s defense needs.
209CRPFCentral Reserve Police ForceCRPF stands for Central Reserve Police Force. It is a paramilitary force under the Ministry of Home Affairs in India. The CRPF is primarily responsible for maintaining law and order, counterinsurgency operations, and combating internal security threats in various parts of the country. It is one of the largest Central Armed Police Forces in India.
210NAANational Auctioneers AssociationNAA stands for National Auctioneers Association. It is a professional organization that represents and supports auctioneers across the United States. The NAA provides education, training, networking opportunities, and resources to its members, promoting professionalism and ethical conduct in the auction industry.
211ITBPIndo-Tibetan Border PoliceITBP stands for Indo-Tibetan Border Police. It is one of the Central Armed Police Forces in India responsible for guarding the Indo-Tibetan border. The ITBP is deployed in the Himalayan region and performs various duties, including border security, counterinsurgency operations, disaster response, and promoting peace and stability in the border areas.
212OFBOrdnance Factories BoardOFB stands for Ordnance Factories Board. It is an organization under the Ministry of Defence in India that operates and manages the country’s government-owned ordnance factories. The OFB is responsible for the production of defense equipment, ammunition, and other related products for the Indian Armed Forces.
213MLEMaximum Likelihood EstimationMLE stands for Maximum Likelihood Estimation. It is a statistical method used to estimate the parameters of a statistical model based on observed data. MLE aims to find the parameter values that maximize the likelihood of obtaining the observed data, assuming a specific probability distribution.
214MLEMinistry of Labour and EmploymentMLE stands for Ministry of Labour and Employment. It is a government ministry in India responsible for formulating and implementing policies related to labor, employment, and social security. The Ministry of Labour and Employment oversees various aspects of labor welfare, industrial relations, and employment generation initiatives.
215NCSNational Career ServiceNCS stands for National Career Service. It is an initiative by the Government of India to provide a digital platform for job seekers, employers, and career counselors. The NCS offers online job search, career counseling, skill assessment, and employment-related services to facilitate better job matching and career development.
216CIFECentral Institute of Fisheries EducationCIFE stands for Central Institute of Fisheries Education. It is a deemed university and research institute in India specializing in fisheries science and allied disciplines. The CIFE offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in fisheries science, aquaculture, fishery biology, and related fields.
217BSFBorder Security ForceBSF stands for Border Security Force. It is one of the Central Armed Police Forces in India responsible for guarding the country’s borders, particularly the land borders. The BSF plays a crucial role in maintaining border security, combating smuggling and illegal activities, and ensuring the integrity of India’s borders.
218CAPFCentral Armed Police ForcesCAPF stands for Central Armed Police Forces. It is a collective term used to refer to several paramilitary forces in India that come under the authority of the Ministry of Home Affairs. The CAPF includes forces such as the BSF, CRPF, ITBP, CISF, and others, which are responsible for various security and law enforcement duties.
219SSBSashastra Seema BalSSB stands for Sashastra Seema Bal. It is one of the Central Armed Police Forces in India responsible for guarding the country’s borders with Nepal and Bhutan. The SSB is primarily tasked with ensuring border security, preventing illegal activities, and promoting peace and stability in the border regions.
220CISFCentral Industrial Security ForceCISF stands for Central Industrial Security Force. It is a Central Armed Police Force in India that provides security and protection to various industrial installations, infrastructure projects, and sensitive establishments. The CISF plays a vital role in safeguarding critical assets and ensuring the security of key sectors such as airports, nuclear power plants, and government buildings.
221NSGNational Security GuardNSG stands for National Security Guard. It is a specialized counter-terrorism force in India that operates under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The NSG is trained and equipped to handle various counter-terrorism and hostage rescue operations, providing a swift response to critical security situations.
222SPGSpecial Protection GroupSPG stands for Special Protection Group. It is a specialized security force in India responsible for providing protection and security to the Prime Minister of India and former Prime Ministers and their families. The SPG is entrusted with ensuring.
223RPFRailway Protection ForceRPF stands for Railway Protection Force. It is a specialized security force in India responsible for ensuring the safety, security, and protection of passengers, railway property, and infrastructure. The RPF operates under the authority of the Ministry of Railways and works in coordination with the Government Railway Police (GRP) to maintain law and order on railway premises.
224NDRFNational Disaster Response ForceNDRF stands for National Disaster Response Force. It is a specialized force in India responsible for disaster response, rescue operations, and disaster management. The NDRF is deployed during natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones, and other emergencies to provide prompt assistance, search and rescue operations, medical aid, and relief measures.
225WMDWeapons of Mass DestructionWMD stands for Weapons of Mass Destruction. It refers to weapons that have the capacity to cause significant harm, destruction, and loss of life on a large scale. WMD includes nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, biological weapons, and, in some definitions, also radiological and explosive weapons.
226CBWChemical and Biological WeaponsCBW stands for Chemical and Biological Weapons. It refers to weapons that use chemical agents or biological agents to cause harm, injury, or death. Chemical weapons involve the use of toxic chemicals, while biological weapons use pathogens or toxins derived from living organisms to cause harm.
227NCMNuclear-armed Cruise MissilesNCM stands for Nuclear-armed Cruise Missiles. It refers to cruise missiles that are equipped with nuclear warheads. These missiles can deliver nuclear weapons over long distances with precision and accuracy, adding to a nation’s strategic deterrence capability.
228INDIndia’s Nuclear DoctrineIND stands for India’s Nuclear Doctrine. It refers to the official policy and guidelines adopted by India regarding the deployment, development, and use of nuclear weapons. India’s Nuclear Doctrine focuses on maintaining a credible minimum deterrent and a strict policy of no-first-use of nuclear weapons.
229IBMDPIndian Ballistic Missile Defence ProgrammeIBMDP stands for Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme. It is a program initiated by the Indian government to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defense system. The IBMDP aims to protect India from ballistic missile threats by intercepting and destroying incoming missiles at different stages of their flight.
230BDOBlock Development OfficeBDO stands for Block Development Office. It is an administrative office at the block level in India. The BDO is responsible for overseeing the development activities, implementation of government schemes, and administration of the block area, which is a sub-district administrative unit.
231CSTCCalcutta State Transport CorporationCSTC stands for Calcutta State Transport Corporation. It is a state-owned transport corporation in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. CSTC operates bus services within the city and suburban areas, providing public transportation to commuters.
232WBSTCWest Bengal Surface Transport CorporationWBSTC stands for West Bengal Surface Transport Corporation. It is a transport corporation in the state of West Bengal, India. WBSTC operates bus services across different districts of West Bengal, connecting various cities, towns, and villages.
233NDRTCNobo Diganto Road Transport CorporationNDRTC stands for Nobo Diganto Road Transport Corporation. It is a road transport corporation in Bangladesh that provides bus services to passengers within the country. NDRTC plays a significant role in facilitating public transportation and connectivity in Bangladesh.
234CTCCalcutta Tramways CompanyCTC stands for Calcutta Tramways Company. It is a public transportation company in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. CTC operates the iconic tram services in the city, providing a unique mode of transport for commuters and preserving the heritage of Kolkata’s tram network.
235SBSTCSouth Bengal State Transport CorporationSBSTC stands for South Bengal State Transport Corporation. It is a transport corporation in the state of West Bengal, India. SBSTC operates bus services in the southern region of West Bengal, connecting cities, towns, and villages in the region and providing public transportation services.
236IRBInstitutional Review BoardIRB stands for Institutional Review Board. It is an independent committee or board that reviews and approves research involving human subjects. The IRB ensures that research studies are conducted ethically, with the protection of participants’ rights, welfare, and privacy in mind.
237BOOTBuild Own Operate TransferBOOT stands for Build Own Operate Transfer. It is a project delivery model commonly used in infrastructure development projects. Under this model, a private entity or consortium is responsible for designing, constructing, operating, and maintaining a project for a specific period before transferring it to the government or another designated entity.
238NLMNational Library of MedicineNLM stands for National Library of Medicine. It is the largest biomedical library in the United States and is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NLM collects, curates, and provides access to a vast collection of medical literature, research, and health information.
239NCBINational Center for Biotechnology InformationNCBI stands for National Center for Biotechnology Information. It is a division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) in the United States. The NCBI provides access to various biomedical databases, tools, and resources, including the popular databases such as PubMed and GenBank, which store and retrieve genetic sequences.
240ICFIntegral Coach FactoryICF stands for Integral Coach Factory. It is a production unit of Indian Railways located in Chennai, India. The ICF is responsible for the manufacture of railway passenger coaches, including conventional and modern designs, catering to the transportation needs of Indian Railways.
241NOCNo Objection CertificateNOC stands for No Objection Certificate. It is a document issued by an authority or organization stating that they have no objection to a particular action, request, or proposal. NOCs are commonly required for activities such as property transfers, vehicle registrations, business operations, and more.
242CPCCentral Pay CommissionCPC stands for Central Pay Commission. It is a government-appointed body in India responsible for reviewing and recommending changes to the salary structure, allowances, and benefits of central government employees. The CPC plays a crucial role in determining the pay scales and related policies for government personnel.
243TRPTarget Rating PointsTRP stands for Target Rating Points. It is a metric used in the media industry, particularly in television advertising. TRPs measure the viewership or popularity of a specific television program or channel and help advertisers gauge the potential reach and impact of their advertisements.
244KFCKentucky Fried ChickenKFC stands for Kentucky Fried Chicken. It is a popular global fast-food restaurant chain that specializes in fried chicken dishes. KFC is known for its unique blend of herbs and spices, which give its chicken a distinctive flavor.
245CFSCommittee on World Food SecurityCFS stands for Committee on World Food Security. It is an intergovernmental body established by the United Nations (UN) to coordinate and promote international efforts to address food security and nutrition. The CFS plays a key role in policy discussions, sharing best practices, and facilitating partnerships to combat hunger and ensure food security globally.
246NDANational Defence AcademyNDA stands for National Defence Academy. It is a premier military training institution in India that trains cadets for the Indian Army, Indian Navy, and Indian Air Force. The NDA provides comprehensive education and training to young individuals who aspire to serve in the defense forces.
247DINDirector Information NumberDIN stands for Director Information Number. It is a unique identification number issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs in India to individuals who are appointed as directors of companies. The DIN helps in maintaining a database of directors and ensuring transparency and accountability in corporate governance.
248SMSShort Message ServiceSMS stands for Short Message Service. It is a communication service that allows the exchange of short text messages between mobile devices. SMS is widely used for personal and business communication, providing a quick and convenient way to send brief messages.
249CMDChairman and Managing DirectorCMD stands for Chairman and Managing Director. It refers to the top executive position in a company or organization where an individual holds the dual role of being the Chairman of the Board of Directors and the Managing Director or CEO of the company. The CMD is responsible for providing leadership, strategic direction, and overall management of the organization.
250ETAEstimated Time of ArrivalETA stands for Estimated Time of Arrival. It is an approximate prediction of when a person, vehicle, or shipment is expected to arrive at a specific destination. ETA is commonly used in transportation, logistics, and travel industries to communicate arrival times to customers or to coordinate schedules and operations.
251NICNational Informatics CentreNIC stands for National Informatics Centre. It is a premier government organization in India that provides information technology (IT) services to the government, enabling the delivery of e-governance and digital solutions. The NIC supports various IT initiatives, infrastructure, software development, and technology services for government departments and agencies.
252GCPGoogle Cloud PlatformGCP stands for Google Cloud Platform. It is a suite of cloud computing services offered by Google. GCP provides a range of infrastructure and platform services, including computing, storage, databases, machine learning, and analytics. It enables businesses and developers to build, deploy, and scale applications and services on Google’s infrastructure.
253IBImperial BlueIB refers to Imperial Blue, which is a brand of whisky. Imperial Blue is a popular blended Indian whisky known for its smoothness and distinctive flavor profile. It is produced by Pernod Ricard India and is enjoyed by whisky enthusiasts and consumers in India and other parts of the world.
254INDIndia Nuclear DoctrineIND refers to India’s Nuclear Doctrine. It outlines the principles, policies, and guidelines that govern India’s approach to nuclear weapons and their use. India’s Nuclear Doctrine emphasizes a “No First Use” policy, meaning that India will not be the first to use nuclear weapons in a conflict but will maintain a credible nuclear deterrent.
255OFBOrdnance Factory BoardOFB stands for Ordnance Factory Board. It is an organization under the Indian Ministry of Defence that is responsible for the production of defense equipment, ammunition, and weapons for the Indian Armed Forces. The OFB operates a network of ordnance factories across India.
256AAAAgricultural Adjustment ActAAA refers to The Agricultural Adjustment Act. It was a law passed in the United States in 1933 as part of the New Deal program during the Great Depression. The AAA aimed to stabilize agricultural prices and incomes by reducing agricultural production and implementing government subsidies and price supports.
257ABMAnti-Ballistic MissileABM stands for Anti-Ballistic Missile. It refers to a missile designed to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles in flight. ABMs are used for defense purposes to protect against potential missile threats from other nations.
258ACASAdvisory, Conciliation and Arbitration ServiceACAS is the acronym for The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service. It is an independent public body in the United Kingdom that provides guidance and support to employers and employees on workplace relations and resolving employment disputes through mediation and arbitration.
259ADIDASAdolf Adi DasslerADIDAS is a multinational corporation that designs and manufactures sports shoes, clothing, and accessories. The name ADIDAS is derived from the founder’s name, Adolf Adi Dassler. It is one of the world’s leading sports brands.
260AERBAtomic Energy Regulatory BoardAERB stands for Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. It is the regulatory body in India responsible for ensuring the safe and secure use of nuclear energy and radiation sources. The AERB sets safety standards, issues licenses, and conducts inspections and assessments of nuclear facilities.
261AFNETAir Force NetworkAFNET refers to the Air Force Network. It is the secure communication and information network used by the Indian Air Force for its internal communications and data exchange. AFNET facilitates secure and reliable communication between air bases, command centers, and other Air Force units.
262AFSPAArmed Forces Special Powers ActAFSPA stands for Armed Forces Special Powers Act. It is an act enacted by the Indian government to grant special powers to the armed forces deployed in “disturbed areas” to maintain law and order and combat insurgency. The act confers certain additional powers and immunities to the armed forces to carry out operations in such areas.
263ANCAAnti-Neutrophilic Cytoplasmic AutoantibodyANCA refers to Anti-Neutrophilic Cytoplasmic Autoantibody. It is a type of autoantibody that targets neutrophils, which are a type of white blood cells involved in immune responses.ANCA is associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), where the immune system mistakenly attacks blood vessels.
264ANIAsian News InternationalANI stands for Asian News International. It is an Indian news agency that provides multimedia news content from India and around the world. ANI covers a wide range of topics, including politics, business, entertainment, sports, and more.
265AOCAdmiral Overseas CorporationAOC represents Admiral Overseas Corporation. It is a company engaged in various industries, including consumer electronics, computer monitors, televisions, and other electronic products. AOC is known for manufacturing and distributing high-quality display and visual technology solutions globally.
266APCTTAsian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of TechnologyAPCTT stands for Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology. It is a regional institution under the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). APCTT promotes the transfer, adaptation, and development of technology in the Asia-Pacific region to support sustainable development, innovation, and economic growth.
267ARDCAgricultural Refinance and Development CorporationARDC refers to Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation. It is a financial institution in India that provides refinance facilities and financial assistance to agriculture-related activities. ARDC aims to support the agricultural sector by providing affordable credit and promoting the development of rural areas.
268ARTRACArmy Training CommandARTRAC represents Army Training Command. It is a command of the Indian Army responsible for the training and professional development of army personnel. ARTRAC designs and implements training programs, conducts exercises, and ensures the readiness and effectiveness of the Indian Army.
269ASATAnti-Satellite WeaponsASAT stands for Anti-Satellite Weapons. It refers to weapons specifically designed to destroy or disable satellites in space. ASAT weapons are developed by various countries and can be used for strategic purposes, such as disrupting communication systems or impairing the reconnaissance capabilities of potential adversaries.
270IASCIndian Army Service CorpsIASC represents the Indian Army Service Corps. It is a logistics branch of the Indian Army responsible for providing supplies, transportation, and other logistical support to the armed forces during military operations. IASC plays a crucial role in ensuring the efficient functioning and sustenance of the Indian Army.
271ASCONArmy Static Switch Communication NetworkASCON refers to Army Static Switch Communication Network. It is a communication network used by the Indian Army for secure and reliable communication across various military installations and units. ASCON enables effective command, control, and coordination during operations and facilitates efficient information sharing among army personnel.
272ASIMOAdvanced Step in Innovative MobilityASIMO stands for Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility. It is a humanoid robot developed by Honda. ASIMO is known for its advanced capabilities in mobility, including walking, running, climbing stairs, and performing tasks in a human-like manner. It has been designed to assist with various tasks and showcase advancements in robotics technology.
273PSLVPolar Satellite Launch VehiclePSLV represents Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. It is a launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). PSLV is primarily used to deploy satellites into polar orbits around Earth. It has played a significant role in India’s space missions and has been instrumental in launching numerous satellites for various purposes.
274ATGMAnti-Tank Guided MissileATGM stands for Anti-Tank Guided Missile. It is a missile system designed specifically to target and destroy armored vehicles, particularly tanks. ATGMs are guided by various means, such as wire guidance, laser guidance, or infrared guidance, to ensure precise targeting and effective anti-tank capabilities.
275AVMArteriovenous MalformationAVM refers to Arteriovenous Malformation. It is a medical condition characterized by abnormal connections between arteries and veins. These abnormal connections disrupt the normal flow of blood, leading to potential complications such as bleeding or restricted blood supply to surrounding tissues. AVMs can occur in various parts of the body, including the brain and other organs.
276AVSMAti Vishisht Seva MedalAVSM stands for Ati Vishisht Seva Medal. It is a military decoration awarded by the President of India to recognize distinguished service and exceptional achievements by Indian Armed Forces personnel. The AVSM is one of the prestigious medals conferred for acts of valor, devotion to duty, or outstanding leadership in the military domain.
277AWACSAirborne Warning and Control SystemAWACS represents Airborne Warning and Control System. It is a system that combines radar, communication, and command functions to provide real-time surveillance and control of airspace. AWACS aircraft are equipped with a rotating radar antenna mounted on top, allowing for early detection of aircraft, monitoring of airspace, and coordination of air defense operations.
278B2BBusiness to BusinessB2B stands for Business to Business. It refers to commercial transactions and interactions that occur between two businesses or organizations. B2B typically involves the exchange of goods, services, or information between suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, and other entities operating in the business sector.
279B2CBusiness to ConsumerB2C represents Business to Consumer. It refers to commercial transactions and interactions that occur between a business or organization and individual consumers. B2C encompasses various activities, such as retail sales, e-commerce, and direct marketing, where businesses sell products or services directly to end consumers.
280BAFTABritish Academy of Film and Television ArtsBAFTA stands for British Academy of Film and Television Arts. It is an organization that hosts annual awards ceremonies to recognize outstanding achievements in the film, television, and gaming industries. BAFTA aims to promote and support the art forms of film and television, and it plays a significant role in the entertainment industry.
281BALCOBharat Aluminum Company Ltd.BALCO represents Bharat Aluminum Company Ltd. It is a leading Indian aluminum manufacturing company. BALCO is engaged in the production of aluminum and related products, including aluminum ingots, rolled products, and extrusions. The company is known for its contribution to the Indian metal industry and is a subsidiary of Vedanta Resources.
