450 + Amazing Full Forms in Computer | Definition | Technical Vocabulary | Computing Terminology

By | June 22, 2023

Full Forms in Computer

Knowing meanings and definitions of computer terms is essential. We have compiled a comprehensive list of over 450 full forms in the world of computing. From technical vocabulary to computing terminology, this blog post will provide you with all the information you need to navigate through the vast world of technology. So let’s dive in to expand your knowledge on everything from RAM to ROM and many more. Here are full forms in computer

Sr. NoAbbreviationFull FormShort Detail
1COMPUTERCommonly Operated Machine Particularly Used for Technology, Education, and Research.A computer is an electronic device that can receive, store, process, and output data. It performs various tasks based on instructions given to it, enabling tasks such as calculations, data manipulation, communication, and running software programs. Computers have become essential tools in many aspects of modern life.
2APIApplication Programming Interface. An API is a set of rules and protocols that allows different software applications to communicate and interact with each other. It defines the methods and data formats that applications can use to request or exchange information. APIs enable developers to access and utilize the functionalities of other software components, services, or platforms, promoting integration, interoperability, and the development of new applications and services.
3Wi-FiWireless FidelityWi-Fi is a technology that allows electronic devices to connect to a wireless local area network (WLAN) using radio waves. It enables devices like computers, smartphones, and tablets to access the internet and communicate with each other without the need for physical wired connections.
4WWWWorld Wide WebThe World Wide Web (WWW) is an information system that allows documents and other resources to be linked and accessed through the internet. It consists of interconnected hypertext documents, commonly referred to as web pages, which are accessed using web browsers. The WWW revolutionized the way information is shared and accessed globally.
5URLUniform Resource LocatorA URL is a web address that specifies the location of a resource, such as a webpage, file, or service, on the internet. It consists of several components, including the protocol (such as HTTP or HTTPS), the domain name or IP address of the server, the path to the resource, and optional parameters. URLs provide a standardized way to locate and access resources on the web.
6GPUGraphics Processing UnitA Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit or chip that is designed to handle and accelerate the rendering of images, videos, and graphics. Unlike a Central Processing Unit (CPU), which is responsible for general-purpose computing tasks, GPUs are optimized for parallel processing and are primarily used in graphics-intensive applications such as gaming, multimedia processing, scientific simulations, and artificial intelligence. GPUs can perform complex mathematical calculations and manipulate large amounts of data simultaneously, making them essential for real-time rendering and high-performance graphics processing.
7GOOGLEGlobal Organization of Oriented Group Language of Earth.The full form of Google is a playful and retroactive backronym. Originally, Google was derived from the word “googol,” which refers to the number represented by a 1 followed by 100 zeros. However, there is no official full form of Google as it was not initially created as an acronym.
8MODEMModulator-Demodulator.A modem is a device that modulates digital signals from a computer or network into analog signals for transmission over communication channels, such as telephone lines or cable lines. At the receiving end, the modem demodulates the analog signals back into digital form for the computer or network to interpret and process. Modems enable the transmission of data between computers over long distances using existing communication infrastructure.
9PCPersonal ComputerA personal computer (PC) is a general-purpose computer designed for individual use. It is intended for tasks such as word processing, web browsing, multimedia consumption, and various software applications. PCs typically consist of a CPU, memory, storage devices, input/output peripherals (such as a keyboard and mouse), and a monitor for displaying visual output. PCs can run different operating systems, such as Windows, macOS, or Linux, and offer flexibility and customization options for users.
10IBMInternational Business Machines.IBM is a multinational technology company that provides hardware, software, and services in the fields of computer systems, data storage, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and more. Founded in 1911, IBM has played a significant role in the development of computing technologies and has become one of the world’s largest and most influential technology companies.
11ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange.ASCII is a character encoding standard that represents text in computers and other electronic devices. It uses a 7-bit binary code to represent characters, including letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and control characters. ASCII provides a common framework for encoding and exchanging textual information between different computer systems, facilitating interoperability and communication.
12USBUniversal Serial Bus.USB is a standard interface used for connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. It provides a common and convenient method for connecting devices such as keyboards, mice, printers, storage devices, and other peripherals. USB supports hot-swapping (connecting and disconnecting devices without restarting the computer) and allows for high-speed data transfer rates.
13IPSIn-Plane Switching.IPS is a display technology used in LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screens. It provides improved color reproduction, wider viewing angles, and better color accuracy compared to other LCD technologies. IPS panels are commonly used in monitors, laptops, and mobile devices, delivering enhanced visual quality and a more consistent viewing experience from various angles.
14CPUCentral Processing Unit.The CPU is the primary component of a computer that performs most of the processing inside the computer system. It is often referred to as the “brain” of the computer. The CPU carries out instructions and calculations, manages data flow, and performs basic arithmetic, logical, control, and input/output operations. It interacts with other hardware components and executes software instructions, making it a critical component in the functioning of a computer.
15LOGOLanguage of Graphics-Oriented.LOGO is a programming language that was developed in the late 1960s. It was primarily designed for educational purposes, specifically to teach programming concepts to children. LOGO uses simple commands and a turtle graphics metaphor, where a virtual turtle can be controlled to draw shapes and patterns on the screen. LOGO promotes creativity, problem-solving, and logical thinking skills in learners.
16TTLTime to Live.TTL is a term commonly used in computer networking. It refers to the maximum amount of time a packet of data can exist or travel within a network before it is discarded or considered expired. The TTL value is initially set by the sender and is decremented by each network device the packet passes through. TTL helps prevent packets from circulating indefinitely in a network and is often used in the context of IP (Internet Protocol) packets.
17CMOSComplementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor.CMOS technology is a type of semiconductor manufacturing process used to create integrated circuits (ICs) and microchips. It involves the use of both n-type and p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to form complementary pairs. CMOS technology offers several advantages, including low power consumption, high noise immunity, and the ability to integrate both digital and analog circuitry on a single chip. It is widely used in various electronic devices, including microprocessors, memory chips, and sensors.
18FAXFacsimile.FAX is a telecommunications technology that allows the transmission of documents or images over a telephone line. It converts the content into electronic signals, which are then transmitted and reconstructed at the receiving end to produce a physical copy of the document. FAX machines or fax modems are commonly used to send and receive facsimile transmissions, enabling the rapid exchange of printed materials between distant locations.
19FTPFile Transfer Protocol.FTP is a standard network protocol used for transferring files between a client and a server on a computer network. It provides a simple and reliable method for uploading, downloading, and managing files across different systems. FTP operates on a client-server model, where the client initiates a connection with the server and can perform various file operations such as uploading, downloading, renaming, and deleting files. FTP is widely used for file sharing, website maintenance, and remote file storage.
20MUMemory Unit.In the context of computers, MU stands for Memory Unit. It refers to the part of a computer’s architecture that is responsible for storing and retrieving data or instructions. The memory unit can include various types of memory, such as Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read-Only Memory (ROM), which provide temporary and permanent storage capabilities, respectively.
21CUControl Unit.It is a fundamental component of a computer’s Central Processing Unit (CPU). The control unit manages and coordinates the execution of instructions, interprets program commands, and controls the flow of data between various parts of the computer system. It ensures that instructions are executed in the correct sequence and controls the operation of other hardware components to carry out desired tasks.
22SIMDSingle Instruction, Multiple Data.SIMD is a computer architecture design that enables a single instruction to operate on multiple data elements simultaneously. It is particularly useful for parallel processing tasks where the same operation needs to be performed on multiple data elements simultaneously, such as in multimedia processing, scientific simulations, and graphics rendering. SIMD architectures improve computational efficiency by exploiting data-level parallelism and can significantly accelerate certain types of computations.
23CPUCentral Processing UnitThe CPU is the primary component of a computer that performs instructions and calculations. It acts as the brain of the system.
24RAMRandom Access MemoryRAM is a type of computer memory that allows data to be read and written quickly. It provides temporary storage for programs and data.
25HDDHard Disk DriveThe HDD is a storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital data. It provides long-term storage capacity.
26USBUniversal Serial BusUSB is a common interface used to connect devices to a computer. It enables data transfer, power supply, and device connectivity.
27BIOSBasic Input/Output SystemBIOS is firmware that initializes hardware components during the booting process. It provides instructions for the computer to start up.
28GPUGraphics Processing UnitThe GPU is a specialized electronic circuit that renders and manipulates images, videos, and graphics. It is commonly used for gaming and multimedia applications.
29LANLocal Area NetworkA LAN is a network that connects devices within a limited area, such as a home or office. It facilitates resource sharing and data transfer.
30WANWide Area NetworkA WAN is a network that covers a larger geographical area, connecting multiple LANs. The internet is an example of a WAN.
31IPInternet ProtocolIP is a set of rules that govern the transfer of data over the internet. It assigns unique addresses to devices and enables communication.
32DNSDomain Name SystemThe DNS translates domain names into IP addresses. It enables users to access websites by typing domain names instead of IP addresses.
33HTMLHypertext Markup LanguageHTML is a markup language used for creating webpages. It defines the structure and content of web documents.
34CSSCascading Style SheetsCSS is a style sheet language that defines the presentation and layout of HTML documents. It controls the visual aspects of a website.
35SQLStructured Query LanguageSQL is a programming language used for managing and manipulating relational databases. It enables data retrieval, insertion, updating, and deletion.
36IDEIntegrated Development EnvironmentAn IDE is a software application that provides comprehensive tools for software development. It includes code editing, debugging, and testing features.
37ISPInternet Service ProviderAn ISP is a company that provides internet access to users. It offers various connection options like broadband, DSL, and fiber optic.
38VPNVirtual Private NetworkA VPN allows users to create a secure connection over a public network. It encrypts data transmission, ensuring privacy and security.
39HTML5Hypertext Markup Language version 5HTML5 is the latest version of HTML with new features like multimedia support and advanced APIs. It enhances web development capabilities.
40CSS3Cascading Style Sheets version 3CSS3 is the latest version of CSS, offering advanced styling options, animations, and transitions for web design.
41HTTPHypertext Transfer ProtocolHTTP is the protocol used for communication between web browsers and servers. It defines how data is transmitted and interpreted.