282BBCBritish Broadcasting CorporationBBC stands for British Broadcasting Corporation. It is a well-known public service broadcaster based in the United Kingdom. The BBC provides a wide range of television, radio, and online content across various genres, including news, entertainment, documentaries, and educational programs. It is recognized globally for its journalism, cultural coverage, and diverse programming.
283BCCCBroadcasting Content Complaints CouncilBCCC refers to Broadcasting Content Complaints Council. It is a self-regulatory body in India that oversees and addresses complaints related to television content. BCCC monitors television channels to ensure compliance with broadcasting guidelines and addresses grievances or concerns raised by viewers regarding objectionable or inappropriate content.
284BIBusiness IntelligenceBI represents Business Intelligence. It refers to technologies, strategies, and practices used to collect, analyze, and present business information or data. BI involves processes such as data mining, reporting, and data visualization, enabling organizations to make informed decisions, identify trends, and gain insights into their operations and market conditions.
285BOACBritish Overseas Airways CorporationBOAC stands for British Overseas Airways Corporation. It was a British airline that operated from 1939 to 1974. BOAC played a significant role in international air travel and was the national airline of the United Kingdom until it merged with British European Airways (BEA) to form British Airways.
286BPBlood PressureBP represents Blood Pressure. It is a measurement of the force exerted by blood against the walls of arteries as the heart pumps it around the body. Blood pressure readings consist of two numbers, systolic and diastolic, which indicate the pressure during the heart’s contraction and relaxation phases, respectively. Blood pressure is an important health indicator and is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
287C2CConsumer to ConsumerC2C stands for Consumer to Consumer. It refers to a type of business model or transaction where individuals or consumers engage in direct buying and selling with each other. C2C transactions often take place through online platforms or marketplaces where individuals can sell products or services to other individuals.
288CAACitizenship Amendment ActCAA represents Citizenship Amendment Act. It is an act passed by the government of a country to amend its citizenship laws. The specific details and implications of the Citizenship Amendment Act can vary from country to country. In some cases, it may involve providing a path to citizenship or altering the criteria for obtaining citizenship.
289CAIRCentre for Artificial Intelligence and RoboticsCAIR stands for Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics. It is a research and development center focused on artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. CAIR engages in the development of AI technologies, robotic systems, and applications across various domains, including defense, healthcare, and industrial automation.
290CAMPACompensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning AuthorityCAMPA refers to Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority. It is a statutory body established in India to manage and utilize funds collected for compensatory afforestation. CAMPA oversees the planning, implementation, and monitoring of afforestation and reforestation projects aimed at compensating for the loss of forest land due to various developmental activities.
291CBFCCentral Board of Film CertificationCBFC stands for Central Board of Film Certification. It is a regulatory body in India responsible for certifying films before their public exhibition. CBFC reviews films for various aspects, including content, language, and suitability for different age groups, and assigns appropriate certification categories such as U (Universal), A (Adults), and others.
292CCTVClosed-Circuit TelevisionCCTV represents Closed-Circuit Television. It refers to a system of video surveillance that uses cameras to capture and monitor activities in specific areas. CCTV systems are commonly used for security and surveillance purposes in various settings, such as public spaces, buildings, and homes.
293CECChief Election CommissionerCEC stands for Chief Election Commissioner. It is a high-ranking official who heads the election commission or electoral management body in a country. The Chief Election Commissioner plays a crucial role in overseeing and administering the electoral process, ensuring fairness, transparency, and integrity in elections.
294CEDAWCommittee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against WomenCEDAW refers to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. It is a United Nations committee that monitors the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. CEDAW reviews reports from member states, provides guidance on gender equality issues, and promotes women’s rights worldwide.
295CEOChief Executive OfficerCEO stands for Chief Executive Officer. It is the highest-ranking executive in a company or organization who is responsible for making major corporate decisions, managing operations, and leading the organization towards its goals and objectives. The CEO is typically appointed by the board of directors.
296CFSLCentral Forensic Science LaboratoryCFSL represents Central Forensic Science Laboratory. It is a government agency or institution that conducts scientific and forensic investigations in criminal cases. CFSL utilizes advanced scientific techniques and methodologies to analyze evidence, such as fingerprints, DNA, ballistics, and other forensic aspects to assist law enforcement agencies and the judicial system.
297CGHSCentral Government Health SchemeCGHS stands for Central Government Health Scheme. It is a healthcare program provided by the Government of India to its employees and pensioners. CGHS offers comprehensive medical services, including outpatient, inpatient, and emergency care, as well as access to a network of empaneled hospitals and dispensaries.
298CHOGRMCommonwealth Heads of Government MeetingCHOGRM refers to Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. It is a summit that brings together the heads of government from member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations. The CHOGRM provides an opportunity for leaders to discuss and address key political, economic, and social issues, as well as promote cooperation among Commonwealth countries.
299CIILCentral Institute of Indian LanguagesCIIL represents Central Institute of Indian Languages. It is a premier research and training institute in India dedicated to the study and preservation of Indian languages. CIIL conducts research, offers courses, develops language resources, and promotes multilingual education and linguistic diversity in the country.
300CLBCompany Law BoardCLB stands for Company Law Board. It was a regulatory body in India responsible for resolving disputes related to company law and corporate governance. However, the functions and powers of the Company Law Board have been transferred to the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) and the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) under the Companies Act, 2013.
301CLSSCredit Linked Subsidy SchemeCLSS represents Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme. It is a government initiative aimed at providing affordable housing to individuals and families with lower income levels. Under the CLSS, eligible beneficiaries receive interest subsidies on home loans, which reduces the overall cost of housing and makes it more accessible.
302CSACommunity Supported AgricultureCSA stands for Community Supported Agriculture. It is a model of agricultural production and distribution where consumers (members of the community) enter a direct relationship with local farmers. Members pay in advance to receive a share of the farm’s produce, fostering a mutually beneficial and sustainable partnership between farmers and consumers.
303UPRVUNLUttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam LimitedUPRVUNL represents Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited. It is a power generation company owned by the Government of Uttar Pradesh, India. UPRVUNL is responsible for the development, operation, and maintenance of thermal power plants in Uttar Pradesh.
304LMRCLucknow Metro Rail CorporationLMRC stands for Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation. It is a government organization responsible for the development, operation, and maintenance of the metro rail system in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. LMRC aims to provide an efficient and sustainable mode of urban transportation to the residents of Lucknow.
305UPMRCUttar Pradesh Metro Rail CorporationUPMRC refers to Uttar Pradesh Metro Rail Corporation. It is a government entity responsible for planning, implementing, operating, and maintaining the metro rail systems in various cities of Uttar Pradesh, India. UPMRC aims to provide efficient, safe, and convenient urban transportation solutions to the residents of Uttar Pradesh.
306ASPAdditional Superintendent of PoliceASP stands for Additional Superintendent of Police. It is a rank in the police force, typically found in countries like India. An ASP is an officer who holds a position higher than the Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP) and assists the Superintendent of Police (SP) in administrative and operational duties within a police district or jurisdiction.
307ACPAdditional Commissioner of PoliceACP represents Additional Commissioner of Police. It is a rank in the police force, often found in countries like India. An ACP is an officer who holds a position higher than the Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP) and assists the Commissioner of Police in managing and overseeing law enforcement operations in a specific area or division.
308IGInspector GeneralIG stands for Inspector General. It is a high-ranking position in various law enforcement agencies and organizations. An Inspector General typically holds a supervisory role, overseeing multiple departments, units, or regions. In some countries, such as the United States, the Inspector General may also be responsible for conducting internal audits and investigations within a government agency.
309PPSProvincial Police ServiceIt refers to a state-level police service in some countries or regions. The Provincial Police Service is responsible for maintaining law and order, preventing and investigating crimes, and ensuring public safety within a specific province or state.
310JIOJoint Implementation OpportunityIt refers to a collaborative effort or initiative where multiple parties come together to implement a project, program, or opportunity. The term “Joint” implies the involvement of multiple entities or organizations working together towards a common goal.
311CMAGCommonwealth Ministerial Action GroupIt is a committee comprised of ministers from member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations. CMAG plays a significant role in addressing and acting on issues related to democracy, governance, and human rights within member countries.
312COASChief of the Army StaffIt is the highest-ranking military officer in the army of a country. The Chief of the Army Staff is responsible for leading and managing the army, overseeing its operations, formulating military strategies, and advising the government on matters related to national defense and security.
313CODCash on DeliveryIt is a payment method in which the buyer makes payment in cash at the time of receiving the goods or services. COD is commonly used in e-commerce and retail businesses, allowing customers to pay for their purchases upon delivery rather than making a prepayment.
314PVSMParam Vishisht Seva MedalIt is a prestigious military decoration awarded in India to recognize distinguished service and exceptional contributions by officers of the armed forces. The PVSM is one of the highest peacetime military honors bestowed upon individuals for their exceptional service.
315UYSMUttam Yudh Seva MedalIt is a military decoration in India awarded for exceptional service and acts of valor during wartime or conflict situations. The UYSM is one of the highest wartime military honors bestowed upon individuals who display exceptional courage and leadership in combat.
316JCOJunior Commissioned OfficerIt is a rank in the military hierarchy, typically found in countries like India. JCOs hold positions of leadership and responsibility between commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers (NCOs). They often serve as a bridge between the officers and enlisted personnel, providing guidance and supervision.
317YSMYudh Seva MedalIt is a military decoration awarded in India to recognize distinguished service and acts of valor during wartime or conflict situations. The YSM is bestowed upon military personnel for their exceptional contributions and devotion to duty in the face of the enemy.
318VSMVishisht Seva MedalIt is a military decoration awarded in India to recognize exceptional service and distinguished contributions by officers of the armed forces. The VSM is awarded for meritorious service rendered in non-combat roles, such as administrative, logistical, or operational support.
319ADCAide-De-CampADC represents Aide-De-Camp. It refers to a military officer who serves as a personal assistant or adjutant to a senior officer, such as a high-ranking military official or a head of state. The ADC assists in various administrative, ceremonial, and logistical duties to support the senior officer.
320COMESACommon Market for Eastern and Southern AfricaIt is a regional economic community comprising 21 member states in Africa. COMESA aims to promote economic integration, trade facilitation, and cooperation among its member countries to foster sustainable development and prosperity in the region.
321CPFCentral Provident FundIt is a comprehensive social security savings scheme implemented in Singapore. CPF aims to help Singaporeans save for retirement, healthcare, and homeownership by requiring contributions from employees, employers, and the government. The funds in the CPF can be used for various purposes, including housing, healthcare, and investment.
322CPRCardio-Pulmonary ResuscitationIt is an emergency lifesaving technique performed to revive a person who has suffered cardiac arrest or stopped breathing. CPR involves chest compressions, rescue breaths, and other appropriate procedures to maintain blood circulation and oxygen supply to vital organs until professional medical help arrives.
323PSUPublic Sector UndertakingIt refers to a government-owned corporation or enterprise in India. PSUs operate in various sectors of the economy and are owned and controlled by the government. They play a significant role in the country’s economic development and provide employment opportunities.
324CRISPCentre for Research and Industrial Staff PerformanceIt is an organization that focuses on research, training, and consultancy services in the fields of industry, technology, and human resource development. CRISP works towards enhancing the skills and performance of industrial staff and promoting innovation and productivity.
325CRRIDCentre for Research in Rural and Industrial DevelopmentIt is a research institute in India that conducts multidisciplinary research in areas related to rural and industrial development. CRRID aims to generate knowledge, policy insights, and recommendations to contribute to the sustainable development of rural and industrial sectors.
326CSCAPCouncil for Security Cooperation in the Asia PacificIt is a non-governmental organization that promotes dialogue, cooperation, and collaboration among countries in the Asia Pacific region on security-related issues. CSCAP serves as a platform for discussions, research, and policy coordination to enhance regional security and stability.
327CSCEConference on Security and Cooperation in EuropeCSCE stands for Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. It was an international organization established during the Cold War era. The CSCE aimed to promote dialogue, cooperation, and security among European countries through discussions, negotiations, and agreements on various political, military, and economic issues.
328CSDCanteen Stores DepartmentIt is a retail chain operated by the Indian Ministry of Defense. CSD stores provide goods and products at subsidized rates to members of the Indian Armed Forces, including serving personnel, veterans, and their dependents.
329CVRCockpit Voice RecorderCVR stands for Cockpit Voice Recorder. It is a device installed in aircraft to record audio communication and sounds within the cockpit during flight. The CVR helps investigators analyze and understand the events leading up to aviation accidents or incidents by providing valuable information about cockpit conversations, alarms, and other audio cues.
330CVRDECombat Vehicles Research and Development EstablishmentCVRDE represents Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment. It is a defense research laboratory in India under the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO). CVRDE is responsible for the design, development, and testing of combat vehicles, armored vehicles, and related technologies for the Indian Armed Forces.
331CWCCentral Warehousing CorporationCWC stands for Central Warehousing Corporation. It is a public sector undertaking in India under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution. CWC provides warehousing and logistics services, including storage, handling, and transportation of agricultural produce, industrial goods, and other commodities.
332CWPRSCentral Water and Power Research StationCWPRS represents The Central Water and Power Research Station. It is a research institution in India dedicated to water resources and hydropower development. CWPRS conducts research, testing, and consultancy services in areas related to hydraulic engineering, hydrology, river basin management, and water resource planning.
333DAVPDirectorate of Advertising and Visual PublicityDAVP stands for Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity. It is an agency of the Government of India responsible for planning, designing, and executing advertising and publicity campaigns for various government ministries, departments, and agencies. DAVP promotes government policies, programs, and initiatives through various media channels.
334DDADelhi Development AuthorityDDA represents Delhi Development Authority. It is a statutory body responsible for planning, development, and management of land and infrastructure in Delhi, India. DDA undertakes urban development projects, regulates land use, and facilitates the implementation of master plans to ensure planned and sustainable growth of the city.
335DDSDoctor of Dental SurgeryDDS stands for Doctor of Dental Surgery. It is a professional degree awarded to individuals who have completed a dental education program and are qualified to practice dentistry. DDS is the equivalent of DMD (Doctor of Dental Medicine) and signifies that the individual has met the educational requirements to become a dentist.
336DDTDichloro Diphenyl TrichloroethaneDDT represents Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane. It is an organochlorine pesticide that was commonly used in the past for insect control, particularly against mosquitoes and other disease-carrying insects. Due to its persistence in the environment and potential adverse effects on human health and wildlife, the use of DDT has been restricted or banned in many countries.
337DEALDefence Electronics Application LaboratoryIt is a laboratory under the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) in India. DEAL is primarily focused on research, development, and application of advanced electronics and communication systems for defense purposes. It conducts research, design, and testing of electronic systems, communication equipment, and related technologies to meet the requirements of the Indian Armed Forces.
338DGCADirectorate General of Civil AviationIt is the regulatory body responsible for the regulation and oversight of civil aviation activities in a country. The DGCA ensures the safety, security, and efficiency of civil aviation operations, including aircraft maintenance, pilot licensing, airworthiness certification, and air traffic management.
339DGCEIDirectorate General of Central Excise IntelligenceIt is an enforcement agency under the Department of Revenue in India. The DGCEI is responsible for preventing and investigating cases of central excise duty evasion, tax frauds, and other economic offenses related to excisable goods and services.
340DGHCDarjeeling Gorkha Hill CouncilIt was an autonomous administrative body created for the Darjeeling district in West Bengal, India. The DGHC was established to address the socio-economic and political aspirations of the Gorkha community and manage the governance and development activities in the region.
341DGHSDirector General Health ServicesIt is a senior administrative position within the health sector of a country. The DGHS is responsible for formulating and implementing policies, coordinating health programs, and overseeing the delivery of healthcare services at the national level.
342DGTDDirectorate General of Technical DevelopmentIt is an organization in India that falls under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade. The DGTD is responsible for promoting and developing technical skills, vocational training, and industrial education to support industrial growth and technological advancement.
343DHLDalsey, Hillblom and LynnIt is a global logistics company that provides international courier, parcel, and express mail services. DHL is known for its extensive network, offering transportation and logistics solutions for businesses and individuals worldwide.
344DICDisseminated Intravascular CoagulationIt is a serious medical condition characterized by the abnormal formation of blood clots throughout the bloodstream, leading to excessive clotting and consumption of clotting factors. DIC can result from various underlying conditions, such as sepsis, trauma, cancer, or certain infections, and requires immediate medical intervention.
345DICCIDalit Indian Chamber of Commerce and IndustryIt is an organization in India that promotes the economic empowerment and entrepreneurship of Dalit (formerly known as “untouchable”) communities. DICCI aims to provide support, advocacy, and networking opportunities for Dalit entrepreneurs and businesses.
346DIPAMDepartment of Investment and Public Asset ManagementIt is a department under the Ministry of Finance in India. DIPAM is responsible for managing the government’s disinvestment and strategic sale of public sector enterprises, as well as overseeing the management of government-owned assets and investments.
347DISHADistrict Infrastructure Scheme Advisory CommitteesDISHA Committees are set up at the district level in India to provide advisory support and guidance for the implementation of various infrastructure development schemes and projects. These committees help in the planning, coordination, and monitoring of infrastructure initiatives in the respective districts.
348DMIDirectorate of Marketing and InspectionDMI represents Directorate of Marketing and Inspection. It is an organization in India under the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare. The DMI is responsible for the regulation, standardization, and quality control of agricultural products, market intelligence, and inspection of agricultural commodities to ensure fair practices in marketing.
349MOESMinistry of Earth SciencesMOES stands for Ministry of Earth Sciences. It is a ministry of the Government of India responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies and programs related to earth sciences. MOES oversees various institutions and organizations involved in research, monitoring, and forecasting of weather, climate, oceanography, seismology, and other earth-related phenomena.
350DPDisplay PictureDP stands for Display Picture. It refers to the profile picture or image that an individual chooses to display on their social media accounts, instant messaging applications, or online platforms. The DP is a visual representation of the user and is often used to identify and personalize their online presence.
351PRKPeople’s Republic of KoreaPRK stands for People’s Republic of Korea. It is an alternative name for North Korea, a country located on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. The PRK is a socialist state with a centralized government and is governed by the Workers’ Party of Korea.
352MNREMinistry of New and Renewable EnergyMNRE represents the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. It is a ministry of the Government of India that focuses on the development, promotion, and implementation of policies, programs, and initiatives related to renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and hydroelectric power. MNRE aims to accelerate the use of clean and sustainable energy in the country.
353DSCDistinguished Service CrossDSC stands for Distinguished Service Cross. It is a military decoration awarded to members of the armed forces for extraordinary acts of bravery and heroism in combat. The DSC is typically awarded by various countries to recognize exceptional valor and selfless service in the face of the enemy.
354DSTDaylight Saving TimeDST represents Daylight Saving Time. It is the practice of adjusting the clock forward by one hour during the warmer months to extend evening daylight and conserve energy. DST is usually observed in many countries to make better use of daylight and promote energy efficiency.
355DVMDoctor of Veterinary MedicineDVM stands for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. It is a professional degree awarded to individuals who have completed the necessary veterinary medicine education and training. A DVM degree qualifies the individual to diagnose, treat, and provide medical care to animals, and it is equivalent to the Doctor of Veterinary Science (DVSc) or Veterinary Medical Doctor (VMD) degrees in some countries.