42SSLSecure Sockets LayerSSL is a security protocol that provides encrypted communication between a web server and a browser. It ensures data confidentiality and integrity.
43HTTPSHypertext Transfer Protocol SecureHTTPS is an extension of HTTP that adds security through SSL/TLS encryption. It protects data transmission on websites.
44DNSDomain Name SystemThe DNS is responsible for translating domain names into IP addresses. It allows users to access websites by typing domain names instead of IP addresses.
45MIMOMultiple-Input Multiple-OutputMIMO is a wireless communication technology that uses multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve data transfer performance and increase network capacity.
46TCPTransmission Control ProtocolTCP is a widely used protocol that provides reliable and ordered delivery of data packets over networks. It ensures error-free transmission and facilitates communication between devices.
47CRTCathode Ray TubeCRT is a display technology used in older computer monitors and televisions. It works by projecting images onto a phosphorescent screen using a cathode ray tube.
48DECDigital Equipment CorporationDEC was a major American computer company that manufactured and sold computer systems and software during the mid-20th century. It played a significant role in the early development of the computer industry.
49SAPSystems, Applications, and ProductsSAP is a leading enterprise resource planning (ERP) software used by businesses for managing various operations, such as finance, sales, inventory, and human resources.
50PNGPortable Network GraphicsPNG is a popular image file format known for its lossless compression and support for transparent backgrounds. It is widely used for web graphics and digital images.
51SATASerial Advanced Technology AttachmentSATA is a computer interface used for connecting storage devices, such as hard drives and solid-state drives (SSDs), to a motherboard. It provides faster data transfer rates compared to older parallel ATA interfaces.
52GISGeographic Information SystemGIS is a system designed to capture, analyze, and present spatial or geographic data. It combines maps, satellite imagery, and other data sources to help in making informed decisions related to geography and location.
53DDSDigital Data StorageDDS refers to a type of magnetic tape storage technology used for data backup and archiving. It provides a reliable and cost-effective solution for storing large amounts of data.
54CADComputer-Aided DesignCAD is the use of computer software to create, modify, and analyze designs or technical drawings. It is widely used in engineering, architecture, and manufacturing industries.
55PLCProgrammable Logic ControllerPLC is a digital computer used for automating industrial processes. It receives input signals, executes control logic, and provides output signals to control machinery or processes.
56AGPAccelerated Graphics PortAGP is an older expansion slot used in computers to connect a graphics card to the motherboard. It provided faster data transfer rates and improved graphics performance compared to the older PCI interface.
57APMAdvanced Power ManagementAPM is a technology used to manage power consumption in computers and other devices. It enables power-saving features and allows for better control over power usage.
58APIPAAutomatic Private IP AddressingAPIPA is a feature in operating systems that automatically assigns a unique IP address to a device when no DHCP server is available. It allows devices to communicate within a local network without manual configuration.
59HTTPHypertext Transfer ProtocolHTTP is a protocol used for transmitting hypertext over the internet. It defines how web browsers and servers communicate and facilitates the retrieval and display of webpages.
60GPUGraphics Processing UnitThe GPU is a specialized electronic circuit that handles the processing and rendering of images, videos, and graphics. It is essential for smooth visuals and high-performance computing tasks.
61GDIGraphics Device InterfaceGDI is a Microsoft Windows application programming interface (API) that allows software to communicate with graphics devices, such as monitors.
62ICPInternet Control Message ProtocolICP is a network protocol used for diagnostic and error reporting purposes in IP networks. It allows devices to exchange control messages and verify connectivity.
63GIGOGarbage In, Garbage OutGIGO is a term used to describe the concept that the quality of output is determined by the quality of input. If incorrect or flawed data is entered into a system, the resulting output will also be flawed.
64GMAILGoogle MailGmail is a popular email service provided by Google. It offers features such as a large storage capacity, spam filtering, and seamless integration with other Google services.
65CANController Area NetworkCAN is a communication protocol used primarily in automotive and industrial applications. It enables microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other in real-time.
66CALClient Access LicenseCAL is a license that allows client devices to access the services and resources of a server. It is commonly used in server-client network environments.
67GPLGeneral Public LicenseGPL is a widely used open-source software license that grants users the freedom to use, modify, and distribute software. It promotes collaboration and sharing within the open-source community.
68GCRGroup Code RecordingGCR is a data encoding technique used in magnetic storage devices, such as floppy disks. It allows for higher data density by encoding multiple bits of data into a single flux transition.
69MSNMicrosoft NetworkMSN was an online service provided by Microsoft that offered various internet services, including email, instant messaging, and web browsing. It has been replaced by Microsoft’s other online platforms.
70BCCBlind Carbon CopyBCC is a feature in email clients that allows the sender to send a copy of an email to recipients without revealing their addresses to other recipients. It provides privacy and confidentiality.
71VDIVirtual Desktop InfrastructureVDI is a virtualization technology that enables the delivery of desktop environments to users over a network. It centralizes desktop management and allows for flexibility and scalability.
72MPEGMoving Picture Experts GroupMPEG is a set of standards for compressing and encoding audio and video data. It is commonly used in digital media formats such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and MPEG-7.
73TPUTensor Processing UnitTPU is an artificial intelligence accelerator developed by Google. It is specifically designed to perform high-speed and efficient tensor computations, making it suitable for machine learning tasks.
74PSDPhotoshop DocumentPSD is the file format used by Adobe Photoshop for saving and editing layered images. It retains layers, transparency, and other editing features, making it a versatile format for graphic design.
75DPIDots Per InchDPI is a measurement of the resolution or density of printed or digital images. It indicates the number of dots or pixels per inch, affecting the clarity and detail of an image.
76FYAFor Your ActionFYA is an abbreviation commonly used in emails or messages to indicate that the recipient is expected to take action or respond to a specific request or task.
77CRSComputer Reservation SystemCRS is a software system used by travel agencies and airlines to manage reservations and bookings. It provides real-time information on flight availability, fares, and schedules.
78BFDBidirectional Forwarding DetectionBFD is a network protocol used to detect faults and failures in communication paths between network devices. It enables rapid detection and recovery for link or path failures.
79ABRAvailable Bit RateABR is a service quality category in network communications. It represents a variable bit rate that fluctuates based on available bandwidth, ensuring efficient utilization of network resources.
80GBPSGigabits Per SecondGBPS is a unit of data transfer speed, representing one billion bits transmitted per second. It is commonly used to measure network or internet connection speeds.
81PINGPacket Internet GroperPING is a utility used to test the reachability of a host or network device over an IP network. It sends small data packets to the destination and measures the round-trip time for a response.
82CSMACarrier Sense Multiple AccessCSMA is a network access control method used in Ethernet-based networks. It allows multiple devices to share the same transmission medium by detecting carrier signals and avoiding collisions.
83ADActive DirectoryAD is a directory service developed by Microsoft for managing and organizing network resources in a Windows environment. It stores information about users, computers, and other network objects.
84ADCAnalog-to-Digital ConverterADC is a device or circuit that converts analog signals, such as sound or voltage, into digital representations. It enables analog data to be processed and stored digitally.
85BGPBorder Gateway ProtocolBGP is a routing protocol used in large-scale networks, such as the internet. It exchanges routing information between routers to determine optimal paths for data transmission.
86CSIChannel State InformationCSI is information about the characteristics and quality of a wireless communication channel. It helps in optimizing signal transmission and improving the reliability of wireless systems.
87DHCPDynamic Host Configuration ProtocolDHCP is a network protocol that automatically assigns IP addresses and network configuration parameters to devices on a network. It simplifies network setup and management.
88OSIOpen Systems InterconnectionOSI is a conceptual framework that standardizes the functions and protocols of computer networks. It defines seven layers, each responsible for specific network operations.
89LANLocal Area NetworkLAN is a network that connects devices within a limited geographical area, such as a home, office, or campus. It facilitates resource sharing, file transfers, and local communication.
90WANWide Area NetworkWAN is a network that spans a large geographical area, connecting multiple LANs or remote sites. It enables long-distance communication and data exchange.
91MANMetropolitan Area NetworkMAN is a network that covers a larger geographical area than a LAN but smaller than a WAN. It connects multiple LANs within a city or metropolitan area.
92PANPersonal Area NetworkPAN is a network that connects personal devices within a short-range, typically centered around an individual. It enables communication between devices like smartphones, laptops, and wearable devices.
93MACMedia Access ControlMAC refers to the unique identifier assigned to a network interface card (NIC) or a network device. It ensures the addressing and identification of devices in a network.
94OMROptical Mark RecognitionOMR is a technology used to detect and interpret human-marked data on paper forms, such as checkboxes or filled bubbles. It is commonly used for surveys, tests, and voting ballots.
95NICNetwork Interface CardNIC is a hardware component that provides the physical interface between a computer and a network. It allows the computer to connect to a network and communicate with other devices.
96LDAPLightweight Directory Access ProtocolLDAP is a protocol used for accessing and managing directory information services. It provides a standardized way to query and modify directories, commonly used in authentication and directory services.
97UARTUniversal Asynchronous ReceiverTransmitter: UART is a hardware device or circuit used for serial communication between a computer and peripheral devices. It handles the conversion between parallel and serial data formats.
98DCEData Communications EquipmentDCE refers to the equipment or devices responsible for the transmission and reception of data over a communication link. Examples include modems, routers, and switches.
99PFAPlease Find AttachedPFA is a commonly used abbreviation in emails to indicate that a file or document is attached to the message.
100HCIHuman-Computer InteractionHCI is a field of study that focuses on the design and interaction between humans and computer systems. It explores user interfaces, usability, and user experience.
101FHSFilesystem Hierarchy StandardFHS is a standard that defines the structure and organization of directories and files in a Linux-based operating system. It ensures consistency and compatibility across different Linux distributions.
102FCSFrame Check SequenceFCS is a sequence of bits added to data packets for error detection during transmission. It allows the recipient to verify the integrity of the received data.
103DVEDigital Video EffectsDVE refers to digital techniques used to enhance or modify video content. It includes effects such as transitions, overlays, and visual enhancements applied during video production or editing.