356DWTDeadweight TonnageDWT stands for Deadweight Tonnage. It is a measurement of the carrying capacity of a ship, indicating the total weight (in metric tons) of cargo, fuel, water, provisions, and other items that a vessel can safely transport. Deadweight tonnage helps determine the size and capabilities of a ship, and it is an important factor in freight pricing and vessel classification.
357EADSEuropean Aeronautic Defence and Space CompanyEADS represents European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company. It was a multinational aerospace and defense corporation based in Europe. EADS was the parent company of Airbus, a leading aircraft manufacturer, and it also specialized in defense, space, and related services. In 2014, EADS rebranded as Airbus Group, which is now known as Airbus SE.
358ECGElectrocardiogramECG stands for Electrocardiogram. It is a diagnostic test that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart. An ECG is used to assess the heart’s rhythm, detect abnormalities, and diagnose various heart conditions, such as arrhythmias, heart attacks, and heart disease. It involves placing electrodes on the skin to detect the electrical signals produced by the heart.
359EDMSElectronic Document Management SystemEDMS stands for Electronic Document Management System. It is a software-based system used to store, manage, organize, and retrieve digital documents and files. An EDMS allows for efficient document storage, version control, collaboration, and workflow management, facilitating paperless operations and improving document accessibility and security.
360EEZExclusive Economic ZoneEEZ stands for Exclusive Economic Zone. It is an area of coastal waters extending from the shoreline of a country’s land territory. The EEZ is defined by international law and grants the country exclusive rights to explore, exploit, and manage the natural resources, both living and non-living, within that zone. The EEZ also includes certain rights and responsibilities related to marine conservation and environmental protection.
361EGOMEmpowered Group of MinistersEGOM stands for Empowered Group of Ministers. It refers to a group of ministers appointed by the government to handle specific policy matters or issues that require high-level decision-making. The EGOM is empowered with the authority to make decisions and take actions on behalf of the government regarding the assigned subject or matter.
362EIPEnterprise Information PortalEIP stands for Enterprise Information Portal. It is a web-based platform or software that provides centralized access to various information, resources, and applications within an organization. An EIP integrates and presents data from different systems and sources, enabling employees to access relevant information, collaborate, and perform their tasks more efficiently.
363EMFElectro-Motive ForceEMF stands for Electro-Motive Force. It is the electric potential or voltage difference produced by a source such as a battery or generator. The EMF represents the driving force that pushes electric charges through a circuit, creating an electric current. It is measured in volts and is fundamental to understanding electrical circuits and power generation.
364EMUElectric Multiple UnitEMU stands for Electric Multiple Unit. It refers to a type of train or railway vehicle that is powered by electricity and consists of multiple self-propelled carriages. An EMU does not require a separate locomotive, as each carriage has its own electric traction motors. EMUs are commonly used in urban and suburban rail transport systems.
365ENTEar, Nose, and ThroatIt is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of disorders and conditions related to the ear, nose, and throat. ENT specialists, also known as otolaryngologists, are trained to address a wide range of issues affecting the head and neck region.
366EOUExport Oriented UnitsEOU stands for Export Oriented Units. These are industrial units or companies that are established and operated in India with the primary objective of producing goods or providing services for exports. EOU status provides various benefits and incentives to promote exports, such as customs duty exemptions, tax concessions, and simplified export-import procedures.
367EPCHExport Promotion Council for HandicraftsEPCH represents Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts. It is a non-profit organization based in India that is responsible for promoting and supporting the export of Indian handicrafts. EPCH works closely with artisans, exporters, and other stakeholders in the handicraft sector to enhance the competitiveness of Indian handicrafts in the global market and facilitate trade opportunities.
368EPICElectors Photo-Identity CardEPIC stands for Electors Photo-Identity Card. It refers to the identification card issued by the Election Commission of India to eligible voters. The EPIC serves as an official identification document that contains the voter’s photograph, personal details, and a unique identification number. It is used as proof of identity during elections to prevent impersonation and ensure the integrity of the electoral process.
369ESTEastern Standard TimeEST stands for Eastern Standard Time. It is the time standard that is followed in regions that are in the Eastern Time Zone, which includes parts of North America, such as Eastern United States and Eastern Canada. EST is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-5) during standard time and is adjusted accordingly during daylight saving time.
370ITDCIndia Tourism Development CorporationITDC stands for India Tourism Development Corporation. It is a public sector undertaking under the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. ITDC is responsible for the development and promotion of tourism in India by operating hotels, conducting tours, providing hospitality services, and managing tourism-related projects and initiatives across the country.
371EVMElectronic Voting MachineEVM stands for Electronic Voting Machine. It is a device used for casting and counting votes in elections. EVMs are designed to electronically record votes and eliminate the need for paper ballots. They are secure, efficient, and ensure faster and accurate vote counting. EVMs have been widely adopted in many countries, including India, for conducting elections.
372EVPElectors Verification ProgramEVP stands for Electors Verification Program. It is an initiative by the Election Commission of India to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the electoral roll. Under the EVP, voters are given the opportunity to verify and update their personal details and make necessary corrections in the voter list. The program aims to maintain an updated and error-free electoral roll.
373FACTSFlexible Alternating Current Transmission SystemFACTS stands for Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System. It refers to a set of technologies and devices used in electric power systems to enhance the control, stability, and efficiency of electrical transmission. FACTS devices can regulate voltage, control power flow, and improve the transmission capacity and reliability of power grids.
374FBTRFast Breeder Test ReactorFBTR stands for Fast Breeder Test Reactor. It is a type of nuclear reactor designed to test and develop fast breeder reactor technology. Fast breeder reactors use fast neutrons to generate more fissile material than they consume, making them highly efficient in utilizing nuclear fuel resources. The FBTR plays a significant role in the research and development of fast breeder reactor technology.
375FDCIFashion Design Council of IndiaFDCI represents Fashion Design Council of India. It is a non-profit organization that serves as the apex body for fashion design in India.
376FMCTFissile Material Cutoff TreatyFMCT stands for Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty. It is a proposed international treaty aimed at prohibiting the production, stockpiling, and use of fissile materials for nuclear weapons purposes. The treaty primarily focuses on fissile materials such as highly enriched uranium and plutonium. The FMCT seeks to promote nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and arms control efforts globally.
377GAILGas Authority of India LimitedGAIL stands for Gas Authority of India Limited. It is a state-owned natural gas processing and distribution company in India. GAIL is responsible for the transportation, distribution, and marketing of natural gas in the country. It plays a crucial role in the development and management of natural gas infrastructure and promotes the use of natural gas as a clean and efficient energy source.
378GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and TradeGATT stands for General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. It was an international treaty established in 1947 to promote international trade by reducing trade barriers, such as tariffs and quotas, and by providing a framework for negotiations on trade-related issues. GATT served as the foundation for the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995.
379GDPGross Domestic ProductGDP stands for Gross Domestic Product. It is a key economic indicator that represents the total value of all goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period, usually a year. GDP is used to measure the economic growth, productivity, and overall size of an economy, and it serves as an important metric for assessing and comparing the economic performance of different countries.
380GMRGrandhi Mallikarjuna RaoGMR refers to Grandhi Mallikarjuna Rao. He is an Indian entrepreneur and the founder of the GMR Group, a leading infrastructure conglomerate in India. The GMR Group is involved in various sectors, including airports, energy, highways, and urban infrastructure. GMR has made significant contributions to infrastructure development and has undertaken several major projects in India and abroad.
381GSTGoods and Services TaxGST stands for Goods and Services Tax. It is an indirect tax levied on the supply of goods and services in India. GST has replaced multiple indirect taxes, such as excise duty, service tax, and value-added tax (VAT), with a unified tax structure. It aims to simplify the tax system, promote transparency, and eliminate cascading effects of taxes.
382HALHindustan Aeronautics LimitedHAL stands for Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. It is a state-owned aerospace and defense company in India. HAL is involved in the design, development, manufacturing, and maintenance of aircraft, helicopters, engines, avionics, and related aerospace equipment. It plays a crucial role in the Indian aviation industry and serves both military and civil aviation sectors.
383HMTHindustan Machine ToolsHMT stands for Hindustan Machine Tools. It is a state-owned manufacturing company in India that specializes in machine tools, tractors, watches, and other precision engineering products. HMT has been instrumental in the development of the Indian manufacturing industry and has contributed significantly to the growth of the country’s engineering sector.
384IAFIndian Air ForceIAF stands for Indian Air Force. It is the air arm of the Indian Armed Forces. The Indian Air Force is responsible for the aerial defense of India and plays a crucial role in safeguarding the country’s airspace. It is equipped with advanced aircraft, helicopters, and air defense systems and is involved in various operations such as combat missions, humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, and peacekeeping efforts.
385FPOFollow on Public OfferFPO stands for Follow on Public Offer. It is a process through which a publicly listed company issues additional shares to the public after its initial public offering (IPO). In an FPO, the company already has its shares listed on a stock exchange, and it offers more shares to raise additional capital or meet regulatory requirements. FPOs provide an opportunity for existing shareholders and new investors to purchase shares of the company.
386FTZFree Trade ZoneFTZ stands for Free Trade Zone. It refers to a designated geographic area within a country where goods can be imported, manufactured, processed, and exported without being subjected to certain trade barriers, customs duties, or taxes. Free Trade Zones are established to promote international trade, attract foreign investments, and stimulate economic growth by providing businesses with favorable conditions, such as streamlined customs procedures, relaxed regulations, and tax incentives.
387GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting PrinciplesGAAP stands for Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. It refers to a set of standard accounting principles, concepts, and guidelines that are widely recognized and followed in preparing and presenting financial statements. GAAP provides a framework for consistent and transparent financial reporting, ensuring that financial information is reliable, comparable, and understandable to users such as investors, creditors, and regulators.
388GAGANGPS Aided GEO Augmented NavigationGAGAN stands for GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation. It is an Indian satellite-based navigation system developed jointly by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Airports Authority of India (AAI). GAGAN enhances the accuracy, integrity, and availability of GPS signals for various applications, including aviation, maritime, and land-based navigation.
389GATSGeneral Agreement on Trade in ServicesGATS stands for General Agreement on Trade in Services. It is a multilateral agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that aims to liberalize international trade in services. GATS establishes a framework of rules and principles for the fair and open trade of services between member countries, covering various sectors such as telecommunications, banking, tourism, transportation, and professional services.
390GCSGlasgow Coma ScaleGCS stands for Glasgow Coma Scale. It is a neurological scale used to assess the level of consciousness and neurological functioning of a person who has suffered a head injury or other conditions affecting the brain. The GCS evaluates three aspects: eye-opening response, verbal response, and motor response, assigning a score between 3 and 15. The scale helps healthcare professionals in determining the severity of a brain injury and guiding appropriate treatment decisions.
391GMDSSGlobal Maritime Distress and Safety SystemGMDSS stands for Global Maritime Distress and Safety System. It is an internationally recognized set of communication protocols and procedures designed to enhance maritime safety and facilitate efficient distress communications between ships, aircraft, and maritime rescue coordination centers. GMDSS ensures reliable and effective communication during emergencies, providing a standardized system for distress alerts, search and rescue coordination, and dissemination of navigational and meteorological information.
392GMPGood Manufacturing PracticeGMP stands for Good Manufacturing Practice. It refers to a set of guidelines and standards that ensure pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products are consistently produced, controlled, and tested to meet quality standards and comply with regulatory requirements. GMP covers various aspects of the manufacturing process, including personnel, facilities, equipment, documentation, quality control, and hygiene practices, to ensure product safety, efficacy, and quality.
393GOCGeneral Officer CommandingGOC stands for General Officer Commanding. It is a military designation used in various armed forces, indicating the highest-ranking general officer responsible for a specific command.
394GSPGeneralized System of PreferencesGSP stands for Generalized System of Preferences. It is a trade program implemented by many developed countries to promote economic development in developing nations. Under the GSP, eligible beneficiary countries are granted preferential tariff treatment for certain goods exported to the participating countries. This preferential treatment usually involves reduced or zero tariffs on eligible products, giving exporters from beneficiary countries a competitive advantage in the international market.
395GSPCGujarat State Petroleum Corporation LtdGSPC stands for Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation Ltd. It is a state-owned oil and gas company based in the state of Gujarat, India. GSPC is involved in the exploration, production, and distribution of oil and gas resources. The company has undertaken various projects in the energy sector, including exploration and development of oil and gas fields, construction of pipelines, and setting up of infrastructure for natural gas distribution.
396HEMRLHigh Energy Materials Research LaboratoryHEMRL stands for High Energy Materials Research Laboratory. It is a premier research institution under the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India. HEMRL is dedicated to the research and development of high-energy materials, explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and related technologies for defense applications. The laboratory conducts scientific investigations, develops new materials, and provides technical support to the defense sector.
397HITSHyperlink-Induced Topic SearchHITS stands for Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search. It is a web link analysis algorithm used for ranking web pages based on their importance and relevance in search engine results. HITS considers both the authority and the hubness of web pages by analyzing the links pointing to them and the links from them. This algorithm helps search engines determine the credibility and popularity of web pages, influencing their ranking in search results.
398IAFIndian Air ForceIAF stands for Indian Air Force. It is the air arm of the Indian Armed Forces and one of the largest air forces in the world. The Indian Air Force is responsible for aerial warfare, air defense, reconnaissance, and other air operations. It operates a wide range of aircraft, including fighter jets, transport planes, helicopters, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and plays a crucial role in safeguarding India’s airspace and national security.
399IASIndian Administrative ServiceIAS stands for Indian Administrative Service. It is the premier civil service of the Government of India. The IAS officers are responsible for the administration and governance of various districts, states, and central government departments. They hold key positions in the bureaucracy and play a vital role in policy formulation, implementation, and public service delivery.
400ICCInternational Cricket CouncilICC stands for International Cricket Council. It is the governing body for the sport of cricket worldwide. The ICC is responsible for formulating rules and regulations, organizing international cricket tournaments, promoting the game globally, and ensuring fair play and integrity in cricket. It consists of member countries and oversees various formats of the game, including Test matches, One-Day Internationals (ODIs), and Twenty20 Internationals (T20Is).
401ICJInternational Court of JusticeICJ stands for International Court of Justice. It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN) and the highest court in the world. The ICJ settles legal disputes between member states and provides advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. The court consists of judges elected by the UN General Assembly and the Security Council and plays a crucial role in the peaceful resolution of international conflicts.
402ICRISATInternational Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid TropicsICRISAT is a non-profit agricultural research organization that focuses on improving crop production and agricultural practices in semi-arid regions. It conducts research, develops new crop varieties, and provides technical expertise to farmers in developing countries. The institute’s main objective is to enhance food security, reduce poverty, and promote sustainable farming systems in regions prone to drought and other challenges.
403HMIHuman Machine InterfacesHMI refers to the user interface or interaction between humans and machines. It involves the design and implementation of graphical interfaces, touchscreens, control panels, and other technologies that allow users to interact with machines or systems. HMI plays a crucial role in various industries, including manufacturing, automation, and technology, as it enables users to monitor and control complex systems efficiently.
404HSLHindustan Shipyard LimitedHSL is a shipbuilding and ship repair company based in India. It is a public sector undertaking that specializes in constructing and repairing various types of vessels, including naval ships, offshore patrol vessels, and commercial ships. HSL has a significant role in India’s maritime sector, contributing to the country’s defense capabilities and supporting the growth of the shipping industry.
405HVDCHigh-Voltage Direct CurrentHVDC is an electrical transmission technology that enables the efficient transmission of electricity over long distances. Unlike traditional alternating current (AC) systems, HVDC uses direct current (DC) for power transmission, reducing transmission losses and allowing for greater control and flexibility in grid operations. HVDC is widely used for interconnecting power grids, integrating renewable energy sources, and transmitting power across undersea cables.
406IASBInternational Accounting Standards BoardIASB is an independent standard-setting body that establishes and promotes international financial reporting standards. It works to develop a common set of accounting principles and guidelines that facilitate transparent and comparable financial reporting across different countries and industries. The IASB plays a vital role in ensuring consistency, accuracy, and reliability in financial statements, enhancing investor confidence, and facilitating global business transactions.
407ICADRInternational Centre for Alternative Dispute ResolutionICADR is an institution dedicated to promoting alternative dispute resolution methods, such as mediation, arbitration, and conciliation, as alternatives to traditional litigation. It provides training, research, and advisory services to individuals, organizations, and governments seeking effective and efficient resolution of disputes. ICADR’s objective is to encourage peaceful settlement of disputes, reduce the burden on judicial systems, and promote access to justice.
408ICBLInternational Campaign to Ban LandminesICBL is a global network of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working to eliminate the production, use, and stockpiling of landmines. The campaign focuses on raising awareness, advocating for international treaties, and supporting landmine survivors. ICBL played a significant role in the establishment of the Ottawa Treaty, an international agreement that prohibits the use and trade of landmines, and continues to work towards a world free from the threat of landmines.
409ICCRIndian Council for Cultural RelationsICCR is an organization under the Ministry of External Affairs in India that promotes cultural exchange and international understanding. It facilitates cultural exchanges, organizes festivals, exhibitions, and performances, and provides scholarships to foreign students to study in India. ICCR aims to foster cultural diplomacy, strengthen cultural relations between India and other countries, and showcase the rich diversity and heritage of Indian culture globally.
410ICCSInternational Commission of Control and SupervisionICCS was a multinational organization established to monitor and supervise the implementation of the Paris Peace Accords during the Vietnam War. Its primary role was to oversee the ceasefire, supervise the withdrawal of troops, and monitor the release of prisoners of war. The ICCS operated from 1973 to 1973 to 1975 and consisted of representatives from Canada, Hungary, Indonesia, and Poland. The ICCS played a crucial role in monitoring and ensuring compliance with the peace agreement, although its operations faced challenges and limitations during the turbulent period of the war.
411ICFTUInternational Confederation of Free Trade UnionsICFTU was a global trade union federation that operated from 1949 to 2006. It aimed to promote workers’ rights, improve working conditions, and advocate for social justice worldwide. The ICFTU engaged in activities such as international solidarity campaigns, policy advocacy, and capacity-building initiatives for trade unions. In 2006, the ICFTU merged with two other international trade union federations to form the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC).
412ICSIInstitute of Company Secretaries of IndiaICSI is a professional body in India that regulates and promotes the profession of company secretaries. It provides education, training, and certification to aspiring company secretaries and develops professional standards and guidelines for their practice. The ICSI plays a crucial role in ensuring corporate governance, compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, and the effective functioning of company secretaries in various organizations.
413ICTTInternational Container Transshipment TerminalICTT refers to a specialized port facility that handles the transshipment of containers between different vessels. It serves as a hub for the consolidation and distribution of cargo, allowing efficient transfer of containers from larger vessels to smaller feeder vessels or vice versa. ICTTs play a vital role in facilitating global trade, optimizing shipping routes, and reducing transportation costs by enabling the transfer of containers at strategic locations.
414ICWInternational Council of WomenICW is an international organization that promotes women’s rights, gender equality, and women’s empowerment. It works to address issues such as discrimination, violence against women, and unequal access to education and healthcare. The ICW brings together women’s organizations, activists, and leaders from various countries to collaborate, advocate for policy changes, and foster international solidarity in advancing women’s rights and well-being.
415IDPLIndian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals LimitedIDPL is a pharmaceutical company owned by the Government of India. It focuses on the production of affordable and essential drugs to meet the healthcare needs of the population. IDPL manufactures a range of pharmaceutical products, including generic medicines, vaccines, and healthcare formulations. The company contributes to ensuring access to quality medicines and supporting India’s healthcare system by providing affordable pharmaceutical solutions.
416IDSAInstitute of Defense Studies and AnalysisIDSA is a think tank based in India that specializes in defense and strategic studies. It conducts research, analysis, and policy studies on various aspects of national security, defense policies, and geopolitical dynamics. The IDSA provides inputs and recommendations to the Indian government, defense establishments, and policymakers on defense-related matters, contributing to informed decision-making and enhancing India’s security and defense capabilities.
417IFPRIInternational Food Policy Research InstituteIFPRI is a research organization that focuses on addressing global food security and promoting sustainable agricultural development. It conducts research, policy analysis, and capacity-building initiatives to generate evidence-based solutions for food and nutrition challenges. IFPRI’s work includes studying issues such as hunger, poverty, agricultural productivity, and climate change’s impact on food systems. It collaborates with governments, institutions, and organizations worldwide to shape effective policies and interventions in the food and agriculture sector.
418IFRIInternational Forestry Resources and InstitutionsIFRI is a research organization that studies the governance and management of forests and natural resources. It examines the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of forest management, aiming to enhance sustainability, conservation, and livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. IFRI’s research helps in understanding the factors influencing forest governance, policy design, and community-based approaches to promote responsible forest management and biodiversity conservation.
419IGIAIndira Gandhi International AirportIGIA is the primary international airport serving the city of New Delhi, India. It is named after former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. IGIA is one of the busiest airports in India and handles a significant volume of domestic and international air traffic. It offers a wide range of facilities and services, including multiple terminals, shopping, dining, lounges, and transportation connections, ensuring a seamless travel experience for passengers.
420IIMCIndian Institute of Mass CommunicationIIMC is a premier institution in India that specializes in training and education in the field of mass communication and journalism. It offers various programs, including postgraduate diplomas in journalism, advertising, public relations, radio and television journalism, and communication research. IIMC aims to develop skilled media professionals, foster ethical practices, and contribute to the growth and development of the media industry in India.
421IIRSIndian Institute of Remote SensingIIRS is a premier institute in India dedicated to research, education, and applications of remote sensing and geoinformatics. It focuses on the study of Earth observation data obtained from satellites and aerial platforms for various applications, including natural resource management, disaster management, and environmental monitoring. IIRS offers specialized training courses, research programs, and consultancy services in the field of remote sensing and geospatial technologies.
422IMDBInternet Movie DatabaseIMDB is an online database that provides information, ratings, and reviews on films, television shows, actors, and filmmakers. It is a comprehensive platform where users can access details about movies, including cast and crew information, plot summaries, release dates, and user-generated ratings and reviews. IMDB is widely used by movie enthusiasts, industry professionals, and audiences to discover, explore, and engage with the world of cinema.
423IMETInternational Military Education and TrainingIMET refers to a program that provides training and education to military personnel from foreign countries. It is funded and administered by the United States government to promote mutual understanding, build partnerships, and enhance military capabilities of allied and friendly nations. IMET focuses on areas such as military leadership, professionalism, defense management, and human rights. The program aims to strengthen military cooperation, interoperability, and regional security among participating countries.
424BMEWSBallistic Missile Early Warning SystemBMEWS is a military system designed to detect and track ballistic missile launches. It consists of radar installations and command and control centers strategically positioned to provide early warning of potential missile threats. BMEWS plays a critical role in national defense by providing timely information to decision-makers and enabling appropriate responses to missile attacks or potential threats.
425IMRInfant Mortality RateIMR is a crucial health indicator that measures the number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given population within a specified time period. It is an essential statistic used to assess the health and well-being of infants and the overall quality of healthcare systems. Lower IMR indicates better healthcare access, prenatal care, and child survival rates, while higher IMR reflects challenges and areas for improvement in infant healthcare.
426INSIndian Naval ShipINS is the prefix used for ships of the Indian Navy. It denotes that the vessel belongs to the naval fleet of India. The prefix is followed by the ship’s name, which may vary based on the type and purpose of the vessel, such as INS Vikramaditya (aircraft carrier), INS Chennai (destroyer), or INS Kalvari (submarine). INS ships play a vital role in safeguarding India’s maritime interests, conducting operations, and maintaining naval presence in national and international waters.
427INSATIndian National Satellite SystemINSAT is a series of geostationary satellites launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to provide various communication, broadcasting, and meteorological services across India. The INSAT system consists of multiple satellites equipped with transponders and sensors for applications such as television broadcasting, telecommunication services, weather forecasting, and disaster management. INSAT has played a significant role in improving communication infrastructure, extending television coverage, enabling satellite-based education and telemedicine services, and enhancing meteorological monitoring and forecasting capabilities in India.
428INTACHIndian National Trust for Art and Cultural HeritageINTACH is a non-profit organization in India dedicated to the conservation and preservation of the country’s cultural heritage. It works to safeguard historical buildings, monuments, art, crafts, and traditional knowledge systems. INTACH conducts research, documentation, and restoration projects, promotes heritage education and awareness, and collaborates with government bodies, communities, and stakeholders to ensure the sustainable conservation of India’s rich cultural legacy.
429IPCLIndian Petrochemicals Corporation LimitedIPCL was a leading petrochemical company in India that operated from 1969 to 2008. It was involved in the production and marketing of a wide range of petrochemical products, including polymers, fiber intermediates, and chemicals. IPCL played a crucial role in the growth of India’s petrochemical industry, contributing to sectors such as plastics, textiles, packaging, and automotive. In 2008, IPCL merged with Reliance Industries Limited, another major player in the petrochemical sector.
430IRInfrared RadiationIR refers to electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than those of visible light but shorter than radio waves. It is not visible to the human eye but can be detected and used for various applications. Infrared radiation is utilized in fields such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, security systems, communication, and medical diagnostics. It plays a significant role in detecting heat signatures, capturing images in low-light conditions, and identifying objects or patterns not visible in the visible light spectrum.
431IRBMIntermediate-Range Ballistic MissileAn IRBM is a type of ballistic missile with a range typically between 3,000 and 5,500 kilometers (1,900 to 3,400 miles). IRBMs are capable of traveling significant distances and can be used for various purposes, including strategic deterrence, precision strikes, or as weapons systems for regional conflicts. The development and deployment of IRBMs have geopolitical implications and can impact international security dynamics and arms control agreements.
432IRCIIndustrial Reconstruction Corporation of IndiaIRCI was a financial institution established in 1971 by the Government of India to facilitate the revival and reconstruction of financially distressed industrial units. It provided financial assistance, debt restructuring, and management support to help revive and rehabilitate troubled companies. IRCI played a significant role in the industrial development of India by promoting the restructuring and modernization of industries, preserving employment, and contributing to economic growth.
433IRENAInternational Renewable Energy AgencyIRENA is an intergovernmental organization that promotes the adoption and sustainable use of renewable energy worldwide. It facilitates collaboration among member countries, conducts research, and provides policy advice to accelerate the transition to a renewable energy future. IRENA supports the development and deployment of renewable energy technologies, promotes renewable energy investments, and fosters knowledge-sharing and capacity-building initiatives to address the global energy and climate challenges.
434IRFInformation Retrieval FacilityIRF refers to a system or facility designed to retrieve and provide access to information from databases or document repositories. It employs various techniques, algorithms, and search methodologies to efficiently retrieve relevant information based on user queries. IRFs are commonly used in information retrieval applications such as search engines, document management systems, and digital libraries, enabling users to retrieve desired information quickly and effectively.
435IRSInternal Revenue ServiceIRS is the revenue service agency of the United States federal government. It is responsible for the administration and enforcement of tax laws and the collection of federal taxes. The IRS manages various tax-related activities, including processing tax returns, conducting audits, providing taxpayer assistance and education, and enforcing tax compliance. It plays a crucial role in ensuring the financial stability of the government by collecting revenue to fund public services and programs.
436IRSEIndian Railway Service of EngineersIRSE is a specialized cadre of engineers in the Indian Railways, responsible for the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of railway infrastructure. IRSE officers are involved in the development of railway tracks, bridges, tunnels, stations, signaling systems, and other critical components of the railway network. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety, efficiency, and reliability of the Indian Railways, one of the world’s largest railway systems.
437ISAFInternational Security Assistance ForceISAF was a NATO-led multinational coalition that operated in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. It was established to support the Afghan government, provide security, and assist in the stabilization and reconstruction efforts in the country. ISAF comprised troops from various NATO member countries and partner nations and worked closely with Afghan security forces to combat insurgency, maintain peace and security, and facilitate the transition to Afghan-led governance and security.
438ISBIndian School of BusinessISB is a premier business school in India with campuses in Hyderabad and Mohali. It offers various postgraduate and executive education programs in management, entrepreneurship, and other business disciplines. ISB is known for its rigorous curriculum, experienced faculty, and industry engagement. It emphasizes experiential learning, research, and leadership development to prepare students for leadership roles in the business world and contribute to the growth and competitiveness of Indian businesses.
439ISBNInternational Standard Book NumberISBN is a unique identifier assigned to books and other published works. It helps identify and differentiate individual books based on their title, author, edition, and publisher. ISBNs are used by publishers, booksellers, and libraries for inventory management, sales tracking, and cataloging purposes. Each edition or format of a book typically has a distinct ISBN, enabling efficient book identification and facilitating international book trade and distribution.
440ISTIndian Standard TimeIST is the time standard followed in India. It is the time observed throughout the country, set as five and a half hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+5:30). IST is used for various purposes,including official timekeeping, scheduling of events, transportation operations, and communication systems in India. It serves as a common time reference across the country, ensuring synchronization and coordination across different regions. IST is used by government institutions, businesses, educational institutions, and the general public to maintain consistency in timekeeping and facilitate efficient functioning in various sectors.
441IUHDSSIntegrated Underwater Harbor Defence and Surveillance SystemIUHDSS is a sophisticated defense and surveillance system designed to protect harbors and coastal areas from potential threats and intrusions. It combines various technologies such as sonar systems, underwater sensors, surveillance cameras, and data analytics to detect, track, and respond to underwater activities. IUHDSS enhances maritime security by providing real-time monitoring, early warning capabilities, and actionable intelligence to safeguard critical coastal infrastructure, naval assets, and maritime interests.
442ARTAssisted Reproductive TechnologyART refers to medical techniques and procedures that assist individuals and couples in achieving pregnancy when natural conception is challenging or not possible. It includes treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), fertility medications, egg or sperm donation, and surrogacy. ART has revolutionized the field of reproductive medicine, offering hope to those facing infertility or reproductive challenges and enabling them to fulfill their desire for parenthood.
443IWAIInland Waterways Authority of IndiaIWAI is the statutory authority responsible for the development, regulation, and maintenance of inland waterways in India. It aims to promote inland water transport as a cost-effective and environment-friendly mode of transportation for cargo and passengers. IWAI undertakes projects for the construction of new waterways, river training, navigation infrastructure development, and dredging operations. It plays a crucial role in facilitating inland water transport connectivity, promoting trade, and reducing congestion on road and rail networks.
444JICAJapan International Cooperation AgencyJICA is a governmental agency of Japan responsible for providing development assistance and promoting economic and social progress in developing countries. It supports a wide range of projects and initiatives in areas such as infrastructure development, healthcare, education, agriculture, and disaster management. JICA collaborates with partner countries, international organizations, and stakeholders to implement sustainable development programs, transfer technology and expertise, and foster international cooperation.
445JPCJoint Parliamentary CommitteeJPC is a committee formed by the Parliament of India to investigate specific matters of national importance or conduct inquiries on significant issues. It consists of Members of Parliament from both houses and is tasked with examining evidence, gathering information, and preparing reports on the subject matter under investigation. JPCs are instrumental in conducting impartial and comprehensive inquiries, ensuring accountability, and informing legislative decision-making processes on critical issues.
446KNPPKudankulam Nuclear Power PlantKNPP is a nuclear power plant located in Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu, India. It is a joint venture between the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) and Rosatom, the Russian state atomic energy corporation. KNPP is equipped with VVER-1000 reactors and generates a significant portion of electricity for Tamil Nadu and neighboring states. It contributes to India’s energy security, diversification of the power generation mix, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
447LIGOLaser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave ObservatoryLIGO is a large-scale scientific experiment designed to detect gravitational waves, which are ripples in the fabric of spacetime caused by the acceleration of massive objects. LIGO consists of observatories located in the United States, equipped with sophisticated laser interferometers that measure minuscule changes in distance caused by passing gravitational waves. The groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves by LIGO in 2015 confirmed a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and opened a new window for observing and studying the universe.
448LMGLight Machine GunAn LMG is a type of firearm designed to provide sustained, automatic fire for infantry support purposes. LMGs are typically chambered for intermediate cartridges and are equipped with a larger magazine and heavier barrel compared to assault rifles. They are portable but offer a higher rate of fire and increased ammunition capacity. LMGs play a crucial role in infantry tactics, providing suppressive fire, covering fire, and supporting maneuverability in combat situations.
449MDSMaster of Dental SurgeryMDS is a postgraduate professional degree in dentistry. It is pursued by dental graduates who seek specialized knowledge and expertise in a specific area of dentistry, such as oral surgery, orthodontics, endodontics, periodontics, prosthodontics, or pedodontics. The MDS program includes theoretical study, clinical training, and research components, preparing dentists for advanced practice, teaching, research, and leadership roles in the field of dentistry.
450MEAMinistry of External AffairsMEA is the government ministry responsible for India’s external relations, diplomatic missions abroad, and foreign policy formulation. It represents India’s interests on the global stage, engages with foreign governments and international organizations, and promotes bilateral and multilateral cooperation in areas such as trade, defense, culture, and diplomacy. The MEA plays a vital role in shaping India’s foreign policy, safeguarding national interests, and fostering international relations and collaborations.
451MGNREGAMahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee ActMGNREGA is a social welfare scheme in India that guarantees 100 days of employment per year to rural households. It aims to provide livelihood security, promote inclusive growth, and enhance rural development. Under the MGNREGA, rural households can participate in public works projects such as road construction, water conservation, and land development, receiving wages in exchange for their labor. The program has helped alleviate poverty, generate rural employment opportunities, and enhance rural infrastructure.
452MISC.MiscellaneousMISC. is an abbreviation for “miscellaneous,” used to categorize or refer to various items, subjects, or information that do not fit into specific predefined categories. It is a broad term used to indicate a collection of diverse or unrelated things or topics that may vary widely in nature, content, or context. The term “miscellaneous” is often used when discussing or organizing miscellaneous items, documents, ideas, or discussions that do not have a specific classification or grouping.
453MRCPMagnetic Resonance CholangiopancreatographyMRCP is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts, liver, and pancreas. It provides detailed images of the biliary and pancreatic ducts, aiding in the diagnosis and evaluation of conditions such as gallstones, bile duct obstruction, pancreatitis, and tumors. MRCP avoids the need for invasive procedures and uses the natural properties of magnetic resonance to generate high-resolution images for diagnostic purposes.
454MRPMaximum Retail PriceMRP is the maximum price at which a product or service can be sold to consumers, as determined by the manufacturer or authorized seller. The MRP includes the cost of production, packaging, transportation, taxes, and a reasonable margin of profit. It serves as a price ceiling to protect consumers from excessive pricing and ensures transparency in the pricing of goods and services. The MRP is typically indicated on product labels or packaging, allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions.
455MRTPCMonopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices CommissionMRTPC was a regulatory body in India established to prevent unfair trade practices, curb monopolistic behavior, and promote fair competition in the marketplace. It was responsible for enforcing the provisions of the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act (MRTP Act) of 1969. The MRTPC had the authority to investigate and take action against anti-competitive practices, including the abuse of dominant market positions, restrictive trade practices, and unfair trade practices. It played a crucial role in regulating and maintaining a competitive business environment in India.
456MRTSMass Rapid Transit SystemMRTS refers to a high-capacity urban public transportation system designed to provide efficient and rapid movement of passengers within a city or metropolitan area. It typically includes modern rail-based systems such as metro trains, light rail transit (LRT), or commuter trains. MRTS networks are characterized by dedicated tracks, frequent services, fast travel times, and multiple stations serving key locations. They help alleviate traffic congestion, reduce air pollution, and provide convenient and sustainable transportation options for urban residents.
457MSDSMaterial Safety Data SheetMSDS is a document that provides essential information about hazardous substances, chemicals, or materials. It contains details regarding their composition, physical and chemical properties, potential health hazards, safe handling and storage procedures, emergency response measures, and regulatory compliance information. MSDSs are prepared by manufacturers, importers, or suppliers of hazardous substances to ensure that users have access to comprehensive safety information. They play a vital role in promoting workplace safety, facilitating proper handling and disposal of hazardous materials, and protecting the health and well-being of individuals.
458NACNational Advisory CouncilNAC was a body in India that provided guidance and advice to the government on various policy matters. It consisted of eminent individuals from academia, civil society, and other relevant fields. The NAC played a crucial role in shaping and formulating policies related to social welfare, rural development, education, and other important areas. It aimed to ensure inclusive growth, social justice, and empowerment of marginalized communities through its policy recommendations and advocacy efforts.
459NAEPNational Assessment of Educational ProgressNAEP is an ongoing assessment program in the United States that measures the academic performance and progress of students in various subjects. It provides valuable data on student achievement, educational trends, and the effectiveness of educational policies and practices. NAEP assesses students at different grade levels across the country and provides a nationally representative snapshot of educational performance, enabling policymakers, educators, and researchers to make informed decisions and improvements in the education system.
460NCLNon-Creamy LayerNCL is a criterion used in India to determine the eligibility of individuals from the Other Backward Classes (OBC) category for certain reservations and benefits. It refers to a section of the OBC population that is not economically disadvantaged and excludes them from availing specific quotas and reservations. The NCL criterion takes into account factors such as income, occupation, and social status to identify individuals who are economically better off within the OBC category.
461NEEPCONorth Eastern Electric Power Corporation LimitedNEEPCO is a government-owned power utility company in India that operates and maintains hydroelectric power projects in the northeastern region of the country. It plays a significant role in harnessing the hydroelectric potential of the region and generating clean and renewable energy. NEEPCO contributes to the development of the northeastern states by providing reliable power supply, promoting economic growth, and supporting regional infrastructure development.
462NEFANorth-East Frontier AgencyNEFA was a region in northeastern India that was administered by the central government until it was reorganized and became the state of Arunachal Pradesh in 1972. NEFA was a strategically important area, bordering China and Myanmar. It was primarily inhabited by various indigenous tribes. NEFA played a crucial role in India’s defense and security interests in the region, and its reorganization as Arunachal Pradesh aimed to strengthen administrative control and foster development in the area.
463NFAINational Film Archive of IndiaNFAI is an organization in India dedicated to the preservation, restoration, and archiving of Indian cinema. It collects, catalogs, and preserves films, documentaries, and other audiovisual materials of historical and cultural significance. NFAI safeguards the film heritage of India, ensuring that it is accessible to future generations, researchers, and film enthusiasts. It plays a vital role in promoting film preservation, research, and education, contributing to the understanding and appreciation of Indian cinema’s rich legacy.
464NFDCNational Film Development Corporation of IndiaNFDC is a government organization in India that supports and promotes the growth and development of the Indian film industry. It undertakes various activities such as financing film projects, co-production initiatives, distribution, and exhibition of films. NFDC plays a crucial role in fostering creativity, nurturing talent, and facilitating the production of quality films in India. It contributes to the growth of the film industry, both domestically and internationally, and promotes Indian cinema’s cultural and artistic diversity.