104DLLDynamic Link LibraryDLL is a file format used in Windows operating systems to store shared libraries. It contains reusable code and resources that can be accessed by multiple programs simultaneously.
105CSVComma-Separated ValuesCSV is a plain text file format used to store tabular data, such as spreadsheets or databases. It uses commas to separate values within each row.
106CTCPClient-to-Client ProtocolCTCP is a protocol extension used in internet chat applications. It enables direct communication and file transfers between clients without involving the server
107ABIApplication Binary InterfaceABI defines the interface between an application program and the operating system or underlying system components. It specifies the conventions for function calls, parameter passing, and system-level interactions.
108MISManagement Information SystemMIS is a system that provides managers with information to support decision-making and operational activities within an organization. It involves gathering, analyzing, and presenting data for effective management.
109ULSIUltra-Large-Scale IntegrationULSI refers to the manufacturing technology that allows for the integration of an extremely large number of transistors on a single semiconductor chip. It enables the creation of complex and powerful integrated circuits.
110SMPSSwitched-Mode Power SupplySMPS is a type of power supply that uses switching devices to convert and regulate electrical power efficiently. It is commonly used in electronic devices and computers due to its compact size and high efficiency.
111LTELong-Term EvolutionLTE is a standard for high-speed wireless communication and mobile broadband. It is commonly associated with 4G cellular networks and provides faster data transfer rates and improved network capacity.
112AHAAdvanced Host Controller InterfaceAHA is a specification that defines the interface between a host system and a storage device controller, such as a hard drive or solid-state drive. It enables efficient and reliable data transfer between the host and storage devices.
113TPMTrusted Platform ModuleTPM is a hardware chip or integrated circuit that provides secure storage and cryptographic functions. It enhances the security of a computer system by safeguarding cryptographic keys and supporting secure boot processes.
114FPUFloating-Point UnitFPU is a component of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) that performs mathematical operations on floating-point numbers. It enables faster and more precise calculations involving decimal numbers.
115FXPFile Exchange ProtocolFXP is a protocol used for direct file transfers between two FTP servers, without the need for data to pass through the client machine. It enables faster and more efficient file transfers in certain scenarios.
116HIDHuman Interface DeviceHID refers to a type of input or output device that allows humans to interact with computers. Examples of HID include keyboards, mice, game controllers, and touchscreens.
117IOSInternet Operating SystemIOS is the operating system used by Apple devices, such as iPhones, iPads, and iPods. It provides a user-friendly interface and supports a wide range of applications.
118PATAParallel Advanced Technology AttachmentPATA is a type of hard drive interface that uses parallel communication to connect storage devices to a computer. It has been largely replaced by SATA in modern computers.
119DDRDouble Data RateDDR is a type of memory technology used in computer systems. It enables data to be transferred on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal, effectively doubling the data transfer rate compared to traditional memory.
120DFSDistributed File SystemDFS is a file system that allows files to be stored on multiple servers and accessed as a single logical file system. It provides transparency and fault tolerance in distributed computing environments.
121MIPSMillion Instructions Per SecondMIPS is a measure of a computer’s processing speed, indicating the number of machine instructions a computer can execute in one second. It is commonly used as a benchmark in performance testing.
122MMCMultimedia CardMMC is a type of memory card commonly used in portable electronic devices, such as digital cameras, mobile phones, and portable media players. It provides storage for various types of media files.
123VGCTVariable Graphics Color TableVGCT refers to a technique used in computer graphics to optimize and store color information. It allows for efficient manipulation and display of images with varying color palettes.
124WBMPWireless BitmapWBMP is a file format used for storing monochrome (black and white) images optimized for wireless transmission. It is commonly used in mobile devices and wireless applications.
125PCMPulse Code ModulationPCM is a digital representation technique used in audio and video applications. It converts analog signals into a digital format by sampling and quantizing the signal amplitude.
126WMAWindows Media AudioWMA is an audio file format developed by Microsoft. It offers high-quality audio compression and is commonly used for streaming and storing music files.
127RASRemote Access ServerRAS is a server or network component that enables remote users to connect and access a private network or its resources securely. It provides remote access and authentication services.
128HTMHypertext Markup LanguageHTM is a markup language used for creating web pages. It provides a structure and formatting for web content, defining elements and their attributes.
129SISSilicon Integrated SystemsSIS is a company that specializes in the design and manufacturing of integrated circuits and semiconductor solutions for various applications, including computer systems and consumer electronics.
130LBALogical Block AddressingLBA is a method used in hard disk drives to address and access individual sectors or blocks of data. It allows for larger storage capacities and efficient data retrieval.
131CIDRClassless Inter-Domain RoutingCIDR is a method of IP address allocation and routing that allows for more efficient and flexible use of IP address space. It replaces the traditional class-based addressing system.
132CDCompact DiscCD is a digital optical disc storage format used for storing and playing back audio, video, and data. It revolutionized the music industry and became a standard medium for digital content distribution.
133ACPIAdvanced Configuration and Power InterfaceACPI is a standard for power management and configuration of computer systems. It enables the operating system to control hardware resources and optimize power consumption.
134SCSISmall Computer System InterfaceSCSI is a set of standards for connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices, such as hard drives, tape drives, and scanners. It provides fast and reliable data transfer rates.
135NVRAMNon-Volatile Random Access MemoryNVRAM is a type of memory that retains data even when power is removed. It is commonly used for storing system configuration settings and BIOS information.
136BLOBBinary Large ObjectBLOB refers to a data type used to store large binary data, such as images, audio files, or video files, in a database. It allows efficient handling and retrieval of binary data.
137VPNVirtual Private NetworkVPN is a secure network connection that allows users to access and transmit data over a public network as if they were connected to a private network. It ensures privacy and data security.
138SFFSmall Form FactorSFF refers to computer components or systems that are designed to be compact and occupy less space. It is commonly used in small desktop computers, laptops, and embedded systems.
139CAIComputer-Assisted InstructionCAI is a form of educational technology that utilizes computers to facilitate and enhance the learning process. It includes interactive software, simulations, and multimedia elements.
140EMPElectromagnetic PulseEMP is a burst of electromagnetic radiation that can disrupt or damage electronic devices and systems. It is typically caused by nuclear explosions, lightning strikes, or man-made sources.
141EIDEEnhanced Integrated Drive ElectronicsEIDE is an interface standard for connecting storage devices, such as hard drives and optical drives, to a computer system. It provides faster data transfer rates and increased capacity compared to older IDE standards.
142AACAdvanced Audio CodingAAC is a digital audio coding format used for compressing and encoding high-quality audio files. It is widely used in digital music distribution and media playback devices.
143IIOPInternet Inter-ORB ProtocolIIOP is a protocol used in distributed computing to enable communication between objects across different programming languages and platforms. It is part of the CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) standard.
144ASLApplication System LanguageASL is a programming language used to develop and customize BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) firmware. It allows manufacturers to modify system behavior and add custom features.
145MBSAMicrosoft Baseline Security AnalyzerMBSA is a free tool provided by Microsoft to scan and analyze the security configuration of Windows-based systems. It helps identify potential security vulnerabilities and provides recommendations for remediation.
146ZIPZone Improvement PlanZIP refers to a system of postal codes used in the United States. It is an acronym for “Zone Improvement Plan” and is used to facilitate efficient mail sorting and delivery.
147HSPAHigh-Speed Packet AccessHSPA is a mobile communication protocol that provides enhanced data transfer rates over 3G networks. It enables faster internet access and supports multimedia applications on mobile devices.
148VFSVirtual File SystemVFS is a software layer that provides an interface between the operating system and various file systems. It allows applications to access and manage different types of file systems in a uniform manner.
149SIMDSingle Instruction, Multiple DataSIMD is a computer processing technique where a single instruction is applied to multiple data elements simultaneously. It enables parallel processing and improves performance in certain types of applications.
150IPCInter-Process CommunicationIPC refers to mechanisms and techniques used for communication and data exchange between different processes running on a computer system. It allows processes to share information, coordinate activities, and synchronize their operations.
151DACDigital-to-Analog ConverterDAC is an electronic device that converts digital signals into analog signals. It is commonly used to convert digital audio signals into analog audio signals for playback through speakers or headphones.
151DKIMDomainKeys Identified MailDKIM is an email authentication method that allows the sender of an email to digitally sign the message. It provides a mechanism for verifying the integrity and authenticity of the email and helps combat email spoofing and phishing attacks.
152WIFIWireless FidelityWIFI refers to a technology that allows electronic devices to connect to a wireless local area network (WLAN). It enables wireless internet access and facilitates communication between devices without the need for physical cables.
152PTPPoint-to-PointPTP is a communication method where data is transferred between two endpoints, usually in a direct and dedicated manner. It is commonly used in networking and telecommunications for establishing direct connections.
154IGRPInterior Gateway Routing ProtocolIGRP is a routing protocol used in computer networks to determine the optimal path for data packets to travel from one network to another. It facilitates efficient routing and network connectivity.
155HIGHuman Interface GuidelinesHIG refers to a set of design principles and guidelines for creating user interfaces that are intuitive, user-friendly, and consistent across different software applications or platforms.
156UNIVACUniversal Automatic ComputerUNIVAC was one of the earliest commercially available computers. It was developed in the 1950s and played a significant role in advancing computer technology and computational capabilities.
157CIFSCommon Internet File SystemCIFS is a network file-sharing protocol that allows computers to access and share files and resources over a network, such as the Internet. It is commonly used in Windows-based systems.
158HALHardware Abstraction LayerHAL is a software component or layer that provides a standardized interface between the hardware and the operating system. It abstracts the hardware details and enables the operating system to work with different hardware configurations.
159IPV6Internet Protocol Version 6IPV6 is the latest version of the Internet Protocol, which is used to identify and locate devices on the internet. It provides a larger address space and improved security compared to the previous version, IPV4.
160CNRCommunication and Networking RiserCNR is a hardware interface specification that allows for the easy installation of communication and networking devices, such as modems or network interface cards, in computer systems.
EISAExtended Industry Standard ArchitectureEISA is a computer bus standard that extends the capabilities of the older ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) bus. It allows for faster data transfer rates and supports more advanced peripheral devices.