465NIFTNational Institute of Fashion TechnologyNIFT is a premier institute in India dedicated to fashion education, research, and professional training. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs in fashion design, fashion technology, fashion communication, and other related disciplines. NIFT provides a comprehensive and industry-oriented curriculum, state-of-the-art infrastructure, and opportunities for students to showcase their talent and creativity.
466NIMHANSNational Institute of Mental Health and NeurosciencesNIMHANS is a premier medical institution in India specializing in mental health and neuroscience. It offers advanced patient care, training, and research in areas such as psychiatry, neurology, psychology, and neuroscience. NIMHANS provides comprehensive services for the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of mental illnesses and neurological disorders. It also conducts research to advance the understanding of these conditions and develop innovative approaches for their management. NIMHANS plays a significant role in promoting mental health awareness, education, and the delivery of quality mental healthcare in India.
467NMEWNational Mission for Empowerment of WomenNMEW is a government initiative in India aimed at empowering women and promoting gender equality. It focuses on various aspects such as health, education, economic empowerment, legal rights, and social protection for women. NMEW implements programs and policies to address issues like violence against women, women’s health, skill development, and women’s participation in decision-making processes. It aims to create an enabling environment for women to realize their full potential, contribute to the socio-economic development of the country, and ensure their overall well-being.
468NMNHNational Museum of Natural HistoryNMNH is an institution in India dedicated to the preservation, study, and promotion of natural history. It houses collections of specimens, artifacts, and exhibits related to various branches of natural history, including geology, paleontology, zoology, and botany. NMNH plays a crucial role in educating the public about the biodiversity, ecosystems, and geological heritage of India. It conducts research, organizes exhibitions, and engages in public outreach activities to foster environmental awareness, conservation, and sustainable development.
469NPCCNational Projects Construction Corporation LimitedNPCC is a government-owned construction company in India that specializes in the construction of large infrastructure projects. It undertakes projects in sectors such as dams, power plants, bridges, roads, and buildings. NPCC provides comprehensive services, including project planning, design, engineering, construction, and project management. It contributes to the development of critical infrastructure and plays a significant role in the nation’s economic growth and industrial progress.
470NSCNNational Socialist Council of NagalandNSCN is an armed separatist group in Northeast India that seeks to establish an independent state for the Naga ethnic group. It has been involved in a long-standing insurgency and political conflict in the region. NSCN has played a significant role in advocating for the rights and aspirations of the Naga people and has engaged in peace negotiations with the Indian government to find a peaceful resolution to the conflict.
471NSICNational Small Industries CorporationNSIC is a government enterprise in India that promotes the growth and development of small-scale industries. It provides a range of support services to small businesses, including technology support, marketing assistance, finance facilitation, and capacity-building programs. NSIC aims to enhance the competitiveness of small enterprises, promote entrepreneurship, and facilitate their integration into the mainstream economy. It plays a vital role in fostering the growth of the small-scale sector, generating employment opportunities, and encouraging economic diversification.
472NSTLNaval Science and Technological LaboratoryNSTL is a premier defense research laboratory under the Indian Navy. It specializes in research and development of advanced technologies for naval applications. NSTL focuses on areas such as underwater systems, marine materials, sonar systems, propulsion systems, and combat systems. It plays a crucial role in enhancing the capabilities and operational readiness of the Indian Navy through the development of cutting-edge technologies and innovative solutions for maritime defense and security.
473OCDObsessive-Compulsive DisorderOCD is a mental health disorder characterized by recurring obsessions (unwanted, intrusive thoughts, images, or urges) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors or mental acts) that individuals feel driven to perform. These obsessions and compulsions can significantly interfere with daily life and cause distress. OCD is often treated through a combination of therapy, medication, and support. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is commonly used to help individuals manage their obsessions and reduce compulsive behaviors, promoting better quality of life.
474OYOOn Your Own RoomsOYO is a hospitality company that operates an online platform for booking and managing accommodations. It provides a network of budget hotels, guesthouses, and serviced apartments across various cities. OYO aims to offer affordable and standardized accommodations with amenities such as clean rooms, comfortable beds, Wi-Fi, and other essential facilities. The platform allows travelers to search for and book accommodations conveniently, providing a hassle-free experience for both guests and hotel partners.
475PERTProgram Evaluation Review TechniquePERT is a project management technique used to analyze and schedule tasks in a project. It involves breaking down the project into individual activities, estimating their duration, and determining the sequence of activities. PERT utilizes a network diagram to visualize the relationships between activities and calculate the project’s critical path, which indicates the shortest time required to complete the project. PERT helps project managers with planning, resource allocation, and identifying potential bottlenecks or delays.
476PMFBYPradhan Mantri Fasal Bima YojanaPMFBY is a crop insurance scheme launched by the Government of India. It aims to provide financial support and protection to farmers against crop losses due to natural calamities, pests, diseases, or other unavoidable risks. Under PMFBY, farmers pay a nominal premium, and in case of crop damage, they receive compensation for the loss. The scheme aims to promote sustainable agriculture, reduce the financial burden on farmers, and ensure food security.
477PMKSYPradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai YojanaPMKSY is an Indian government initiative aimed at improving irrigation infrastructure and water management in the agricultural sector. It focuses on enhancing water use efficiency, expanding coverage of irrigation facilities, and promoting precision farming techniques. PMKSY aims to increase agricultural productivity, reduce water wastage, and ensure the optimal utilization of water resources for sustainable agricultural practices.
478PUCLPeoples Union for Civil LibertiesPUCL is a non-governmental organization in India that advocates for the protection of civil liberties and human rights. It works to safeguard fundamental rights, promote social justice, and combat injustices such as police brutality, custodial violence, and violations of civil liberties. PUCL engages in research, advocacy, and legal interventions to raise awareness about human rights issues and provide support to victims of rights violations.
479RADIUSRemote Authentication Dial-In User ServiceRADIUS is a networking protocol that enables centralized authentication, authorization, and accounting for remote access services. It is commonly used in virtual private network (VPN) connections, dial-up connections, and wireless networks. RADIUS allows network administrators to manage user access and permissions centrally, ensuring secure and controlled access to network resources. It provides a framework for secure authentication and communication between network access servers and a central RADIUS server.
480RAFRapid Action ForceRAF is a specialized paramilitary force in India tasked with maintaining law and order during critical situations, communal disturbances, and riots. It is primarily composed of personnel from the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and is trained in riot control, crowd management, and other specialized techniques. RAF is deployed in various parts of the country to swiftly respond to law and order challenges and restore peace and stability.
481RAMDACRandom-Access Memory Digital-to-Analog ConverterRAMDAC is a hardware component found in computer graphics cards. It converts digital signals from the computer’s memory into analog signals that can be displayed on a monitor. The RAMDAC is responsible for generating the analog voltage levels required to represent different colors and intensities on the screen. It plays a crucial role in the display output quality and resolution of the graphics card. The RAMDAC’s performance affects factors such as color accuracy, refresh rate, and overall image quality during computer graphics rendering and display.
482RCIRehabilitation Council of IndiaRCI is a statutory body in India responsible for regulating and promoting the rehabilitation and empowerment of persons with disabilities. It sets standards for professional education and training in the field of rehabilitation and conducts examinations for granting recognition to rehabilitation professionals. RCI also develops policies and programs to ensure equal opportunities, social inclusion, and full participation of persons with disabilities in society. The council works towards creating an enabling environment for individuals with disabilities to lead independent and productive lives.
483BARCBhabha Atomic Research CentreBARC is India’s premier nuclear research facility and one of the country’s leading scientific institutions. It is involved in various aspects of nuclear science and technology, including nuclear power, research and development, nuclear medicine, and radiation applications. BARC plays a crucial role in the design, development, and operation of nuclear reactors, fuel cycle technologies, and advanced nuclear materials. It also contributes to nuclear safety, security, and non-proliferation efforts. BARC conducts cutting-edge research, training, and knowledge dissemination in the field of nuclear science and technology.
484SACEPSouth Asia Cooperative Environment ProgrammeSACEP is an intergovernmental organization established to promote regional cooperation on environmental issues among the South Asian countries. It focuses on addressing common environmental challenges, such as pollution, climate change, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable development. SACEP facilitates the exchange of information, expertise, and best practices among its member countries. It also supports capacity building initiatives, research, and collaborative projects aimed at promoting environmental sustainability and enhancing the region’s resilience to environmental threats.
485SADFSouth African Defence ForceSADF was the national defense force of South Africa from 1957 to 1994. It was responsible for the defense and security of the country during the apartheid era. The SADF consisted of the army, air force, navy, and medical services. It played a significant role in various conflicts and operations within South Africa and across the region. Following the end of apartheid, the SADF was restructured and replaced by the South African National Defense Force (SANDF) as a more inclusive and representative defense force.
486SAFTASouth Asian Free Trade AreaSAFTA is a regional trade agreement among the South Asian countries, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives. SAFTA aims to promote trade liberalization, enhance economic cooperation, and create a free trade area in the region. It involves the reduction of tariffs, removal of non-tariff barriers, and the establishment of rules and procedures for trade facilitation among member countries. SAFTA contributes to increasing intra-regional trade, expanding market access, and fostering economic integration in South Asia.
487SAPTASouth Asian Preferential Trade ArrangementSAPTA was an earlier trade agreement among the South Asian countries, predating SAFTA. It aimed to promote trade liberalization and economic cooperation by granting preferential treatment to certain products from member countries. SAPTA facilitated the reduction of customs duties, removal of non-tariff barriers, and the promotion of trade in goods among participating nations. It provided a framework for preferential market access and closer economic ties within the South Asian region.
488CABASelf-Contained Breathing ApparatusCABA refers to a portable respiratory protection device used by firefighters, industrial workers, and emergency response personnel. It consists of a mask or facepiece connected to a compressed air cylinder or another source of breathable air. CABA allows the wearer to breathe independently in environments with hazardous gases, smoke, or insufficient oxygen levels. It provides respiratory protection and enables individuals to operate safely in potentially dangerous or oxygen-deficient atmospheres, allowing for effective firefighting, rescue operations, or industrial tasks in such conditions.
489AMRUTAtal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban TransformationAMRUT is a government initiative in India aimed at transforming urban infrastructure and improving the quality of life in cities. It focuses on providing basic services such as water supply, sewerage, transportation, and green spaces in urban areas. AMRUT aims to ensure that every household has access to these essential services and works towards sustainable urban development. The mission emphasizes citizen participation, smart planning, and effective governance to create livable and inclusive cities.
490GCMMFGujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd.GCMMF is a cooperative organization based in Gujarat, India. It is responsible for the marketing and distribution of milk and milk products produced by various cooperative dairy unions in the state, most notably the brand Amul. GCMMF plays a crucial role in promoting dairy farming, ensuring fair prices for milk producers, and making quality dairy products available to consumers across India and globally. It operates through a cooperative network and has been instrumental in the success of the cooperative dairy movement in Gujarat.
491NOAANational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNOAA is a scientific agency of the United States government that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, atmosphere, and marine resources. It conducts research, collects data, and provides information related to weather, climate, oceanography, fisheries, and coastal management. NOAA is responsible for weather forecasting, severe weather warnings, climate monitoring, marine ecosystem preservation, and the management of marine resources. The agency plays a vital role in protecting and understanding the Earth’s environment and supporting informed decision-making in various sectors.
492DINDocument Identification NumberDIN is a unique identification number assigned to specific documents in order to ensure their authenticity, traceability, and accountability. It is commonly used in business and administrative processes to maintain records, track documents, and prevent fraud. DIN can be associated with various types of documents, such as legal agreements, contracts, financial statements, and government records. By assigning a DIN, organizations can establish a systematic and standardized approach to document management, improving transparency and efficiency in document handling.
493ITCInternational Trade CenterITC is a joint agency of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the United Nations (UN). It promotes inclusive and sustainable trade development, particularly in developing countries. ITC provides trade-related technical assistance, capacity building, market intelligence, and policy advice to support businesses and governments in enhancing their participation in international trade. The center focuses on building trade competitiveness, supporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and fostering inclusive and sustainable trade practices worldwide.
494PMIPurchasing Managers IndexPMI is an economic indicator that measures the economic health of the manufacturing or services sector within a country. It is based on a monthly survey of purchasing managers in various industries. The PMI provides insights into factors such as new orders, production levels, employment, supplier deliveries, and inventories. It is used to assess the business conditions, growth prospects, and overall economic performance of a sector or economy. A PMI value above 50 indicates expansion, while below 50 indicates contraction in the sector.
495AMULAnand Milk Union LimitedAMUL is a dairy cooperative brand based in Gujarat, India. It is managed by the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF). AMUL is known for its wide range of dairy products, including milk, butter, cheese, ice cream, and other dairy-based items. It operates on a cooperative model, where local milk producers are the owners of the organization. AMUL has played a significant role in revolutionizing the dairy industry in India and has become synonymous with quality and affordable dairy products.
496DOTSDirectly Observed Treatment Short CourseDOTS is a globally recommended strategy for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It involves ensuring that TB patients receive proper medication and support by directly observing their treatment. DOTS aims to improve treatment adherence and reduce the development of drug-resistant strains of TB. The strategy involves healthcare workers or trained observers overseeing the administration of anti-TB medication to patients on a regular basis. This approach helps ensure that patients complete their full course of treatment, which typically lasts several months, and increases the chances of successful recovery. DOTS is a cornerstone of global efforts to control and eliminate tuberculosis as a public health threat.
497NOFHCNon-Operative Financial Holding CompanyA NOFHC refers to a financial holding company that does not engage in operational activities but instead holds the shares of various subsidiaries engaged in financial services. It is a regulatory structure established to ensure the separation of banking and non-banking activities within a financial conglomerate, thereby promoting financial stability and risk management.
498DODDepartment of DefenseThe Department of Defense is a U.S. federal executive department responsible for coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government related to national security and the United States Armed Forces. It plays a crucial role in safeguarding the nation’s interests, maintaining military readiness, and protecting against various threats to national security.
499PHCPrimary Healthcare CenterA Primary Healthcare Center is a fundamental unit of healthcare delivery that provides essential medical services to communities, typically at the grassroots level. PHCs serve as the first point of contact for individuals seeking healthcare services, offering basic medical consultations, preventive care, immunizations, maternal and child health services, and referrals to higher-level healthcare facilities when necessary.
500NCDRCNational Consumer Disputes Redressal CommissionThe NCDRC is a statutory body in India established under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. It serves as the apex consumer dispute resolution forum in the country, with the primary objective of providing timely and effective redressal for consumer grievances. The commission handles cases related to consumer rights violations, unfair trade practices, defective products, deficient services, and other consumer-related disputes.
501ASOAdministrative Services OnlyASO is a term commonly used in the context of employee benefits and insurance. It refers to a type of arrangement where an employer self-funds its employee benefit plans, such as health insurance, and contracts with a third-party administrator to handle the administrative tasks associated with the plan. Under an ASO arrangement, the employer assumes the financial risk for the claims incurred by its employees.
502UNHRCUnited Nations Human Rights CouncilThe UNHRC is an intergovernmental body within the United Nations system responsible for promoting and protecting human rights globally. It consists of 47 member states elected by the UN General Assembly and is tasked with addressing human rights violations, conducting investigations, promoting human rights education, and making recommendations to member states regarding human rights-related issues.
503HALHindustan Aeronautics LimitedHAL is a leading Indian aerospace and defense company engaged in the design, manufacture, and assembly of aircraft, helicopters, engines, avionics, and related systems. It plays a significant role in India’s defense industry and is involved in the production of various military aircraft, including fighter jets, transport aircraft, and helicopters, catering to the needs of the Indian Armed Forces and international customers.
504SCSupreme CourtThe Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in a country’s legal system. It serves as the final appellate court and has the power of judicial review over laws and constitutional matters. The Supreme Court’s primary function is to interpret and apply the law, ensuring its consistency and adherence to the constitution. It plays a crucial role in safeguarding the rights and liberties of individuals and settling legal disputes of national importance.
505EPFEmployee Provident FundEPF refers to a mandatory savings scheme established by the government of various countries to provide financial security and retirement benefits to employees. It requires both the employer and employee to contribute a portion of the employee’s salary to a dedicated provident fund account. The EPF scheme helps employees accumulate a corpus of savings over their working years, which can be withdrawn upon retirement or during specified circumstances such as medical emergencies or education expenses.
506MFAMulti-Fiber AgreementThe Multi-Fiber Agreement was an international trade agreement that governed the global textile and garment industry from 1974 to 2004. Under the MFA, participating countries implemented quotas and restrictions on textile and clothing exports to protect domestic industries and promote stability in international trade. The agreement aimed to balance the interests of both developed and developing nations in the textile sector. However, the MFA was phased out in 2005 with the integration of textile and clothing trade into the rules of the World Trade Organization, leading to a more open and competitive global market for these products.
507GSTPGlobal System of Trade PreferencesThe GSTP is a framework for preferential trade agreements among developing countries. It was established in 1988 with the objective of promoting South-South trade and economic cooperation. Under the GSTP, participating countries grant tariff concessions to each other on a range of products to enhance trade relations and economic integration. The agreement aims to foster economic development, reduce trade barriers, and increase market access between developing nations, contributing to their overall growth and prosperity.
508NIPFPNational Institute of Public Finance and PolicyThe NIPFP is a premier research institution in India specializing in public finance and policy analysis. It conducts research, policy advocacy, and capacity-building initiatives to support evidence-based decision-making in the areas of public economics, fiscal policy, governance, and related fields. The NIPFP provides valuable insights and recommendations to policymakers, government agencies, and other stakeholders to enhance fiscal management, promote inclusive economic growth, and improve public service delivery in India.
509SMILESweet Memories in Lip ExpressionSMILE is an acronym that represents the joyful act of smiling and the positive emotions associated with it. A smile is a universal expression of happiness, friendliness, and warmth. It has the power to uplift spirits, create connections, and convey kindness and empathy. Smiling not only has a positive impact on the person smiling but also has a contagious effect, spreading happiness to others. SMILE serves as a reminder to embrace and share the simple yet powerful act of smiling in our daily lives.
510DEPBDuty Entitlement Pass BookThe DEPB was an export incentive scheme introduced by the Indian government to promote exports of specified goods. Under this scheme, exporters were issued DEPBs that allowed them to import certain raw materials, components, or capital goods at a concessional or zero rate of customs duty. The DEPB scheme aimed to enhance the competitiveness of Indian exporters by reducing their production costs and facilitating the availability of inputs required for export-oriented industries.
511YAHOOYet Another Hierarchical Officious OracleYAHOO is a well-known internet company that started as a web directory and eventually expanded into various online services and products. The name YAHOO was chosen by the company’s founders, Jerry Yang and David Filo, as an acronym representing “Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle.” It was intended to convey a sense of fun, playfulness, and the company’s mission to organize and provide access to the vast amount of information available on the internet. Today, YAHOO is recognized as a prominent internet brand offering a range of digital services and content to users worldwide.
512CTCCost to CompanyCTC refers to the total cost incurred by a company to employ an individual. It includes not only the employee’s salary or wages but also additional benefits, allowances, incentives, and contributions made by the employer towards employee welfare, such as insurance, provident fund, medical benefits, and taxes. CTC is an important figure used in employment contracts and negotiations, as it provides a comprehensive view of the overall financial commitment of the company towards its employees.