162RPMRevolutions Per MinuteRPM is a unit of measurement used to specify the rotational speed of a spinning disk or device, such as a hard drive or a fan. It indicates the number of complete revolutions made in one minute.
163DLTDigital Linear TapeDLT is a magnetic tape storage technology used for backup and archiving purposes. It provides high-capacity and high-speed data storage, commonly used in enterprise environments.
164ISHIntel SpeedStep TechnologyISH is a power-saving feature found in Intel processors. It dynamically adjusts the CPU frequency and voltage based on system demand, resulting in reduced power consumption and heat generation.
165BYBring Your OwnBY refers to a practice where employees or users bring their own devices (BYOD) or software applications (BYOA) to use in a professional or organizational setting.
166DTSDigital Theater SystemsDTS is a digital audio technology used for surround sound encoding and decoding. It provides high-quality audio reproduction and is commonly used in home theater systems and movie theaters.
167MSBMost Significant BitMSB refers to the bit position in a binary number that carries the highest value or weight. It represents the leftmost bit in a binary sequence.
168HVDHigh-Voltage DifferentialHVD refers to a SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) interface standard that uses high-voltage differential signaling for data transmission. It allows for longer cable lengths and faster
169MOSFETMetal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect TransistorMOSFET is a type of transistor commonly used in electronic devices and circuits. It is known for its ability to control the flow of current based on an applied voltage, making it a fundamental building block in digital and analog circuits.
170AMRAudio Modem RiserAMR is a hardware specification that allows for the integration of audio and modem functions into a single expansion card. It is commonly used in older computer systems to provide audio and modem capabilities.
171SPSSStatistical Package for the Social SciencesSPSS is a software package used for statistical analysis, data management, and data visualization. It is widely used in the social sciences and other fields for conducting research and analyzing data.
172BCDBinary-Coded DecimalBCD is a coding scheme that represents decimal numbers using a binary format. It uses four bits to represent each decimal digit, allowing for direct conversion between binary and decimal representations.
173DMADirect Memory AccessDMA is a feature of computer systems that allows peripheral devices to transfer data directly to and from the system memory without involving the central processing unit (CPU). It improves overall system performance by reducing CPU overhead.
174EBExabyteEB is a unit of digital information storage that represents one quintillion bytes, or 2^60 bytes. It is used to measure large-scale data storage capacities.
175AVIAudio Video InterleaveAVI is a multimedia container format used to store audio and video data. It was developed by Microsoft and is commonly used for video playback and editing on Windows-based systems.
176WLANWireless Local Area NetworkWLAN refers to a wireless network that allows devices to connect and communicate within a limited geographic area, such as a home, office, or campus. It provides wireless internet access and supports local file sharing and printing.
177CAMComputer-Aided ManufacturingCAM is the use of computer software and systems to control and automate manufacturing processes. It includes activities such as computerized design, simulation, and control of production machinery.
178RIFFResource Interchange File FormatRIFF is a file format used for storing multimedia data, such as audio and video, along with related metadata. It provides a flexible and extensible structure for organizing and exchanging multimedia content.
179TFTPTrivial File Transfer ProtocolTFTP is a simple file transfer protocol used to transfer files between networked devices. It is often used for bootstrapping devices or transferring configuration files in network administration and firmware updates.
180WUSBWireless Universal Serial BusWUSB is a wireless extension of the Universal Serial Bus (USB) standard. It allows devices to connect wirelessly to a computer or other host device, providing the convenience of wireless connectivity for USB peripherals.
181HHDHybrid Hard DriveHHD refers to a type of hard drive that combines traditional magnetic hard drive technology with solid-state drive (SSD) technology. It provides a balance between storage capacity and performance by utilizing both magnetic and flash memory.
182HSDPAHigh-Speed Downlink Packet AccessHSDPA is a 3G mobile communication protocol that enables faster data transfer rates for downlink (download) connections. It provides improved internet browsing, multimedia streaming, and other data-intensive applications on mobile devices.
183ASTAbstract Syntax TreeAST is a data structure used in computer programming and compiler design to represent the abstract syntactic structure of source code. It helps in analyzing and transforming code during compilation or interpretation processes.
184MSDMaster File DirectoryMSD refers to the directory or index that contains information about the location and organization of files on a storage device. It helps the operating system or file system keep track of file metadata and facilitates efficient file access.
185IRQInterrupt RequestIRQ is a signal sent by hardware devices to the processor to request attention or interrupt the normal execution of the system. It enables devices to communicate with the processor and ensures timely handling of important events.
186DVIDigital Visual InterfaceDVI is a video display interface used to connect digital display devices, such as monitors and projectors, to computers or other digital video sources. It supports high-quality digital video transmission and can carry both video and audio signals.
187SPARCScalable Processor ArchitectureSPARC is a computer architecture developed by Sun Microsystems (now Oracle Corporation). It is designed for efficient execution of both single-threaded and multi-threaded applications, making it suitable for servers and high-performance computing.
188URIUniform Resource IdentifierURI is a string of characters used to identify or locate resources on the internet. It includes web addresses (URLs) and other identifiers that specify the protocol and location of a resource.
189VOIPVoice over Internet ProtocolVOIP is a technology that allows voice communication and phone calls to be transmitted over the internet instead of traditional telephone lines. It enables cost-effective and flexible communication, often used in business and personal applications.
190SANStorage Area NetworkSAN is a high-speed network that connects storage devices, such as disk arrays or tape libraries, to servers and other computing resources. It provides centralized storage management and facilitates data sharing and backup across a network.
191EBCDICExtended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange CodeEBCDIC is a character encoding scheme used primarily on IBM mainframe computers. It represents characters and control codes using 8 bits and is widely used in legacy systems and certain industries.
191MVSMultiple Virtual StorageMVS is an operating system developed by IBM for mainframe computers. It provides a virtual memory management system and supports the execution of multiple tasks or jobs concurrently.
193NASNetwork-Attached StorageNAS is a storage device or system that is connected to a network and provides file-level data storage and access to multiple clients or users. It simplifies data sharing and backup processes and is commonly used in home and small office environments.
194BPSBits Per SecondBPS is a unit of measurement used to specify data transmission speed or data transfer rate. It represents the number of bits transmitted or processed in one second.
195LPXLow-Profile extensionLPX is a form factor for computer motherboards and cases that allows for a smaller and more compact design. It is commonly used in slim or low-profile computer systems.
196HCLHardware Compatibility ListHCL is a list of hardware devices or components that are officially certified and compatible with a specific software or operating system. The purpose of the Hardware Compatibility List is to ensure that users can seamlessly integrate and use the listed hardware devices with the supported software without any compatibility issues.
197RTSRequest to SendRTS is a control signal used in serial communication to control the flow of data between two devices. It indicates that a device is ready to send data and requests permission from the receiving device to transmit.
198RAIDRedundant Array of Independent DisksRAID is a data storage technology that combines multiple physical disk drives into a single logical unit for improved performance, data redundancy, or both. It provides increased data reliability and fault tolerance in case of disk failures.
199MUIMultilingual User InterfaceMUI refers to a software feature or system that allows users to interact with a computer or application in multiple languages. It provides language localization and enables users to switch between different language settings.
200MFDMulti-Function DeviceMFD is a hardware device that combines the functionality of multiple devices into a single unit. It commonly refers to devices such as all-in-one printers or multifunctional peripherals that integrate printing, scanning, copying, and faxing capabilities.
201CISCComplex Instruction Set ComputerCISC is a computer architecture design that emphasizes the use of complex instructions capable of performing multiple operations in a single instruction. It contrasts with RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture, which focuses on simpler and more streamlined instructions.
202MBRMaster Boot RecordMBR is a boot sector located at the beginning of a storage device, such as a hard drive. It contains the partition table and bootloader code necessary for the system to start up and load the operating system.
203BINACBinary Automatic ComputerBINAC was one of the earliest electronic digital computers developed in the 1940s. It was designed to perform calculations using a binary representation of data, contributing to the advancement of computer technology.
204SGRAMSynchronous Graphics Random Access MemorySGRAM is a type of specialized graphics memory used in graphics processing units (GPUs). It provides high bandwidth and fast access for storing and manipulating graphics data, enhancing overall graphics performance.
205DLPDigital Light ProcessingDLP is a display technology used in projectors and flat-panel displays. It utilizes an optical semiconductor called a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) to create high-resolution and high-contrast images by reflecting light.
206UEFIUnified Extensible Firmware InterfaceUEFI is a modern firmware interface that replaces the traditional BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in computers. It provides an expanded set of capabilities and supports advanced features, such as secure boot and improved system initialization.
207LLCLogical Link ControlLLC is a sublayer of the Data Link Layer in the OSI model. It provides services to the network layer and is responsible for flow control, error control, and addressing in a local area network (LAN).
208DOCDocumentDOC is a file extension used for documents created with word processing software, such as Microsoft Word. It stores text, formatting, images, and other elements of a document.
209ARPANETAdvanced Research Projects Agency NetworkARPANET was an early packet-switching network and the precursor to the modern internet. Developed in the 1960s, it was used for research and communication among universities, government organizations, and defense contractors.
210ACLAccess Control ListACL is a list of permissions associated with a file, folder, or network resource. It specifies which users or groups have access rights and what actions they can perform, such as read, write, or execute.
211RAITRedundant Array of Independent TapesRAIT is a data storage technology that combines multiple tape drives into a single logical unit. It provides increased performance, data redundancy, and fault tolerance for tape-based storage systems.
212MMXMultimedia ExtensionsMMX is a set of instructions added to Intel x86 processors to enhance multimedia and signal processing operations. It provides improved performance for tasks such as video encoding, audio processing, and image manipulation.
213STPShielded Twisted PairSTP is a type of network cabling that consists of twisted pairs of wires surrounded by a shielding layer to reduce electromagnetic interference. It is commonly used in environments with high levels of electrical noise.
214MLIMultilingual InterfaceMLI refers to a user interface that supports multiple languages, allowing users to interact with software or systems in their preferred language. It facilitates localization and improves accessibility for users worldwide.
215AIFFAudio Interchange File FormatAIFF is a file format used for storing high-quality audio data, particularly on Apple Macintosh systems. It supports uncompressed, CD-quality audio and is widely used in professional audio production.
216RMAReturn Merchandise AuthorizationRMA is a process or authorization granted by a seller to a customer for returning a product for repair, replacement, or refund. It helps facilitate the return and handling of faulty or unsatisfactory products.
217EGPExterior Gateway ProtocolEGP is a routing protocol used by routers to exchange routing information between autonomous systems in different networks. It helps establish and maintain routing tables for efficient data transmission across interconnected networks.
218XMFextensible Music FormatXMF is a file format for storing and exchanging music data. It supports the representation of musical scores, instruments, sound samples, and other elements used in electronic music production and playback.
219MTBFMean Time Between FailuresMTBF is a measure of the average time that a device or system operates between failures. It is used to assess reliability and predict the expected lifespan or availability of hardware components.
220MIMEMultipurpose Internet Mail ExtensionsMIME is a standard for formatting non-text attachments in email messages. It enables the transmission of multimedia content, such as images, audio, and video, by encoding them in a compatible format.
221SRAMStatic Random-Access MemorySRAM is a type of computer memory that stores data using electronic circuits, typically in a volatile manner. It provides fast access times and is commonly used for cache memory in CPUs and other high-speed storage applications.
222SDRSingle Data RateSDR refers to a type of memory or bus technology that transfers data on every clock cycle. It operates at the same frequency as the system clock and transfers one data unit per clock cycle.
223PAPPassword Authentication ProtocolPAP is a simple authentication protocol used in point-to-point network connections. It allows a client to establish its identity by providing a username and password to a server for verification.
224VRAMVideo Random Access MemoryVRAM is a type of memory specifically designed for storing graphics and video data. It is used by graphics cards to store frame buffers, textures, and other data required for rendering images and videos.
225WAPWireless Application ProtocolWAP is a communication protocol designed for accessing the internet on mobile devices. It enables mobile phones and other wireless devices to browse websites and access web-based services.
226TGTTicket Granting TicketTGT is a ticket used in Kerberos authentication systems. It represents a client’s authentication credentials, allowing it to request additional service tickets from the authentication server without re-authentication.
227GIFGraphics Interchange FormatGIF is a popular image file format that supports both static and animated images. It uses lossless compression, making it suitable for graphics with flat areas of color or simple animations.
228ALUArithmetic Logic UnitALU is a fundamental component of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU). It performs arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, etc.) and logical operations (AND, OR, etc.) on binary data.
229CMDCommand PromptCMD is a command-line interpreter in Windows operating systems. It provides a text-based interface for executing commands and running various system utilities and programs.
230BIOSBasic Input/Output SystemBIOS is firmware embedded in a computer’s motherboard that initializes hardware components during the boot process. It provides low-level system functions and interfaces with the operating system.
231VLSIVery Large-Scale IntegrationVLSI refers to the process of integrating a large number of electronic components onto a single chip. It involves the design and fabrication of complex integrated circuits with millions or billions of transistors.
232PDFPortable Document FormatPDF is a file format used for presenting and exchanging documents independent of software, hardware, or operating systems. It preserves the formatting and layout of a document, making it widely used for sharing documents electronically.
233NMINon-Maskable InterruptNMI is a type of computer interrupt that cannot be ignored or disabled by normal interrupt masking techniques. It is typically used for critical system events that require immediate attention, such as hardware failures or system resets.
234PPIPixels Per InchPPI is a measurement of the pixel density in a digital image or display. It indicates the number of pixels present per linear inch and is commonly used to describe the resolution or sharpness of images or screens.
235RJ45Registered Jack 45RJ45 is a standard connector used for Ethernet networking cables. It has eight pins and is commonly used for connecting computers, routers, switches, and other network devices.
236SECSecurities and Exchange CommissionSEC is a regulatory agency in the United States that oversees and enforces laws related to securities, investments, and financial markets. It aims to protect investors, maintain fair and orderly markets, and facilitate capital formation.
237BERBit Error RateBER is a measure of the reliability or quality of a digital communication channel. It represents the percentage of bits that are received incorrectly compared to the total number of bits transmitted.
238OOPSObject-Oriented ProgrammingOOPS is a programming paradigm that focuses on creating objects, which are instances of classes that encapsulate data and behavior. It promotes code reusability, modularity, and extensibility in software development.
239ATAAdvanced Technology AttachmentATA is a standard interface for connecting storage devices, such as hard disk drives and optical drives, to computers. It defines the physical and electrical characteristics of the interface and the protocols for data transfer.
240RISCReduced Instruction Set ComputerRISC is a computer architecture design that emphasizes simplicity and efficiency by using a reduced set of instructions. It aims to improve performance by executing instructions in fewer clock cycles.
241NFSNetwork File SystemNFS is a distributed file system protocol that allows clients to access files and directories over a network as if they were located on the local system. It enables file sharing and remote access in networked environments.
242SFCSystem File CheckerSFC is a Windows utility that scans and verifies the integrity of system files. It checks for corrupted or modified files and attempts to repair them using backup copies or cached versions stored on the system.
243ICRIntelligent Character RecognitionICR is a technology that enables computers to recognize and interpret handwritten characters or text. It involves the use of advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques to convert handwritten input into digital text.
245BTXBalanced Technology ExtendedBTX is a motherboard form factor standard designed to improve the thermal performance and overall system design of computers. It features a rotated CPU socket and improved airflow to enhance cooling efficiency.
246DOSDisk Operating SystemDOS is an early operating system primarily used in personal computers. It provides a command-line interface for executing commands and running applications, and it was widely used before the advent of graphical user interfaces.
247CTSClear to SendCTS is a control signal used in serial communication to indicate that a device is ready to receive data. It is part of the RTS/CTS (Request to Send/Clear to Send) flow control mechanism.
248AMDAdvanced Micro DevicesAMD is a semiconductor company that designs and manufactures computer processors, graphics cards, and other related products. It is known for its competition with Intel in the CPU market.
249DVDDigital Versatile DiscDVD is an optical disc storage medium used for storing and playing back digital data, such as movies, music, and computer files. It offers higher storage capacity than CDs and is widely used for video content.
250CD-RCompact Disc-RecordableCD-R is a type of optical disc that allows users to record data onto it once. It can be written to once and read multiple times, making it suitable for creating backups, storing music, and archiving data.
251BALBasic Assembly LanguageBAL is a low-level programming language that represents instructions in a human-readable form that closely resembles machine code. It is typically used for programming assembly language routines on specific hardware architectures.
252UTFUnicode Transformation FormatUTF is a character encoding scheme that represents a wide range of characters from different writing systems in a standardized format. It enables the storage and interchange of text in multiple languages and scripts.
253MIDIMusical Instrument Digital InterfaceMIDI is a protocol and file format used for communicating musical information between electronic musical instruments, computers, and other devices. It allows for the control and synchronization of musical devices and software.
254BATBatch FileBAT is a file format used in DOS and Windows operating systems for creating batch scripts. Batch files contain a series of commands that can be executed sequentially, automating tasks or running multiple commands at once.
255VTVirtual TerminalVT refers to a virtual terminal or terminal emulator that allows users to interact with a computer or remote system through a text-based interface. It simulates the functionality of a physical terminal, enabling command-line interactions.
256HPHewlett-PackardHP is a multinational technology company known for its range of hardware and software products. It manufactures computers, printers, servers, networking equipment, and other technology solutions.
257URNUniform Resource NameURN is a persistent and location-independent identifier for a resource on the internet. It provides a unique name for resources, regardless of their location, making it useful for referencing and identifying resources.
258D2DDevice-to-DeviceD2D communication refers to direct communication between two devices without the need for a centralized network infrastructure. It enables devices to exchange data or information directly, enhancing connectivity and efficiency.
259DSHDDouble-Sided High-DensityDSHD refers to a type of floppy disk that is double-sided and has a higher storage capacity than standard floppy disks. It was commonly used for data storage and file transfer in the earlier days of computing.
260FDCFloppy Disk ControllerFDC is a hardware component responsible for controlling the operation of floppy disk drives in a computer system. It manages data transfer between the system and floppy disks, handling read and write operations.
261SDNSoftware-Defined NetworkingSDN is a network architecture approach that separates the control plane and data plane in networking devices. It enables centralized control and management of network resources through software, improving flexibility and programmability.
262SBUStrategic Business UnitSBU is a specific division or unit within a larger organization that operates as a separate business entity. It has its own business strategy, objectives, and resources, allowing for more focused management and decision-making.
263MPLMultiprogramming with a Fixed number of TasksMPL is a computer operating system technique where multiple programs or tasks are loaded into memory and executed concurrently. It maximizes CPU utilization by allowing multiple programs to share system resources.
264ENIACElectronic Numerical Integrator and ComputerENIAC was one of the earliest general-purpose electronic computers. It was built in the 1940s and used vacuum tubes for computation, paving the way for modern computing technologies.
265CAQAComputer-Assisted Qualitative AnalysisCAQA refers to the use of computer software and tools to aid in the analysis of qualitative data. It helps researchers organize, code, and analyze textual or non-numeric data, such as interviews or survey responses.
266ASFAdvanced Systems FormatASF is a digital multimedia container format developed by Microsoft. It is used for storing and playing back audio and video content, including streaming media over networks.
267VMVirtual MachineVM is a software emulation of a physical computer that runs an operating system and applications. It allows multiple virtual machines to run on a single physical machine, enabling efficient utilization of hardware resources.
267MacShort for MacintoshMac refers to a line of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. They are known for their sleek design, user-friendly interface, and integration with Apple’s macOS operating system.
269OSOperating SystemOS is a software program that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. It controls and coordinates the execution of programs and ensures proper interaction with hardware devices.
270MNGMultiple-image Network GraphicsMNG is a file format used for animated and multiple-image graphics. It is an extension of the PNG (Portable Network Graphics) format and supports animation, transparency, and other advanced features.
271CD-ROMCompact Disc Read-Only MemoryCD-ROM is a type of optical disc that can store large amounts of data, including software, multimedia content, and reference materials. It can be read but not written to, making it suitable for distribution and archival purposes.