513NBDBNational Book Development BoardThe NBDB is a government agency in the Philippines responsible for promoting the development and growth of the country’s book publishing industry. The board aims to support the production, distribution, and marketing of books, as well as the professional development of authors, publishers, and other stakeholders. The NBDB plays a crucial role in fostering literacy, cultural preservation, and the advancement of Philippine literature by implementing programs and policies that stimulate the book publishing sector.
514RARPReverse Address Resolution ProtocolRARP is a networking protocol used to map a known physical or MAC address to an IP address. Unlike traditional Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), which maps IP addresses to MAC addresses, RARP enables devices to discover their IP addresses when only their MAC addresses are known. RARP is mainly used in legacy or specialized environments where IP address assignment is not performed dynamically or through manual configuration.
515CELCentral Electronics LimitedCEL is a public-sector enterprise in India engaged in the manufacture of various electronic products and systems. The company specializes in the production of solar photovoltaic cells and modules, railway signaling equipment, defense electronics, and other electronic components. CEL plays a significant role in supporting India’s renewable energy goals, railway modernization initiatives, and the domestic electronics industry.
516INFLIBNETInformation and Library Network – CentreINFLIBNET is an autonomous inter-university center in India that promotes cooperation and networking among academic libraries and information centers in the country. It provides infrastructure, resources, and services to facilitate the sharing of knowledge, information, and scholarly resources among member institutions. INFLIBNET plays a crucial role in enhancing the accessibility and utilization of digital resources, e-journals, and research databases for the academic community in India.
517PXILPower Exchange India LimitedPXIL is a leading power exchange platform in India that facilitates trading of electricity and renewable energy certificates among market participants. It provides an electronic marketplace where buyers and sellers can trade power at transparent prices based on supply-demand dynamics. PXIL plays a vital role in promoting competition, efficiency, and transparency in the electricity market, supporting renewable energy integration, and enabling market-based electricity transactions.
518KVPKisan Vikas PatraKVP is a savings scheme introduced by the Government of India to encourage small-scale savings among individuals, particularly farmers. It offers a safe investment avenue where individuals can deposit their money for a fixed period and earn interest. KVPs are available in specified denominations and have a lock-in period, after which they can be encashed. The scheme aims to mobilize savings, promote financial inclusion, and provide a secure investment option to individuals with limited access to formal financial institutions.
519IISCOIndian Iron & Steel CompanyIISCO is a major steel-producing company in India with a rich history. It was established in 1918 and played a significant role in the development of the Indian steel industry. IISCO specializes in the production of various steel products and is known for its integrated steel plants, manufacturing facilities, and research and development efforts. The company contributes to the country’s infrastructure development, industrial growth, and employment generation in the steel sector.
520CMOChief Marketing OfficerThe CMO is a senior executive in an organization responsible for overseeing the marketing activities and strategies of the company. The CMO plays a crucial role in driving the organization’s growth and revenue generation by developing and implementing effective marketing plans, branding initiatives, customer acquisition and retention strategies, market research, and advertising campaigns. They work closely with cross-functional teams to align marketing efforts with the company’s overall objectives, target customer needs, and enhance the brand’s visibility and market presence.
521RRCRailway Recruitment CellThe RRC is a department in the Indian Railways responsible for the recruitment of staff in various Group D posts. It conducts examinations, interviews, and other selection processes to fill vacancies in areas such as track maintenance, signal and telecommunications, engineering, electrical, and other non-gazetted positions. The RRC plays a vital role in ensuring the smooth functioning and efficiency of the Indian Railways by recruiting qualified and competent personnel to support its operations and services.
522LCALight Combat AircraftThe LCA is a type of military aircraft designed primarily for aerial combat and defense purposes. It is typically smaller and lighter than conventional fighter aircraft, offering high maneuverability and advanced weapon systems. The development and production of the LCA are significant achievements for a country’s indigenous aerospace industry, as it demonstrates self-reliance and technological capabilities in the design and manufacture of advanced combat aircraft.
523LACLine of Actual ControlThe LAC is a demarcation line that separates the Indian and Chinese controlled areas in the border regions of India and China. It is not a legally defined boundary but rather a de facto line that represents the areas under respective control. The LAC is a subject of occasional tensions and disputes between the two countries, and its proper delineation and management are crucial for maintaining peace and stability in the region.
524USANUnion of South American NationsThe USAN is an intergovernmental organization that aims to promote regional integration, cooperation, and development among the countries of South America. It facilitates dialogue, coordination, and collaboration in various areas such as political, economic, social, cultural, and environmental matters. The USAN works towards fostering regional solidarity, strengthening regional institutions, and advancing the interests and well-being of its member states.
525PCRAPetroleum Conservation Research AssociationThe PCRA is an Indian government body responsible for promoting energy conservation and efficiency in the petroleum sector. It conducts research, awareness campaigns, and educational programs to encourage the responsible use of petroleum products, reduce energy consumption, and minimize environmental impact. The PCRA plays a crucial role in creating awareness among individuals, industries, and other stakeholders about the importance of energy conservation and sustainable practices.
527NASANational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA is the United States’ space agency responsible for the nation’s civilian space exploration, scientific research, and aeronautics programs. It conducts space missions, develops advanced spacecraft and technologies, explores celestial bodies, and contributes to our understanding of the universe. NASA’s achievements include manned missions to the Moon, the operation of the International Space Station, the Mars Rover missions, and numerous groundbreaking discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics.
528NCEUSNational Commission for Enterprises in The Unorganized SectorThe NCEUS is a government-appointed commission in India tasked with studying and recommending measures for the development and welfare of enterprises and workers in the unorganized sector. It conducts research, formulates policies, and proposes strategies to enhance the productivity, competitiveness, and social security of individuals engaged in informal and unorganized economic activities, such as small-scale industries, agriculture, and informal services.
529SRISystem Research InstituteSRI is a generic term that can refer to various research institutions or organizations focused on conducting research and development in specific fields. The term can be used in reference to different institutes or centers dedicated to specific areas of study or technology. These institutes typically conduct research, provide expertise, and contribute to advancements in their respective fields. The scope of an SRI can vary widely, ranging from scientific research institutions to specialized technology centers, depending on the specific context and domain.
530AECAtomic Energy CommissionThe AEC is a government agency responsible for the regulation, development, and promotion of nuclear energy and related technologies. It plays a vital role in formulating policies, overseeing nuclear research and development, ensuring nuclear safety and security, and promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The AEC’s responsibilities often include the management of nuclear power plants, nuclear waste disposal, and the development of nuclear science and technology for various applications, such as medicine, agriculture, and industry.
531HEDISHealthcare Effectiveness Data and Information SetHEDIS is a comprehensive set of performance measures used to evaluate and compare the quality of healthcare services delivered by managed care organizations in the United States. It includes measures related to preventive care, chronic disease management, behavioral health, and patient experience. HEDIS data is collected annually and enables healthcare stakeholders to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare delivery, identify areas for improvement, and make informed decisions regarding quality improvement initiatives.
532INSASIndian Small Arms SystemINSAS is a series of small arms and firearms developed by the Indian Ordnance Factories for use by the Indian Armed Forces. It comprises rifles, carbines, light machine guns, and other infantry weapons. The INSAS system was designed to replace the older firearms in service and provide improved reliability, accuracy, and firepower for Indian soldiers. It has played a significant role in enhancing the firepower and combat capabilities of the Indian military.
533NCBNarcotics Control BureauThe NCB is a law enforcement agency in India responsible for combating narcotics and drug trafficking. It operates under the Ministry of Home Affairs and works to prevent the production, smuggling, and distribution of illegal drugs. The NCB conducts investigations, arrests offenders, seizes narcotics, and cooperates with national and international agencies to disrupt drug networks. Its efforts contribute to safeguarding public health, reducing drug abuse, and maintaining law and order.
534UNMOGIPUnited Nations Military Observer Group in India and PakistanUNMOGIP is a United Nations peacekeeping mission deployed in the region of Jammu and Kashmir to observe and report on the ceasefire violations between India and Pakistan. It was established in 1949 and aims to promote peace, stability, and dialogue between the two countries. UNMOGIP plays a critical role in monitoring the situation, facilitating communication, and working towards a peaceful resolution of the conflict in the region.
536TACTechnical Assistance CenterA TAC, also known as a Technical Assistance Center, is a specialized support unit or department that provides technical assistance, guidance, and troubleshooting services to customers or users of complex products or systems. TACs are typically established by companies or organizations to assist customers with technical issues, resolve problems, and optimize the usage of their products or systems. TACs often include a team of skilled experts who can provide remote or on-site support to ensure the smooth operation and maintenance of the products or systems.
537UNSCUnited Nations Security CouncilThe UNSC is one of the six main organs of the United Nations and is responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It consists of 15 member states, including five permanent members with veto power (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms. The UNSC has the authority to impose sanctions, authorize peacekeeping operations, and take actions to address threats to global peace and security.
538SERSoutheastern RailwaySER is one of the 18 railway zones in India and covers the southeastern part of the country. It operates train services in states such as West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Odisha, facilitating the transportation of passengers and goods. SER plays a crucial role in connecting different regions, promoting economic development, and contributing to the overall railway network in India.
539TFTThin Film TransistorA TFT is a type of transistor commonly used in flat-panel displays, such as LCD and OLED screens. It is a key component that controls the individual pixels on the display, allowing for precise control of brightness, color, and image quality. TFT technology offers several advantages, including high resolution, fast response times, and wide viewing angles. It is widely employed in various electronic devices, including smartphones, tablets, computer monitors, and televisions, to deliver vibrant and sharp visual representations.
540DMRCDelhi Metro Rail CorporationDMRC is a state-owned corporation responsible for operating the Delhi Metro, a rapid transit system serving the National Capital Region of India. It plays a pivotal role in providing efficient and reliable transportation services to millions of commuters in Delhi and its neighboring areas. The DMRC oversees the planning, construction, operation, and maintenance of the metro network, which has significantly contributed to easing traffic congestion, reducing pollution, and improving connectivity in the region.
541GRTGross Register TonnageGRT is a measurement used in the maritime industry to quantify the total internal volume of a ship. It represents the entire enclosed space available for cargo, passengers, crew, machinery, and navigational equipment. GRT is an important parameter for regulatory compliance, safety assessments, and commercial considerations in the shipping industry. It helps determine factors such as the vessel’s size, capacity, licensing requirements, and applicable fees.
541GIDCGujarat Industrial Development CorporationGIDC is a government agency in the state of Gujarat, India, responsible for promoting industrial development and infrastructure in the region. It plays a vital role in attracting investments, facilitating industrial growth, and providing necessary support and infrastructure to businesses. GIDC develops industrial estates, provides land and utilities for industrial use, promotes entrepreneurship, and fosters a favorable environment for industries to thrive, contributing to Gujarat’s industrialization and economic progress.
542HCFHighest Common FactorThe HCF is a mathematical term used to refer to the largest number that divides two or more integers without leaving a remainder. It is also known as the greatest common divisor (GCD). The HCF is useful in various mathematical operations, such as simplifying fractions, finding common multiples, and solving equations. It helps in identifying the highest shared factor among multiple numbers and plays a crucial role in number theory and arithmetic calculations.
543VRDEVehicle Research and Development EstablishmentVRDE is a research and development organization under the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) in India. It focuses on the design, development, and testing of military vehicles and automotive technologies. VRDE plays a significant role in enhancing the mobility, protection, and performance of military vehicles, ensuring their suitability for challenging terrains and operational requirements. It contributes to strengthening the defense capabilities of the country through its research and innovation in vehicle technologies.
544ICPDInternational Conference on Population and DevelopmentICPD is a global conference organized by the United Nations to address issues related to population, reproductive health, and sustainable development. It aims to promote awareness, cooperation, and action on population-related challenges, including family planning, maternal health, gender equality, and youth empowerment. The ICPD serves as a platform for governments, civil society organizations, and stakeholders to discuss policies, share experiences, and develop strategies to address population dynamics and achieve sustainable development goals.
545ANERTAgency for Non-Conventional Energy and Rural TechnologyANERT is a government agency in Kerala, India, dedicated to promoting and implementing non-conventional and renewable energy technologies in rural areas. It focuses on harnessing renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and small hydropower for electricity generation, cooking, and other energy needs in rural communities. ANERT plays a crucial role in rural development, energy conservation, and environmental sustainability by providing technical support, training, and financial assistance for the adoption of clean energy solutions.
546UNEFUnited Nations Emergency ForceUNEF was a United Nations peacekeeping force established in 1956 to address the crisis in the Suez Canal region. Its primary objective was to facilitate the withdrawal of foreign forces from Egypt and maintain peace and stability in the area. UNEF played a crucial role in preventing further hostilities and contributing to the resolution of conflicts through its peacekeeping efforts. It served as an early example of UN peacekeeping missions and demonstrated the organization’s commitment to international peace and security.
547DSIRDepartment of Scientific and Industrial ResearchDSIR is a department under the Ministry of Science and Technology in India. It is responsible for promoting and supporting scientific research and industrial development in the country. DSIR plays a vital role in fostering innovation, technology transfer, and collaboration between academia, industry, and research institutions. It provides grants, recognition, and infrastructure support for research and development projects, thereby facilitating scientific advancements, industrial growth, and economic prosperity.
548LHCLarge Hadron ColliderThe LHC is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator located at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It consists of a 27-kilometer circular tunnel and is used to accelerate particles to high speeds and collide them together. The LHC enables scientists to study the fundamental properties of matter, explore the origins of the universe, and test various theories in particle physics, including the discovery of the Higgs boson. It represents a remarkable achievement in scientific engineering and has significantly advanced our understanding of the subatomic world.
549COPUCommittee on Public UndertakingsCOPU is a parliamentary committee in India that oversees the functioning and performance of public sector undertakings (PSUs or government-owned corporations. The COPU is responsible for scrutinizing the financial, operational, and managerial aspects of these public undertakings. It conducts inquiries, examines audit reports, and reviews the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of the PSUs. The committee plays a vital role in ensuring transparency, accountability, and good governance in the functioning of public sector enterprises. It aims to safeguard public interests, promote efficiency, and make recommendations for improving the performance and management of these undertakings.
550WFDBWorld Federation of Diamond BoursesThe WFDB is an international organization that represents and governs the diamond bourses around the world. It serves as a platform for diamond traders, manufacturers, and dealers to collaborate, establish ethical standards, and promote fair trade practices in the diamond industry. The WFDB plays a crucial role in maintaining transparency, trust, and integrity within the diamond trade, ensuring the adherence to ethical guidelines, and fostering international cooperation among diamond bourses.
551OIDBOil Industry Development BoardThe OIDB is a regulatory body in India responsible for the development and growth of the oil industry. It formulates policies, implements programs, and provides support for the sustainable development of the oil sector, including exploration, production, refining, and marketing of oil and petroleum products. The OIDB plays a vital role in ensuring the availability, affordability, and efficient utilization of oil resources, as well as promoting research and development activities in the industry.
552AINECAll India Newspaper Editors’ ConferenceAINEC is an annual conference that brings together newspaper editors from across India. It serves as a forum for editors to discuss and address issues related to the newspaper industry, journalism ethics, freedom of the press, and media-related challenges. AINEC provides a platform for dialogue, knowledge-sharing, and collaboration among newspaper editors, fostering professional development, and promoting responsible journalism practices in the country.
553NTCANational Tiger Conservation AuthorityThe NTCA is a statutory body in India responsible for the conservation and management of tigers and their habitats. It implements policies and programs to protect and increase the tiger population, combat wildlife crime, and promote tiger conservation initiatives across the country. The NTCA plays a crucial role in monitoring tiger reserves, implementing conservation projects, and coordinating efforts with state governments, wildlife agencies, and local communities to safeguard the endangered tiger species.
554APCIAtmospheric Pressure Chemical IonizationAPCI is a technique used in mass spectrometry for ionizing molecules in the gas phase. It operates at atmospheric pressure and is suitable for the analysis of polar and nonpolar compounds. APCI ionization involves the introduction of a sample into a high-temperature vaporization region, followed by ionization through chemical reactions with ions generated in a corona discharge. It is widely used in various analytical applications, including pharmaceutical analysis, environmental monitoring, and forensic analysis.
555CEPCable Entry PointA CEP, also known as a cable ingress point, is a location or infrastructure component where telecommunication cables enter a building or facility. It provides the physical interface and connection point for the external cables to be linked with the internal cabling network of the premises. The CEP ensures proper cable management, protection, and routing, facilitating the distribution of telecommunication signals throughout the building and enabling connectivity with external networks.
556UNDCUnited Nations Disarmament CommissionThe UNDC is a deliberative body within the United Nations that focuses on disarmament and non-proliferation efforts. It serves as a forum for member states to discuss and negotiate disarmament-related issues, develop disarmament policies and recommendations, and promote international cooperation in arms control. The UNDC plays a significant role in advancing global disarmament goals, addressing security challenges, and fostering multilateral dialogue to achieve a world free from the threat of weapons of mass destruction.
557PVRPriya Village RoadshowPVR is a prominent cinema chain in India, jointly owned by Priya Exhibitors Private Limited and Village Roadshow Limited. PVR operates multiplexes and cinema halls across various cities in India, offering a wide range of movie screening options and a quality movie-viewing experience for audiences. PVR has played a significant role in revolutionizing the cinema industry in India by introducing state-of-the-art facilities, comfortable seating, advanced audio-visual technologies, and a diverse selection of films. PVR has become a popular destination for moviegoers, providing a modern and enjoyable cinema experience while contributing to the growth and development of the Indian film industry.
558SEBCSocially and Educationally Backward ClassesSEBC refers to a category of socially and educationally disadvantaged groups in India. It encompasses communities and castes that have historically faced social and educational disadvantages and have been identified as requiring special provisions for their upliftment. The SEBC category aims to ensure equal opportunities, access to education, and socio-economic development for these marginalized communities. It plays a crucial role in promoting social justice, inclusivity, and empowerment of backward classes in India.
559RTCRound Table ConferenceThe RTC refers to a series of conferences held in the 1930s to address constitutional reforms in British India. These conferences brought together representatives from various political parties and interest groups to discuss and negotiate issues related to Indian self-governance, communal representation, and the future of British rule. The RTC played a crucial role in shaping the political landscape and influencing the course of Indian independence.
560IGMDPIntegrated Guided Missile Development ProgramThe IGMDP was an ambitious missile development program initiated by the Indian government in the 1980s. Its objective was to develop and produce a range of indigenous guided missiles for defense purposes. The program aimed to strengthen India’s defense capabilities and reduce its dependence on foreign imports. Under the IGMDP, missiles like Prithvi, Agni, Akash, and Nag were successfully developed, showcasing India’s technological prowess in missile technology.
561TWATrans World AirlinesTWA was a major American airline that operated from 1925 to 2001. It was known for its extensive domestic and international flight network, connecting passengers to various destinations worldwide. TWA played a significant role in the growth of the aviation industry, pioneering innovations in air travel, and providing quality service to millions of travelers.
562CRISCentre for Railway Information SystemCRIS is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Railways in India. It is responsible for developing and managing the information technology systems and applications for Indian Railways. CRIS plays a vital role in providing IT solutions for various railway operations, including ticketing, reservation, train scheduling, freight management, and passenger information systems. It contributes to the efficient and seamless functioning of the railway network in India.
563TTCITransportation Technology Center, IncTTCI is a research and testing organization based in the United States that specializes in railroad-related technologies and innovation. It focuses on developing and evaluating advanced technologies, safety protocols, and operational practices for the railway industry. TTCI conducts research, testing, and training activities to enhance the efficiency, reliability, and safety of rail transportation systems, contributing to advancements in railway technology globally.
564ASOAssistant Section OfficerASO refers to a position within the government or organizational hierarchy. An ASO typically holds a mid-level administrative role, providing support and assistance to higher-ranking officials or executives. They are responsible for tasks such as coordinating activities, managing documentation, organizing meetings, and handling administrative functions within their designated section or department.
565IUCInterconnect Usage ChargeIUC is a fee charged by telecommunications operators for using their network infrastructure to connect calls or exchange data between different networks. It is applicable when calls or data cross network boundaries. The IUC helps operators recover the costs associated with interconnection and maintaining network infrastructure. It plays a role in determining the tariffs and pricing structures for telecommunications services.
566DIADefence Intelligence AgencyThe DIA is an intelligence agency within the United States Department of Defense. It is responsible for collecting and analyzing intelligence information related to national security and military operations. The DIA provides support to policymakers, military commanders, and other defense agencies by producing intelligence reports, assessments, and strategic analyses. Its primary focus is on foreign military capabilities, defense technologies, and potential threats to U.S. interests.
567VARVideo Assistant RefereeVAR is a technology-based system used in various sports, such as football (soccer), to assist referees in making accurate decisions. It involves using video footage and advanced technology to review and analyze key incidents during a match, such as goals, penalties, red cards, and offside decisions. The VAR system helps referees make more informed and objective decisions, reducing the chances of errors or controversial calls.
568AWWAArmy Wives Welfare AssociationAWWA is a voluntary organization that supports the welfare and well-being of the spouses and families of Indian Army personnel. It aims to provide assistance, social support, and empowerment to army wives and their children. AWWA organizes various programs and initiatives, including skill development workshops, educational support, healthcare services, and community engagement activities, to enhance the quality of life for army families.
569OBDOn-Board DiagnosticsOBD refers to a system in vehicles that monitors and diagnoses the performance and functionality of various components and systems. It collects and stores diagnostic information to identify and report any malfunctions or issues. OBD systems play a crucial role in vehicle maintenance and troubleshooting by providing error codes and data for technicians to identify and resolve problems efficiently.
570CIWTCCentral Inland Water Transport Corporation LimitedCIWTC is a government-owned corporation in India that operates inland waterway transport services. It focuses on utilizing rivers, canals, and other inland waterways for cargo and passenger transportation. CIWTC plays a role in promoting alternative and eco-friendly modes of transportation and facilitating trade and connectivity through waterways.
571NSDANational Skill Development AgencyNSDA is a government agency in India that works towards developing and implementing skill development policies and programs. It is responsible for coordinating and monitoring skill development initiatives across various sectors. NSDA aims to bridge the skill gap, enhance employability, and promote a skilled workforce in the country through partnerships with industry, training providers, and other stakeholders.
572UGCUser-Generated ContentUGC refers to content, such as text, images, videos, and reviews, that is created and shared by users on various online platforms, social media, or websites. UGC has gained significant importance with the rise of social media and interactive online platforms. It allows users to actively participate, contribute, and share their opinions, experiences, and creativity with a wider audience. UGC has transformed the way information is generated, consumed, and shared, enabling greater user engagement and interactivity.
573FACTFertilisers and Chemicals TravancoreFACT is a fertilizers and chemicals manufacturing company based in India. It is involved in the production and distribution of fertilizers, petrochemicals, and other chemical products. FACT plays a crucial role in the agriculture sector by providing essential fertilizers to farmers, contributing to increased agricultural productivity and food security.
574IRSIndian Revenue ServiceIRS refers to a civil service in India responsible for administering and collecting direct taxes. The IRS officers work under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, and play a significant role in the implementation and enforcement of tax laws and regulations. They are involved in tasks such as tax assessment, audit, investigation, and taxpayer assistance, ensuring compliance with tax obligations and facilitating revenue generation for the government.
575DESIDOCDefence Scientific Information & Documentation CentreDESIDOC is a premier scientific research and information organization under the Indian Ministry of Defence. It specializes in scientific research, development, and information services related to defense technologies and innovations. DESIDOC plays a vital role in facilitating access to scientific literature, conducting research studies, and providing technical support to the defense sector.
576HLRHome Location RegisterHLR is a database used in mobile telecommunications systems to store subscriber information and manage their mobile network connections. It contains details such as the subscriber’s identity, location, service profile, and mobility-related information. The HLR plays a crucial role in call routing, authentication, and providing various services to mobile subscribers, ensuring seamless connectivity and efficient management of mobile networks.
577VECCVariable Energy Cyclotron CentreVECC is a research institution based in India that specializes in nuclear physics and accelerator technologies. It is involved in the development and operation of particle accelerators, conducting experiments in nuclear and high-energy physics, and contributing to scientific research in these fields. VECC plays a vital role in advancing knowledge, training scientists, and fostering collaborations in the domain of particle physics.
578IFFIInternational Film Festival of IndiaIFFI is a prestigious film festival held annually in India. It showcases a diverse range of films from across the globe and serves as a platform for promoting cinema, cultural exchange, and artistic appreciation. IFFI brings together filmmakers, actors, industry professionals, and cinema enthusiasts, providing a forum for film screenings, discussions, and recognizing excellence in the world of cinema.
579BRPSEBoard for Reconstruction of Public Sector EnterprisesBRPSE was a government body in India responsible for the revival and restructuring of public sector enterprises (PSUs). Its primary objective was to assess and recommend measures for improving the performance and viability of financially stressed PSUs. BRPSE played a crucial role in formulating strategies, financial restructuring, and facilitating the turnaround of PSUs, ensuring their contribution to the economy and safeguarding employment.
580ASHAAccredited Social Health ActivistASHA refers to a community health worker program implemented in India. ASHAs are trained female volunteers who serve as a bridge between the healthcare system and the community. They play a crucial role in promoting healthcare awareness, providing basic healthcare services, conducting health surveys, and facilitating access to primary healthcare services at the grassroots level.
581IMAIndian Military AcademyThe IMA is the premier officer training academy of the Indian Army, located in Dehradun, India. It trains and prepares young cadets for commissioned officer roles in the Indian Army. The IMA provides comprehensive military training, including physical fitness, academic education, leadership development, and tactical skills. Graduates of the IMA go on to serve as officers in various branches of the Indian Army, contributing to the defense and security of the nation.
582PNASProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesPNAS is a prestigious scientific journal that publishes original research papers, scientific articles, and reviews across various disciplines. It is a publication of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States. PNAS plays a significant role in disseminating cutting-edge scientific discoveries and promoting interdisciplinary research. The journal covers a wide range of subjects, including biological, physical, and social sciences, and contributes to advancing knowledge and scientific discourse.
583WWNWorld Wide NameWWN is a unique identifier assigned to storage devices in a Fibre Channel network. It serves as a globally unique address that allows devices to be recognized and accessed within the network. The WWN plays a crucial role in managing storage networks, facilitating data transfer, and ensuring efficient storage area network (SAN) operations.
584NSDNational School of DramaThe NSD is a renowned institution in India dedicated to the training and promotion of theater arts. It offers comprehensive programs in acting, directing, playwriting, and other aspects of theater production. The NSD plays a significant role in nurturing talent, preserving theatrical traditions, and promoting excellence in Indian theater. It serves as a hub for theater education, research, and the development of the performing arts in the country.
585CWACivil Works AdministrationThe CWA was a public employment program in the United States during the Great Depression in the 1930s. It was established to provide temporary jobs to unemployed individuals and stimulate the economy through infrastructure projects. The CWA employed millions of workers in construction, public works, and other civil projects, such as building roads, bridges, parks, and schools. It played a crucial role in providing relief and employment during a challenging economic period.
586STFSpecial Task ForceAn STF is a specialized unit within law enforcement agencies that is assigned specific tasks and operations that require specialized skills and expertise. STFs are often formed to combat specific types of crimes, such as terrorism, organized crime, drug trafficking, or cybercrime. These task forces consist of highly trained personnel who work collaboratively to investigate, prevent, and address complex and high-profile criminal activities.
587ILAIndian Library AssociationThe ILA is a professional organization that promotes the development and enhancement of library and information science in India. It provides a platform for library professionals, researchers, and educators to exchange knowledge, share best practices, and collaborate on various aspects of library management, information services, and information technology. The ILA plays a crucial role in advocating for the importance of libraries, supporting professional development, and advancing the field of librarianship in India.
588SEBISecurities and Exchange Board of IndiaSEBI is the regulatory body responsible for overseeing and regulating the securities markets in India. It aims to protect the interests of investors, ensure fair and transparent trading practices, and promote the development and stability of the securities market. SEBI regulates various entities, including stock exchanges, brokers, mutual funds, and other market intermediaries, and enforces regulations related to securities trading, disclosure requirements, and investor protection.
589DRESSDrug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic SymptomsDRESS is a severe drug reaction characterized by skin rash, fever, and involvement of multiple organs. It is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs as a hypersensitivity reaction to certain medications. DRESS is characterized by the presence of eosinophilia (an increase in eosinophils, a type of white blood cell) and systemic symptoms, such as liver dysfunction, kidney involvement, and lymphadenopathy. Prompt recognition and management of DRESS are crucial to prevent complications and provide appropriate medical interventions.
590MRAMutual Recognition AgreementAn MRA is an agreement between two or more countries or regulatory bodies to recognize and accept the results of conformity assessment procedures conducted by each other. MRAs facilitate trade and mutual recognition of products, services, or qualifications by eliminating the need for redundant testing, inspections, or certifications. They promote harmonization and cooperation between regulatory authorities, ensuring that products or services meet agreed-upon standards and requirements.
591DNSEDisseminated Neocortical and Subcortical EncephalopathyDNSE refers to a neurological condition characterized by the widespread involvement of the neocortex (the outer layer of the brain) and subcortical structures. It is associated with cognitive decline, motor abnormalities, seizures, and other neurological symptoms. DNSE can have various underlying causes, including autoimmune disorders, infections, metabolic abnormalities, or neurodegenerative diseases. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are crucial in addressing the underlying cause and providing supportive care to individuals affected by DNSE.
592AVHRRAdvanced Very-High-Resolution RadiometerAVHRR is a sensor and instrument used on satellites to collect data related to the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces. It measures various parameters, including sea surface temperatures, vegetation indices, cloud cover, and land surface temperatures. AVHRR data is valuable for weather forecasting, climate monitoring, environmental studies, and natural resource management.
593PFBRPrototype Fast Breeder ReactorPFBR is a type of nuclear reactor that uses fast neutrons to sustain a controlled nuclear chain reaction. It is designed to generate electricity and also produce additional fissile material for fuel through the process of nuclear breeding. The PFBR technology has the potential to enhance the efficiency of nuclear power generation and contribute to sustainable energy production. The prototype reactor serves as a testbed for demonstrating the feasibility, safety, and viability of fast breeder reactor technology.
594BSNLBharat Sanchar Nigam LimitedBSNL is a state-owned telecommunications company in India. It provides a wide range of telecommunication services, including landline, mobile, broadband, and enterprise solutions. BSNL has played a crucial role in expanding telecommunication infrastructure, especially in rural and remote areas, and connecting people across the country. It contributes to the development of communication networks and supports digital connectivity for individuals, businesses, and government organizations.
595SEHATSocial Endeavor for Health and TelemedicineSEHAT is an initiative that focuses on providing healthcare services and telemedicine facilities to underserved areas and remote communities. It aims to bridge the gap in healthcare access by utilizing telecommunication technologies to connect patients with healthcare professionals. SEHAT promotes the use of telemedicine platforms, enabling remote consultations, medical advice, and monitoring of patients’ health conditions. It contributes to improving healthcare outcomes, especially in areas where access to medical facilities is limited.
596NAREDCONational Real Estate Development CouncilNAREDCO is a self-regulatory organization in India representing the real estate sector. It works towards the development and promotion of the real estate industry, advocating for policy reforms, and fostering sustainable growth. NAREDCO collaborates with various stakeholders, including developers, builders, and government authorities, to address industry challenges, provide market insights, and ensure transparency and professionalism in real estate practices.
597CRMCChhattisgarh Rural Medical CorpsCRMC is a medical corps established in the state of Chhattisgarh, India, to provide healthcare services in rural areas. It focuses on addressing the healthcare needs of remote and underprivileged communities by deploying medical professionals, including doctors, nurses, and healthcare workers, to these regions. CRMC plays a crucial role in delivering primary healthcare services, conducting medical camps, and raising awareness about preventive healthcare measures in rural areas.
598BIBCOLBharat Immunological and Biologicals Corporation LimitedBIBCOL is a public sector undertaking in India that specializes in the production and supply of immunological and biological products. It is involved in the manufacture of vaccines, blood plasma products, and other biotechnology-based pharmaceuticals. BIBCOL plays a significant role in meeting the healthcare demands of the country by ensuring the availability of quality immunological and biological products.
599CRMCustomer Relationship ManagementCRM refers to a set of strategies, practices, and technologies used by businesses to manage interactions and relationships with their customers. CRM systems enable organizations to track customer interactions, gather customer data, and analyze customer behavior to enhance customer satisfaction, loyalty, and retention. CRM helps businesses in understanding customer needs, providing personalized experiences, and improving overall customer engagement and profitability.
600NCSENational Council for Science and the EnvironmentNCSE is an organization that promotes the understanding of scientific and environmental issues and facilitates collaboration between science, policy, and society. It works towards bridging the gap between scientific research, policy development, and environmental sustainability. NCSE organizes conferences, workshops, and educational programs to foster dialogue and knowledge exchange on critical environmental challenges and solutions.
601TMCThousand Million CubicTMC is a unit of measurement used to represent volume, particularly in relation to gas or liquid quantities. It is equivalent to one billion cubic units and is commonly used in contexts such as natural gas production, water consumption, or reservoir capacity.
602WSISWorld Summit on the Information SocietyWSIS is a series of international conferences organized by the United Nations to address the opportunities and challenges posed by the information and communication technologies (ICTs). The summit aims to foster global cooperation in harnessing the potential of ICTs for socio-economic development, narrowing the digital divide, and promoting inclusive and equitable access to information and knowledge.
603GCPGood Clinical PracticeGCP refers to a set of ethical and scientific standards for designing, conducting, and reporting clinical trials involving human participants. GCP guidelines ensure the protection of participants’ rights, safety, and well-being, as well as the reliability and integrity of trial data. Compliance with GCP principles is essential for maintaining the quality and credibility of clinical research, ensuring that investigational products are tested in a systematic and ethical manner, and that the results are valid and reliable.
604ESNElectronic Serial NumberAn ESN is a unique identification number assigned to mobile devices, particularly older cellular phones. It serves as a permanent electronic identifier for the device and is used by the cellular network to authenticate and track the device. ESNs were commonly used before the introduction of SIM cards. They helped identify and monitor mobile devices, prevent fraud, and enable cellular network management.
605IGNFAIndira Gandhi National Forest AcademyIGNFA is a premier training institution in India for forestry and wildlife management. It provides professional training and education to Indian Forest Service officers and other forestry professionals. IGNFA offers courses and programs focused on ecological conservation, sustainable forest management, wildlife protection, and biodiversity conservation. The academy plays a vital role in building the capacity and expertise of forest officers and promoting effective forest governance in the country.
606AIILSGAll India Institute of Local Self-GovernmentAIILSG is an organization dedicated to promoting local self-governance and decentralized governance in India. It works towards enhancing the capacity and skills of local government officials, elected representatives, and other stakeholders involved in local governance. AIILSG provides training, research, and consultancy services in areas such as urban planning, municipal administration, urban development, and community empowerment.
607VDCVolts Direct CurrentVDC represents the measurement of voltage in a direct current (DC) electrical circuit. It signifies the potential difference between two points in a circuit when direct current flows from one point to another. VDC is used to indicate the electrical potential or voltage level in devices, circuits, or power supplies that operate on direct current.
608NIMSNational Institute of Medical SciencesNIMS is an institution dedicated to medical education, research, and healthcare services. It focuses on training medical professionals, conducting medical research, and providing quality healthcare facilities. NIMS plays a crucial role in advancing medical knowledge, improving healthcare outcomes, and addressing the healthcare needs of the population.
609NESNational Employment ServiceNES is a government initiative or agency that facilitates employment opportunities and provides job-related services to job seekers and employers. It helps connect job seekers with suitable employment opportunities, offers career guidance and counseling, and promotes skill development and vocational training. NES plays a vital role in reducing unemployment, supporting workforce development, and fostering economic growth.
610TLDThermoluminescent DosimeterA TLD is a device used for measuring and monitoring radiation exposure. It consists of a small crystal or material that emits light when exposed to ionizing radiation. TLDs are commonly used in industries, healthcare facilities, and research laboratories to assess radiation doses received by workers and ensure radiation safety protocols are followed.
611TPDUTechnology Promotion Development and Utilization ProgrammeTPDU refers to a program or initiative aimed at promoting the development, utilization, and adoption of technology in various sectors. It focuses on facilitating technology transfer, fostering innovation, and supporting the application of technology for societal and economic development. TPDU programs often involve collaborations between industry, academia, and government agencies to drive technological advancements and address specific challenges.
612IAIInstitute of Actuaries of IndiaIAI is a professional body that regulates and promotes the actuarial profession in India. It sets professional standards, conducts actuarial examinations, and grants qualifications to individuals who demonstrate proficiency in actuarial science. The IAI plays a crucial role in ensuring the competence and ethical conduct of actuaries and contributes to the development and application of actuarial principles in various fields, such as insurance, finance, and risk management.
613PMAYPradhan Mantri Awas YojanaPMAY is a government scheme in India aimed at providing affordable housing to eligible beneficiaries. The scheme aims to address the housing needs of economically weaker sections, low-income groups, and middle-income groups. PMAY offers financial assistance, subsidies, and incentives to promote the construction, renovation, and purchase of affordable houses. It aims to improve housing conditions, reduce homelessness, and promote inclusive urban development.
614MCIMedical Council of IndiaMCI is a statutory body responsible for regulating medical education and the practice of medicine in India. It sets standards for medical education, grants recognition to medical colleges, and establishes guidelines for medical curriculum and examinations. The MCI also registers medical practitioners and enforces ethical standards and professional conduct within the medical profession.
615NBSANews Broadcasting Standards AuthorityNBSA is a self-regulatory body or authority that oversees and ensures the adherence to ethical and broadcasting standards in news media organizations. It provides a platform for addressing complaints related to news content, journalistic ethics, and media practices. The NBSA plays a crucial role in maintaining credibility, accountability, and fairness in news reporting and upholding the principles of responsible journalism.
616ICSSRIndian Council of Social Science ResearchICSSR is an autonomous organization that promotes and funds social science research in India. It supports research projects, provides grants and fellowships to social scientists, and facilitates the dissemination of research findings. The ICSSR plays a significant role in advancing knowledge in disciplines such as sociology, economics, political science, anthropology, and other social sciences.
617UGCUniversity Grants CommissionUGC is a statutory body that oversees higher education and provides funding to universities and colleges in India. It is responsible for maintaining quality standards in higher education and ensuring the effective functioning of universities and colleges. UGC formulates regulations and guidelines related to curriculum, academic programs, faculty appointments, and research activities. It also disburses grants and scholarships to support education and research initiatives. The UGC plays a vital role in promoting excellence in higher education, fostering innovation, and maintaining the quality and relevance of academic institutions.