272MSBMost Significant BitMSB refers to the bit in a binary number or data word that carries the highest value or weight. It represents the leftmost bit in a binary representation and plays a crucial role in data manipulation and interpretation.
273TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol/Internet ProtocolTCP/IP is a set of networking protocols that provides the foundation for communication on the internet. It ensures reliable transmission of data packets and facilitates the routing and addressing of network traffic.
274DMIDesktop Management InterfaceDMI is a standard interface that allows computer hardware and software to provide information about their capabilities and configuration to management software. It enables centralized monitoring and management of desktop systems.
275NTPNetwork Time ProtocolNTP is a networking protocol used for synchronizing clocks on computer systems within a network. It ensures accurate timekeeping and synchronization, which is essential for various network operations and applications.
276PINEProgram for Internet News and EmailPine is a text-based email client widely used on Unix and Linux systems. It provides a simple and efficient interface for composing, sending, and receiving email messages from a command-line environment.
277SSLSecure Sockets LayerSSL is a cryptographic protocol that provides secure communication over a computer network. It ensures the confidentiality and integrity of data transmitted between a client and a server, commonly used in web
278BCRBarcode ReaderBCR, also known as a barcode scanner, is a device that reads and interprets barcode symbols. It is commonly used in retail, inventory management, and logistics to quickly and accurately capture product information.
279SPISerial Peripheral InterfaceSPI is a synchronous serial communication interface used to connect microcontrollers, sensors, and other peripheral devices to a central processing unit (CPU). It facilitates the exchange of data between devices using a master-slave architecture.
280KBPSKilobits Per SecondKBPS is a unit of data transfer rate that measures the number of kilobits (thousands of bits) transmitted or processed per second. It is commonly used to express the speed of data transmission in computer networks and internet connections.
281TSITerminal Services InterfaceTSI is an interface used in computer systems to enable remote access and management of terminals or thin clients. It provides the necessary protocols and services for remote desktop and application delivery.
282ABCActivity-Based CostingABC is a cost accounting method that assigns costs to specific activities or processes based on their actual consumption of resources. It provides a more accurate understanding of product or service costs by tracing expenses to their underlying activities.
283YBYottabyteYB is a unit of digital information storage equal to 2^80 bytes. It represents an extremely large amount of data and is rarely used in practical applications due to its immense size.
284ZBZettabyteZB is a unit of digital information storage equal to 2^70 bytes. It is larger than a petabyte and represents a massive amount of data storage capacity.
285WDDMWindows Display Driver ModelWDDM is a display driver architecture introduced by Microsoft in Windows Vista and later versions. It provides a standardized interface between graphics hardware, the operating system, and user applications, enabling efficient and reliable graphics rendering.
286ZIFZero Insertion ForceZIF refers to a type of socket or connector that allows easy insertion and removal of integrated circuit chips or components. It eliminates the need for applying force during installation or removal, reducing the risk of damaging the component or socket.
287RDMSRelational Database Management SystemRDMS is a software system that manages and organizes data in a relational database. It provides the ability to store, retrieve, and manipulate data using a structured query language (SQL) and ensures data integrity and consistency.
288MSIMicro-Star InternationalMSI is a multinational computer hardware company known for manufacturing motherboards, graphics cards, laptops, and other computer components. It is a well-established brand in the gaming and high-performance computing market.
289ISPInternet Service ProviderISP is a company or organization that provides internet access to individuals and businesses. They offer various types of internet connections, such as broadband, DSL, fiber-optic, and wireless, allowing users to connect to the internet and access online services.
290WAVWaveform Audio File FormatWAV is a standard audio file format developed by Microsoft and IBM. It is commonly used to store uncompressed audio data on Windows-based systems. WAV files can contain audio recordings, music, or sound effects.
291TPSTransactions Per SecondTPS is a metric used to measure the number of completed transactions processed by a system or application within a second. It is often used in performance testing and benchmarking to assess the efficiency and capacity of a system in handling workload.
292ISVIndependent Software VendorISV refers to a company or individual that develops and sells software products or solutions. They specialize in creating software applications for specific industries, domains, or platforms, catering to the unique needs of their target customers.
293SXGASuper Extended Graphics ArraySXGA is a display resolution standard that provides a screen resolution of 1280×1024 pixels. It offers higher image quality and sharper details compared to lower-resolution display formats, making it suitable for professional graphics and multimedia applications.
294GPGeneral PurposeGP refers to computing devices, software, or systems designed to perform a wide range of tasks or functions. General-purpose devices and software are versatile and can be used for various applications and purposes, providing flexibility and adaptability.
295BGABall Grid ArrayBGA is a packaging technology used for mounting integrated circuits on printed circuit boards (PCBs). It involves soldering the ICs onto the PCB using an array of small solder balls instead of traditional leads, offering improved electrical connections and thermal performance.
296SISSilicon Integrated SystemsSIS is a semiconductor company that designs and manufactures integrated circuits, primarily for graphics and multimedia applications. They provide chipsets and other components for graphics cards, motherboards, and embedded systems.
297CGICommon Gateway InterfaceCGI is a standard protocol that allows web servers to interact with external programs or scripts to generate dynamic web content. It enables the execution of scripts, processing of form data, and generation of dynamic web pages based on user inputs.
298CDNContent Delivery NetworkCDN is a distributed network of servers located geographically closer to end-users. It helps deliver web content, such as images, videos, and other static or dynamic files, more efficiently by reducing latency and improving website performance.
299MMUMemory Management UnitMMU is a hardware component in a computer system that manages virtual memory and translates virtual addresses to physical addresses. It provides memory protection, address translation, and memory allocation services, optimizing the use of available memory resources.
300PICProgrammable Interrupt ControllerPIC is a device used in computer systems to manage and prioritize interrupt requests from various hardware devices. It enables the system to handle and respond to interrupts in a controlled and efficient manner, ensuring proper operation and resource utilization.
301NIUNetwork Interface UnitNIU is a hardware component that provides the interface between a network device, such as a computer or router, and a communication network. It facilitates the transmission and reception of data packets, allowing devices to connect and communicate over the network.
302EIGRPEnhanced Interior Gateway Routing ProtocolEIGRP is a routing protocol used in computer networks to exchange routing information and determine the best paths for data transmission. It is an advanced version of the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and is commonly used in large-scale enterprise networks.
303ESDElectrostatic DischargeESD refers to the sudden flow of electricity between two objects with different electric potentials. It can occur when handling electronic components or devices and can potentially damage or disrupt their functionality. Proper ESD precautions are important to prevent damage to sensitive electronic equipment.
304MAPIMessaging Application Programming InterfaceMAPI is a messaging protocol that enables communication between email clients and messaging servers. It provides a set of functions and interfaces that allow applications to send, receive, and manipulate email messages and other forms of electronic communication.
305KBKilobyteKB is a unit of digital information storage that represents 1,024 bytes. It is commonly used to measure the size of files, documents, and computer memory. However, in some contexts, KB may also refer to 1,000 bytes, depending on the convention being followed.
306DSLDigital Subscriber LineDSL is a type of broadband internet connection that uses existing telephone lines to transmit high-speed data. It provides faster data transfer rates compared to traditional dial-up connections and allows simultaneous voice and data communication over the same line.
307PBPetabytePB is a unit of digital information storage that represents 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes. It is equivalent to 1,024 terabytes or 1,048,576 gigabytes. Petabytes are used to measure large-scale data storage capacities, such as in data centers and cloud storage systems.
308NAPNetwork Access PointNAP refers to a physical location or facility where multiple networks interconnect to exchange internet traffic. It serves as a central hub for network connections and facilitates efficient data exchange between different networks, improving network performance and connectivity.
309MS-DOSMicrosoft Disk Operating SystemMS-DOS is an operating system developed by Microsoft for IBM-compatible personal computers. It was widely used in the 1980s and early 1990s and provided a command-line interface for running programs and managing files and directories.
310WMVWindows Media VideoWMV is a video file format developed by Microsoft for storing and playing digital videos. It is commonly used for streaming media, online video content, and video-on-demand services. WMV files can be played using Windows Media Player and other compatible media players.
311MFAMulti-Factor AuthenticationMFA is a security mechanism that requires users to provide multiple forms of identification or authentication to access a system or online service. It typically involves a combination of passwords, biometric data, security tokens, or one-time verification codes to enhance account security.
312GUIGraphical User InterfaceGUI is a user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices, software applications, or operating systems through graphical elements such as icons, menus, and windows. It provides a visual representation of the system and simplifies user interactions.
313RISRemote Installation ServicesRIS is a feature in Microsoft Windows operating systems that allows administrators to remotely install the operating system on multiple computers over a network. It simplifies the deployment and management of operating system installations in enterprise environments.
314ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information InterchangeASCII is a character encoding standard that assigns numeric codes to represent characters in the English alphabet, numerals, punctuation marks, and control characters. It provides a consistent way to encode and exchange textual data between different computer systems.
315ELFExecutable and Linkable FormatELF is a file format used for executable files, object code, shared libraries, and core dumps in Unix-like operating systems. It provides a standardized structure for organizing and storing executable code, data, and debugging information.
316WWANWireless Wide Area NetworkWWAN is a wireless communication network that covers a larger geographical area compared to local area networks (LANs) or metropolitan area networks (MANs). It enables wireless connectivity over long distances using cellular technologies, allowing users to access the internet and other network resources.
317DFDData Flow DiagramDFD is a graphical representation of the flow of data within a system or process. It shows how data is input, processed, stored, and outputted, providing a visual depiction of the logical structure and data transformations within a system.
318IRCInternet Relay ChatIRC is an online chat protocol that enables real-time text-based communication between multiple users in chat rooms or channels. It was widely used before the advent of modern instant messaging and social networking platforms, providing a means for online communities to interact and collaborate.
319PCPersonal ComputerPC refers to a general-purpose computer designed for individual use. It typically consists of a desktop or laptop computer running an operating system such as Windows, macOS, or Linux. PCs are versatile and can be used for various tasks, including word processing, internet browsing, multimedia, and gaming.
320SDLSimple Direct Media LayerSDL is a cross-platform development library that provides low-level access to audio, keyboard, mouse, joystick, and graphics hardware. It simplifies the process of creating multimedia applications and games, allowing developers to write code that runs on multiple platforms with minimal changes.
321WINSWindows Internet Name ServiceWINS is a name resolution service used in Windows-based computer networks. It maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses, enabling computers to locate and communicate with each other using the NetBIOS protocol. WINS is commonly used in older Windows network environments.
322NOSNetwork Operating SystemNOS is an operating system designed specifically for managing and coordinating network resources and services. It provides functionalities such as file and print sharing, user authentication, and network administration. NOS facilitates the communication and coordination of devices within a network environment.
323UNICSUniplexed Information and Computing ServiceUNICS, also known as UNIX, is an operating system developed in the 1970s. It provides a multi-user, multitasking environment that offers stability, security, and a wide range of utilities and tools. UNIX-based systems are widely used in servers, workstations, and embedded devices.
324DVRDigital Video RecorderA DVR is a device that records and stores video content in a digital format. It allows users to capture, store, and playback video footage from various sources such as security cameras, television broadcasts, or digital media. DVRs are commonly used for surveillance systems and home entertainment purposes.
325XMSExtended Memory SpecificationXMS is a memory management standard used in DOS-based systems to access memory beyond the conventional 1 MB limit. It provides a set of functions that allow programs to utilize the extended memory available in the system, enabling more efficient memory usage.
326LSILarge-Scale IntegrationLSI refers to the integration of a large number of electronic components or circuits onto a single semiconductor chip. It allows for the creation of complex integrated circuits that offer increased functionality and performance in a smaller physical footprint. LSIs are used in various applications, including microprocessors, memory chips, and communication devices.
327STPShielded Twisted PairSTP is a type of electrical cable that consists of pairs of twisted copper wires surrounded by a metallic shield. The shield provides protection against electromagnetic interference (EMI) and ensures better signal quality and transmission reliability. STP cables are commonly used in networking applications to reduce signal degradation.
328PCBPrinted Circuit BoardA PCB is a flat board made of non-conductive material, such as fiberglass, with electronic components mounted on it. It provides a platform for interconnecting electronic components and allows for the creation of compact and organized electronic circuits. PCBs are used in various devices, including computers, smartphones, and appliances.
329AGAAdvanced Graphics ArchitectureAGA was a graphics chipset developed by Commodore for their Amiga computers. It provided enhanced graphics capabilities, including improved color depth, graphics resolution, and video processing capabilities. AGA was a significant advancement in graphics technology during the late 1980s and early 1990s.
330HSUPAHigh-Speed Uplink Packet AccessHSUPA is a mobile communication protocol that allows for high-speed data transmission in the uplink direction (from the device to the network). It is an enhancement of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and enables faster upload speeds for applications such as video streaming and file uploads.
331ICSInternet Connection SharingICS is a feature in Windows operating systems that allows a computer to share its internet connection with other devices on the same network. It enables multiple devices to access the internet using a single internet connection, typically through a wired or wireless network connection.
332SOAService-Oriented ArchitectureSOA is an architectural approach that structures software applications as a collection of services that can be accessed and combined to fulfill specific business requirements. It promotes modularity, reusability, and interoperability by encapsulating business logic into self-contained services that can be accessed over a network.
333MDIMedia Dependent InterfaceMDI is a physical interface used to connect networking devices, such as Ethernet switches or hubs, to other devices using twisted-pair copper or fiber optic cables. It provides a standardized interface for transmitting and receiving data signals between devices, ensuring compatibility and interoperability.
334DLLDynamic Link LibraryA DLL is a module that contains reusable code and data that multiple programs can use simultaneously. It allows programs to dynamically access functions and resources stored in the DLL, reducing code duplication and improving efficiency. DLLs are commonly used in the Windows operating system for shared libraries.
335DAPDigital Audio PlayerA DAP, also known as an MP3 player or portable media player, is a device used for playing digital audio files. It typically has storage capacity.
336WMFWindows MetafileWMF is a file format used for storing vector graphics in Windows-based systems. It supports both raster and vector elements and can be resized without loss of quality. WMF files are commonly used for clip art, illustrations, and other graphical elements in Windows applications.
337EVDOEvolution-Data OptimizedEVDO is a wireless broadband standard that provides high-speed data transmission over cellular networks. It offers faster data rates compared to older mobile communication technologies, enabling users to access the internet, stream media, and perform other data-intensive tasks on mobile devices.
338FATFile Allocation TableFAT is a file system commonly used in older Windows operating systems to organize and manage files on storage devices such as hard drives, floppy disks, and memory cards. It uses a file allocation table to keep track of the storage locations of files and folders.
338DTEData Terminal EquipmentDTE refers to the end-user device in a data communication system. It can be a computer, terminal, or any device that generates or consumes data. DTE communicates with data communication equipment (DCE), such as modems or routers, to establish a data connection.
339PALPhase Alternating LinePAL is a television broadcasting standard used in many countries. It specifies the method of encoding and transmitting color information in analog television signals. PAL provides better color reproduction and compatibility compared to other standards.
340VGAVideo Graphics ArrayVGA is a display standard used in computers and video devices. It defines the resolution, color depth, and refresh rate for displaying graphics and images on a monitor. VGA was widely used in the early days of personal computers and is still supported by many systems today.
341HSSIHigh-Speed Serial InterfaceHSSI is a high-speed serial communication interface used to transmit data between networking devices. It provides a fast and reliable connection for data transfer over long distances. HSSI is commonly used in networking equipment such as routers and switches.
342IPXInternetwork Packet ExchangeIPX is a network protocol used in Novell NetWare networks. It provides a means for devices to communicate and share resources in a local area network (LAN). IPX has been largely replaced by TCP/IP in modern networking environments.
343BWFBroadcast Wave FormatBWF is a file format used for storing high-quality audio recordings in broadcast and professional audio applications. It is an extension of the WAV file format and includes additional metadata for timecode, project information, and other audio-related data.
344CRIMMContinuity RIMMCRIMM is a memory module used in Rambus-based computer systems. It is a dummy module that is used to ensure proper continuity and termination in memory slots when not all slots are populated with active memory modules.
345RTOSReal-Time Operating SystemRTOS is an operating system designed for applications that require real-time response and deterministic behavior. It prioritizes the execution of critical tasks and provides mechanisms for precise timing and synchronization. RTOS is commonly used in embedded systems.
346CCDCharged Coupled DeviceCCD is an electronic image sensor technology used in digital cameras, scanners, and other imaging devices. It converts light into electrical signals for capturing and storing images. CCD sensors are known for their high image quality and sensitivity to light.
347VCRVideo Cassette RecorderA VCR is a device used for recording and playing back analog video and audio signals on magnetic videotapes. It was a popular home entertainment device before the advent of digital media. VCRs allowed users to record television programs and watch movies on videotapes.
348EEPROMElectrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only MemoryEEPROM is a type of non-volatile memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. It retains stored data even when the power is turned off. EEPROMs are used for storing system configurations, firmware, and small amounts of user data in electronic devices.
349CRCCyclic Redundancy CheckCRC is an error detection algorithm used in digital communications and storage systems. It generates a checksum value based on the data being transmitted or stored and compares it with the received data to detect any errors or data corruption. CRC helps ensure data integrity.
350XGAExtended Graphics ArrayXGA is a display standard that provides a higher resolution and increased color depth compared to the VGA standard. It supports a resolution of 1024×768 pixels and became widely used in the 1990s. XGA displays offer sharper and more detailed images on computer monitors and projectors.
351DBSNDatabase Server NameDBSN refers to the name of a database server. In the context of database management systems, the DBSN is used to identify and locate a specific server that hosts a database. It allows clients and applications to establish connections and interact with the database server to perform data operations and queries.
352IHVIndependent Hardware VendorIHV refers to a company or organization that designs, manufactures, and sells hardware components or devices that are used in computer systems. IHVs specialize in producing specific hardware components such as graphics cards, network adapters, storage devices, or other peripherals. These components are often integrated into computer systems by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to provide enhanced functionality or performance.
353ISRInterrupt Service RoutineISR is a function or routine in computer programming that is associated with handling hardware interrupts. When an interrupt signal is triggered by a hardware device, the processor interrupts the current execution and transfers control to the ISR. The ISR performs the necessary tasks to handle the interrupt, such as processing input from a device or initiating specific actions.
354SOAPSimple Object Access ProtocolSOAP is a protocol used for exchanging structured information in web services. It defines a standardized format for sending XML-based messages over networks. SOAP enables communication between different systems, allowing them to interact and exchange data in a platform-independent manner.
355FTPFile Transfer ProtocolFTP is a standard network protocol used for transferring files between a client and a server on a computer network. It provides a simple and reliable way to upload, download, and manage files remotely. FTP is commonly used for website maintenance, software distribution, and file sharing.
356DRAMDynamic Random Access MemoryDRAM is a type of memory used in computers and electronic devices for temporary data storage. It stores data in capacitors within memory cells, which must be constantly refreshed to maintain the data. DRAM is volatile memory, meaning it loses its data when power is removed.
357BSODBlue Screen of DeathBSOD is an error screen displayed by the Windows operating system when it encounters a critical system error. It typically results in the system crashing and requires a restart. The BSOD provides information about the error and helps in diagnosing and troubleshooting system issues.
358HTXHyper Transport ExpansionHTX is an expansion slot technology used in high-performance computer systems. It provides a high-speed interconnect between processors, memory, and peripheral devices. HTX allows for faster data transfer and improved system performance in multi-processor and server environments.
359LSTMLong Short-Term MemoryLSTM is a type of artificial recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture used in machine learning and deep learning. It is designed to overcome the limitations of traditional RNNs in capturing long-term dependencies in sequential data.LSTM networks are widely used in natural language processing, speech recognition, and time series analysis.
360DIVXDigital Video ExpressDIVX was a DVD rental system introduced in the late 1990s. It used a proprietary format and required a special DIVX player to play rented DVDs. DIVX had a pay-per-view model where customers could purchase a limited-time license to watch a DVD. However, DIVX did not gain widespread adoption and was eventually discontinued.