618SHGSelf-Help GroupAn SHG is a small voluntary association of individuals, typically from poor backgrounds, who come together for collective savings, credit, and socio-economic empowerment. SHGs provide a platform for members to pool their resources, save money, access credit facilities, and engage in income-generating activities. They often receive support from government agencies, NGOs, and financial institutions to enhance their skills, develop entrepreneurial abilities, and improve their livelihoods.
619CPCCode of Civil ProcedureCPC is a legal framework that governs the civil litigation process in India. It provides a set of rules and procedures to be followed in civil cases, including filing lawsuits, serving legal notices, conducting trials, and enforcing court judgments. The CPC ensures fairness, transparency, and efficiency in civil proceedings and helps resolve disputes between individuals, organizations, and entities through the judicial system.
620NDFBNational Democratic Front of BorolandThe NDFB is an armed separatist group in India that operated in the region of Assam. It aimed to establish an independent state for the Bodo people, an indigenous community residing in the region. The NDFB has been involved in various insurgent activities and has been a part of peace talks with the Indian government to address the grievances of the Bodo community.
621NMRNuclear Magnetic ResonanceNMR is a scientific technique used to study the structure, composition, and behavior of molecules. It relies on the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei to generate signals that can be analyzed to obtain information about molecular structures, chemical bonding, and molecular dynamics. NMR has applications in various fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, and materials science.
622UNTAGUnited Nations Transition Assistance GroupUNTAG was a United Nations peacekeeping mission deployed in Namibia from 1989 to 1990. Its primary objective was to facilitate the transition of Namibia to independence from South African administration. UNTAG played a crucial role in organizing and supervising the country’s first democratic elections, ensuring a peaceful transition of power and the establishment of a new government.
623UNDOFUnited Nations Disengagement Observer ForceUNDOF is a United Nations peacekeeping mission established in 1974 to monitor the ceasefire and separation of forces between Israel and Syria in the Golan Heights region. It aims to maintain peace and stability in the area and prevent any escalation of hostilities between the two parties. UNDOF conducts patrols, monitors the ceasefire line, and reports any violations or incidents that occur.
624LEDLight Emitting DiodeLED is a semiconductor device that emits light when an electric current passes through it. LEDs are widely used in various applications due to their energy efficiency, long lifespan, and compact size. They are commonly used in lighting fixtures, displays, electronic devices, and automotive lighting. LED technology has revolutionized the lighting industry and contributed to energy conservation efforts.
625JVPJugular Venous PressureJVP refers to the measurement of the pressure in the jugular veins, which are major blood vessels located in the neck. It is used as a clinical indicator to assess the function of the heart and the volume status of a patient. JVP can provide insights into conditions such as heart failure, fluid overload, or obstruction of blood flow. It is typically measured by observing the pulsations of the jugular veins during physical examination.
626NASDAQNational Association of Securities Dealers Automated QuotationsNASDAQ is an American stock exchange known for its focus on technology companies and high-growth industries. It operates as a fully electronic trading platform where stocks and other securities are bought and sold. NASDAQ provides a transparent and efficient marketplace for investors and plays a significant role in the global financial industry.
627PFCPower Factor CorrectionPFC refers to the process of improving the power factor in an electrical system. Power factor is a measure of how effectively electrical power is utilized in a circuit. Power factor correction techniques, such as the use of capacitors, are employed to minimize reactive power and optimize the efficiency of electrical systems. PFC helps reduce energy losses, improve voltage stability, and enhance the overall performance of power distribution systems.
628NSCINational Sports Club of IndiaNSCI is a prominent sports club located in Mumbai, India. It provides state-of-the-art facilities for various sports and recreational activities. NSCI promotes sports participation, organizes sporting events, and supports the development of athletes. The club aims to foster a culture of sportsmanship, physical fitness, and healthy living among its members and the community.
629ERIEnergy and Resources InstituteERI is a research organization based in India that focuses on sustainable development and environmental conservation. It conducts interdisciplinary research, develops innovative technologies, and provides policy recommendations to address global environmental challenges. ERI works on diverse areas such as renewable energy, climate change, biodiversity conservation, sustainable agriculture, and waste management. The organization collaborates with governments, businesses, and communities to promote sustainable practices and create a more resilient and environmentally conscious future. ERI’s contributions are instrumental in shaping policies and practices that foster sustainable development globally.
630IFFCOIndian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative LimitedIFFCO is one of the largest cooperative societies in the world, headquartered in India. It operates in the field of agriculture and is primarily engaged in the production and distribution of fertilizers. IFFCO works closely with farmers and aims to enhance agricultural productivity by providing them with high-quality fertilizers, agricultural inputs, and technical assistance. It follows a cooperative model, where farmers collectively own and manage the organization, ensuring that their interests are represented and served effectively.
631TEDTechnology, Entertainment, DesignTED is a global platform known for its conferences and talks that cover a wide range of topics related to technology, entertainment, and design. TED events bring together experts, innovators, and thought leaders from various fields to share their ideas, insights, and experiences in engaging and thought-provoking presentations. TED Talks, which are short and impactful talks delivered on the TED stage, have gained immense popularity worldwide through online platforms, spreading knowledge and inspiring millions of viewers.
632RTARegional Transport AuthorityRTA is a regulatory body or agency responsible for overseeing and managing transportation-related matters at the regional or local level. It is typically involved in the issuance of driver’s licenses, registration of vehicles, enforcement of transportation laws and regulations, and planning and development of transportation infrastructure. RTAs play a crucial role in ensuring safe and efficient transportation systems within their jurisdictions and promoting compliance with transportation rules and standards.
633OWRCOverseas Workers Resource CentreOWRC is an organization that provides support and resources to overseas workers, particularly migrant workers, to address their needs and concerns. OWRC offers various services such as information dissemination, counseling, legal assistance, and skill development programs to empower overseas workers and protect their rights. It acts as a resource hub where workers can access information, guidance, and assistance pertaining to employment, welfare, and related issues while working abroad.
634SCScheduled CastesSC refers to the Scheduled Castes, which are social groups designated by the Indian government for special protections and affirmative action programs. Scheduled Castes consist of historically disadvantaged communities and castes that have faced social discrimination and oppression. The Indian Constitution provides reserved seats in educational institutions, political representation, and other benefits for Scheduled Castes to promote their social inclusion and upliftment.
635HZLHindustan Zinc LimitedHZL is a leading integrated mining and smelting company based in India. It is a subsidiary of Vedanta Limited and is primarily involved in the production of zinc, lead, and silver. HZL operates several mines and smelters and has a strong presence in the global metals market. The company focuses on sustainable mining practices, environmental stewardship, and community development initiatives.
636MHRDMinistry of Human Resource DevelopmentMHRD was a ministry of the Government of India responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies related to education, including school education, higher education, vocational education, and adult literacy. However, as of 2020, it has been restructured and renamed as the Ministry of Education. MHRD played a crucial role in shaping the education system in India, promoting inclusive and quality education, and enhancing the skills and knowledge of students.
637CMYKCyan Magenta Yellow BlackCMYK is a color model commonly used in printing and graphic design. It stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black, which are the primary colors used in the model. CMYK color mode is used to represent and reproduce a wide range of colors by mixing different percentages of these four colors. It is the standard color model for printing, as it allows for precise color representation and control in the printing process.
638RLDARail Land Development AuthorityRLDA is a statutory authority in India that focuses on the commercial development of railway land and properties. The Rail Land Development Authority is responsible for identifying and monetizing vacant or underutilized railway land across the country. It aims to generate revenue for Indian Railways through the development of these lands for commercial, residential, and other purposes. RLDA undertakes the planning, leasing, and development of railway properties, ensuring optimal utilization and maximizing their value. The authority plays a vital role in unlocking the potential of railway land assets and contributing to the growth and modernization of the railway infrastructure in India.
639NRFNational Retail FederationNRF is a trade association based in the United States that represents the retail industry. It serves as a platform for retailers, industry professionals, and stakeholders to come together, share insights, and advocate for the interests of the retail sector. NRF provides research, resources, and educational programs to support the growth and success of retailers. It also organizes events, conferences, and initiatives aimed at promoting innovation, collaboration, and best practices in the retail industry.
640SCMSupply Chain ManagementSCM refers to the coordination and management of the flow of goods, services, information, and resources from the point of origin to the point of consumption. Supply chain management encompasses various activities such as procurement, production, inventory management, logistics, and distribution. Effective supply chain management ensures the smooth and efficient operation of the entire supply chain, optimizing costs, reducing risks, and enhancing customer satisfaction. It involves the integration and coordination of multiple stakeholders, processes, and technologies to create a seamless and responsive supply chain network.
641MCBMiniature Circuit BreakersMCBs are electrical devices used to protect electrical circuits from overcurrents and short circuits. They act as automatic switches that detect abnormal current flow and quickly interrupt the circuit to prevent damage to electrical equipment and potential hazards such as electrical fires. MCBs are compact in size and widely used in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. They provide reliable and convenient protection for electrical circuits, offering enhanced safety and ease of operation.
642UNODCUnited Nations Office on Drugs and CrimeUNODC is a United Nations agency that focuses on addressing issues related to illicit drugs, crime prevention, and criminal justice. It works with governments and stakeholders worldwide to develop and implement policies and programs aimed at combating drug trafficking, transnational organized crime, corruption, terrorism, and other forms of criminal activity. UNODC supports countries in strengthening their legal frameworks, enhancing law enforcement capabilities, promoting drug abuse prevention and treatment, and fostering international cooperation in the fight against drugs and crime.
643DAEDepartment of Atomic EnergyDAE is a department of the Government of India that oversees the country’s nuclear energy program and research in the field of atomic energy. It is responsible for the development, regulation, and deployment of nuclear power, nuclear research reactors, and related technologies. DAE operates several nuclear power plants, research centers, and institutions involved in nuclear science, engineering, and technology. The department plays a crucial role in ensuring the safe and sustainable use of atomic energy for power generation, medical applications, agriculture, and other peaceful purposes.
644RTCReal-Time ClockRTC is a hardware component or module that keeps track of the current time and date in real-time. It is commonly used in computers, embedded systems, and electronic devices where accurate timekeeping is required. The RTC operates independently of the main system clock and has its own power source, typically a battery, to ensure that the time and date information are retained even when the device is powered off or during power outages.
645PIOPersons of Indian OriginPIO refers to individuals who have ancestral roots or connections to India but are citizens or residents of other countries. PIO status is typically granted to people of Indian descent who hold foreign citizenship but maintain strong cultural, emotional, or familial ties to India. PIOs are eligible for certain privileges, such as visa benefits and easier acquisition of Indian citizenship. However, the PIO scheme has been merged with the Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) scheme, which now provides similar benefits to individuals of Indian origin.
646NALCONational Aluminum Company LimitedNALCO is a public sector enterprise in India that is primarily engaged in the production and refining of aluminum. It is one of the largest integrated aluminum complexes in Asia, encompassing bauxite mining, alumina refining, aluminum smelting, and power generation. NALCO is known for its sustainable and environmentally friendly practices in the aluminum industry. The company caters to various sectors, including construction, transportation, packaging, and electrical industries.
647UNESCAPUnited Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the PacificUNESCAP is a regional arm of the United Nations that promotes economic and social development in the Asia-Pacific region. It provides a platform for member countries to collaborate and address common development challenges, including poverty eradication, sustainable development, trade facilitation, infrastructure development, and social inclusion. UNESCAP conducts research, provides policy advice, and facilitates regional cooperation to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the region.
648SEMSearch Engine MarketingSEM refers to online marketing strategies and techniques used to increase the visibility and reach of websites in search engine results pages. It involves paid advertising campaigns, such as pay-per-click (PPC) advertising, where advertisers bid on specific keywords to display their ads prominently in search engine results. SEM also includes search engine optimization (SEO) efforts to improve organic search rankings and increase website traffic. By leveraging SEM, businesses aim to attract relevant audiences, generate leads, and increase conversions through search engine platforms.
649IIPIndex of Industrial ProductionIIP is a statistical measure that tracks changes in the production output of industrial sectors within an economy over a specific period of time. It provides insights into the growth or contraction of industrial activities and is used as an indicator of economic performance. The IIP takes into account the production levels of different industries, including manufacturing, mining, and electricity generation. By monitoring the IIP, policymakers, analysts, and businesses can assess the overall health and trends in industrial production, which can inform economic policies and investment decisions.
650CAPARTCouncil for the Advancement of People’s Action and Rural TechnologyCAPART is an autonomous organization in India that works towards promoting rural development and improving the quality of life in rural areas. It supports grassroots organizations and NGOs by providing financial assistance, technical guidance, and capacity-building initiatives for rural development projects. CAPART focuses on various sectors, including agriculture, health, education, livelihoods, and rural infrastructure. It plays a vital role in fostering community participation, sustainable development practices, and inclusive growth in rural India.
651UNCLOSUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the SeaUNCLOS is an international treaty that establishes a legal framework for the use and conservation of the world’s oceans and their resources. It defines the rights and responsibilities of countries in maritime zones, regulates navigation.
652UDAYUjjwal DISCOM Assurance YojanaUDAY is a scheme launched by the Government of India to improve the financial health and operational efficiency of state electricity distribution companies (DISCOMs). The aim of UDAY is to reduce the financial losses of DISCOMs, enhance their operational efficiency, and ensure a sustainable power sector in India. Under this scheme, DISCOMs are provided with financial assistance and operational reforms, including measures to reduce power theft, improve billing and collection efficiency, and promote energy conservation. UDAY has been instrumental in addressing the financial challenges faced by DISCOMs and promoting the availability of reliable and affordable electricity.
653USAIDUnited States Agency for International DevelopmentUSAID is the primary foreign assistance agency of the United States government. It works to promote sustainable development and address global challenges in areas such as health, agriculture, education, economic growth, democracy, and humanitarian assistance. USAID provides financial support, technical expertise, and capacity-building initiatives to partner countries and organizations to help them achieve self-reliance and improve the well-being of their citizens. USAID’s programs and initiatives are designed to support economic and social progress, strengthen democratic institutions, and address pressing global issues.
654EEASEuropean External Action ServiceThe EEAS is the diplomatic service of the European Union (EU) responsible for implementing the EU’s common foreign and security policies. It assists the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in formulating and implementing the EU’s external policies. The EEAS works to promote peace, stability, and prosperity, and protect the interests of the EU and its member states globally. It coordinates diplomatic efforts, conducts political dialogue, and supports crisis management and conflict resolution activities. The EEAS plays a crucial role in shaping the EU’s external relations and representing its common positions on the international stage.
655ECHREuropean Commission on Human RightsThe ECHR is an international organization that promotes and protects human rights in Europe. It is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) by member states. The ECHR examines individual and interstate complaints of human rights violations and issues binding judgments that hold states accountable for any violations found. It plays a vital role in upholding fundamental human rights, ensuring the rule of law, and promoting justice and equality across Europe.
656NWDANational Water Development AgencyNWDA is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Jal Shakti in India. It is responsible for the planning, development, and management of water resources at the national level. NWDA conducts studies, surveys, and assessments of water availability, demand, and utilization in different river basins of the country. It formulates water resource development plans, including the construction of dams, reservoirs, and interlinking of rivers, to ensure optimal utilization and equitable distribution of water resources. NWDA plays a crucial role in water resource management, flood control, and irrigation development in India.
657ORTOral Rehydration TherapyORT is a medical treatment used to prevent and treat dehydration caused by conditions such as diarrhea, vomiting, or excessive sweating. It involves the administration of a solution that contains a precise balance of salts, glucose, and water to replace the fluids and electrolytes lost from the body. ORT is a simple and cost-effective intervention that can be administered at home or in healthcare settings to restore the body’s fluid balance and prevent severe complications associated with dehydration. It is considered a cornerstone of emergency medical care and has contributed significantly to reducing mortality rates caused by dehydration-related illnesses.
658WCARWorld Conference Against RacismWCAR refers to a series of international conferences convened by the United Nations to address the issue of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, and related forms of intolerance. The most notable conference in this series was the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance, held in Durban, South Africa in 2001. The conference aimed to promote dialogue, raise awareness, and develop strategies to combat racism and discrimination worldwide. It brought together governments, non-governmental organizations, civil society groups, and human rights advocates to discuss and address these pressing issues. The Durban conference resulted in the adoption of the Durban Declaration and Program of Action, which outlined a comprehensive framework for combating racism and promoting equality. Subsequent follow-up conferences have been held to review progress and continue the global dialogue on combating racism and discrimination.
659SACSpace Application CentreSAC is a major center of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) located in Ahmedabad, India. It is responsible for the design, development, and operationalization of space systems and applications. SAC focuses on utilizing space technology for various applications such as communication, broadcasting, weather forecasting, disaster management, natural resource mapping, and environmental monitoring. It plays a vital role in advancing India’s space capabilities and contributing to national development through the use of space technology.
660STRIPSSeparate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of SecuritiesSTRIPS is a financial instrument that separates the interest payments and principal repayment components of a bond or security. It allows investors to trade and hold the interest and principal portions of the security separately. This method provides flexibility to investors who may have different investment preferences for interest income and principal preservation. STRIPS are commonly used in fixed-income markets to create customized investment strategies and manage risk effectively.
661ECRElectronic Challan Cum ReturnECR is a digital platform introduced by the Employees’ Provident Fund Organization (EPFO) in India. It facilitates the online submission of returns and payment of employees’ provident fund contributions by employers. With ECR, employers can generate and submit electronic challans that contain details of the employees’ contribution to the provident fund. This online system streamlines the process, reduces paperwork, and ensures accuracy in the submission of provident fund returns.
662NRANational Rifle AssociationThe National Rifle Association is an American nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights and firearm ownership. It promotes firearm safety, education, and training, and lobbies for the protection of the Second Amendment of the United States Constitution, which grants the right to bear arms. The NRA provides firearms training programs, organizes shooting competitions, and engages in political activism to influence legislation related to firearms and gun control.
663ZPGZero Population GrowthZPG refers to a demographic concept that describes a stable population size where the birth rate equals the death rate, resulting in zero population growth. It suggests that a population’s fertility rate should be balanced by its mortality rate to maintain a sustainable population level. ZPG is often discussed in the context of addressing population growth and its impact on resources, environment, and quality of life. It is a concept that has gained attention in discussions on sustainable development and population management.
664ZSIZoological Survey of IndiaThe Zoological Survey of India is a premier scientific organization under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in India. It is responsible for conducting surveys, research, and documentation of the country’s fauna and their conservation. The ZSI aims to generate and disseminate information on India’s biodiversity, including the identification, classification, and cataloging of species. It plays a crucial role in wildlife conservation, habitat protection, and promoting biodiversity awareness in India.
665YMCAYoung Men’s Christian AssociationA worldwide organization that focuses on promoting youth development, healthy living, and social responsibility.
666YOLOYou Only Live OnceA popular acronym often used to emphasize the importance of living life to the fullest and taking risks.
667Y2KYear 2000Refers to the year 2000 and the potential computer programming issue known as the “Y2K bug,” which was a concern that computer systems would fail or malfunction due to the change in the millennium.
668YTDYear-to-DateIndicates the period from the beginning of the current year up until the present date. It is often used in financial reporting to assess performance within a specific time frame.
669YMMVYour Mileage May VaryTypically used in online discussions, this acronym acknowledges that individual experiences or results may vary due to personal circumstances.