361UACUser Account ControlUAC is a security feature in the Windows operating system that helps prevent unauthorized changes to the system by providing elevation prompts and permissions. UAC prompts users for consent or credentials when performing certain actions that could potentially affect system settings or install software.
362CASEComputer-Aided Software EngineeringCASE refers to the use of software tools and methodologies to support the development and maintenance of software systems. CASE tools assist in various stages of the software development lifecycle, including requirements gathering, design, coding, testing, and documentation.
363PDPProgrammed Data ProcessorPDP refers to a series of minicomputers produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the 1960s and 1970s. PDP systems were widely used in scientific, industrial, and educational applications. They played a significant role in the early development of computer technology.
364VDCVirtual Device ContextVDC is a feature in networking devices such as switches or routers that allows the virtual segmentation of physical network resources. It enables the creation of multiple logical network environments within a single physical device, providing enhanced network scalability, security, and resource allocation.
365AVCAdvanced Video CodingAVC, also known as H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, is a video compression standard widely used for various applications and platforms. It is designed to efficiently compress video data while maintaining high-quality visuals. AVC is utilized in a range of devices and services, including digital television, streaming platforms, video conferencing systems, video surveillance, and more. Its widespread adoption is due to its excellent compression capabilities, which allow for reduced file sizes without significant loss in video quality.
366CGAColor Graphics AdapterCGA is a graphics display standard introduced by IBM in 1981 for IBM PC computers. It supported a maximum resolution of 320×200 pixels and a color palette of 16 colors. CGA played a significant role in the early days of PC gaming and graphics.
367DPMSDisplay Power Management SignalingDPMS is a feature of computer monitors that allows the system to control the power state of the display. It enables energy-saving by automatically turning off the monitor or putting it into standby mode when it’s not in use. DPMS is supported by most modern monitors and operating systems.
368DBADatabase AdministratorDBA refers to a professional responsible for the management, configuration, and maintenance of a database management system (DBMS). DBAs ensure the smooth operation of databases, handle data security, performance optimization, backup and recovery, and database schema design.
369P2PPeer-to-PeerP2P is a decentralized networking model where computers or devices in a network can directly communicate and share resources with each other without the need for a central server. P2P networks are commonly used for file sharing, distributed computing, and decentralized applications.
370MSIMicro-Star InternationalMSI is a Taiwanese multinational company that specializes in the design and manufacture of computer hardware, including motherboards, graphics cards, laptops, and other gaming and consumer electronics products. MSI is well-known for its high-performance gaming hardware and components.
371EPPEnhanced Parallel PortEPP is a parallel communication interface standard used for connecting peripherals, such as printers and scanners, to a computer. It provides faster data transfer rates and improved bidirectional communication compared to the standard parallel port (SPP). EPP ports are commonly found on older computer systems.
372EFSEncrypting File SystemEFS is a feature in the Windows operating system that provides file-level encryption for protecting sensitive data. EFS encrypts files and folders on NTFS-formatted drives, ensuring that only authorized users with the appropriate encryption keys can access the encrypted data.
373MHzMegahertzMHz is a unit of frequency measurement that represents one million cycles per second. It is commonly used to measure the clock speed of computer processors, memory, and other electronic devices. Higher MHz values generally indicate faster processing speeds or data transfer rates.
374WPANWireless Personal Area NetworkWPAN is a wireless network technology that enables short-range communication between devices within a limited area, typically a few meters. Bluetooth is an example of a WPAN technology that allows wireless connectivity between devices like smartphones, tablets, and peripherals.
375CANController Area NetworkCAN is a bus standard used in vehicles and industrial applications for reliable and robust communication between electronic control units (ECUs). It allows different components and systems within a vehicle or industrial system to exchange data and control signals efficiently.
376TDRTime Domain ReflectometerTDR is a test and measurement instrument used to determine the characteristics of electrical transmission lines, such as cables or network connections. It analyzes the time delay and reflection of electrical signals to identify issues like cable faults, impedance mismatches, or signal disruptions.
377JPGJoint Photographic Experts GroupJPG is a widely used file format for storing compressed digital images. It utilizes a lossy compression algorithm that reduces the file size while maintaining a visually acceptable level of image quality. JPG files are commonly used for photographs and graphics on the web and in digital media.
378MBMegabyteMB is a unit of digital storage measurement that represents approximately one million bytes. It is commonly used to quantify the size of files, documents, and storage capacity. One megabyte is equal to 1,024 kilobytes or approximately 1 million bytes.
379ENIEthernet Network InterfaceENI refers to a network interface card or controller that allows a computer or device to connect to an Ethernet network. It provides the physical connection and handles the transmission and reception of data over Ethernet cables.
380VPUVideo Processing UnitVPU is a specialized processor or hardware component dedicated to handling video-related tasks and calculations. It offloads video processing tasks from the CPU, resulting in improved video playback, graphics rendering, and multimedia performance.
381MTPMedia Transfer ProtocolMTP is a protocol used for transferring media files between devices, such as digital cameras, smartphones, and computers. It enables the seamless exchange of media files and metadata, allowing devices to recognize and interact with each other when connected via USB.
382WWWWorld Wide WebWWW refers to the global system of interconnected documents and resources accessed via the internet. It is a network of websites, web pages, and multimedia content that can be accessed using web browsers. The World Wide Web revolutionized.
383VDUVisual Display UnitVDU is a term used to describe a computer monitor or display screen. It refers to the device that presents visual information generated by a computer system. VDUs come in various types, such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors, liquid crystal displays (LCD), and light-emitting diode (LED) screens.
384WUXGAWidescreen Ultra Extended Graphics ArrayWUXGA is a display resolution standard commonly used for computer monitors and high-definition televisions. It has a resolution of 1920×1200 pixels, providing a wide aspect ratio and higher pixel density for sharper and more detailed visuals.
385NAPNetwork Access PointNAP is a network infrastructure component that serves as a connection point between different networks. It allows network traffic to be exchanged and routed between networks, enabling data communication and connectivity between separate network segments.
386DWMDesktop Window ManagerDWM is a component of the Microsoft Windows operating system responsible for managing the graphical user interface (GUI). It enables visual effects, window composition, and desktop rendering, providing features like transparent windows, live thumbnails, and visual transitions.
387ERPEnterprise Resource PlanningERP is a business management software system that integrates various core business processes and functions into a unified platform. It helps organizations streamline and automate activities like accounting, inventory management, human resources, customer relationship management, and more.
388PPTPortable Document FormatPPT is a file format used for creating and sharing presentations. It is commonly associated with Microsoft PowerPoint software, allowing users to create slideshows with text, images, charts, and multimedia elements. PPT files can be viewed and presented on different devices and platforms.
389LSBLeast Significant BitLSB is a term used in binary representation and digital systems. It refers to the rightmost bit or the lowest-value bit in a binary number. The LSB holds the least weight or significance in determining the value of a binary digit or data.
390WEPWired Equivalent PrivacyWEP is a security protocol used to secure wireless computer networks. It was designed to provide a level of confidentiality and integrity similar to that of a wired network. However, WEP has been found to have significant security vulnerabilities and is no longer considered secure. It has largely been replaced by more robust security protocols like WPA and WPA2.
391MBCSMulti Byte Character SetMBCS is a character encoding scheme that allows the representation of characters from multiple scripts and languages. It is used to support languages that require more than one byte to represent their characters. MBCS is commonly used in operating systems and programming languages to handle text data from different language systems.
392IPv4Internet Protocol Version 4IPv4 is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol, which is the underlying protocol that governs how data is transmitted over the internet. IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses, allowing for a maximum of approximately 4.3 billion unique addresses. However, due to the growing number of internet-connected devices, IPv4 address exhaustion has become a concern, leading to the adoption of IPv6.
393MTAMail Transfer AgentMTA is a software application or component that handles the routing and delivery of email messages between mail servers. It is responsible for sending, receiving, and relaying email across networks. Common examples of MTAs include Sendmail, Postfix, and Microsoft Exchange Server.
394BOSSBharat Operating System SolutionsBOSS is an operating system developed by the Indian government as part of its initiative to promote indigenous technology. It is a Linux-based operating system designed to cater to the specific requirements of the Indian market, including support for various Indian languages and localization features.
395ISCInternet Storm CenterISC is a global cooperative cybersecurity organization that provides real-time threat intelligence and analysis. It operates as a platform for sharing and disseminating information about internet security threats, vulnerabilities, and incidents. The ISC helps organizations and individuals stay informed about emerging cyber threats and take necessary preventive measures.
396POSTPower on self-testPOST is a series of diagnostic tests that a computer system performs during the boot-up process. It checks the hardware components, such as the processor, memory, storage devices, and peripherals, to ensure they are functioning properly. The POST results are usually displayed as a series of codes or messages indicating the status of each component.
397SMBIOSSystem Management BIOSSMBIOS is a standard developed by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) that defines a firmware interface for system management. It provides information about the hardware components, system configuration, and capabilities of a computer system, allowing software applications and operating systems to retrieve and utilize this information.
398HPFSHigh Performance File SystemHPFS is a file system developed by IBM for its OS/2 operating system. It was designed to overcome the limitations of the older FAT file system by providing improved performance, reliability, and support for advanced features such as long filenames, access control lists, and high-speed disk access methods.
399MCRMultivariant Curve ResolutionMCR is a mathematical method used in analytical chemistry for the resolution of overlapped chromatographic peaks. It involves the use of mathematical algorithms to separate and quantify individual components from complex mixtures. MCR can improve the accuracy and reliability of analytical measurements in various fields.
400DTRData Terminal ReadyDTR is a control signal used in serial communication to indicate the readiness of a data terminal or device to send or receive data. It is typically used in RS-232 and related communication interfaces to establish communication and synchronization between devices.
401MBCSMulti Byte Character SetMBCS is a character encoding scheme that allows the representation of characters from multiple scripts and languages. It is used to handle text data that requires more than one byte per character, supporting a wide range of international characters.
402JPEGJoint Photographic Experts GroupJPEG is a commonly used image compression format that reduces the file size of images without significantly degrading their quality. It is widely supported and allows for efficient storage and transmission of digital images.
403SONETSynchronous Optical NetworkingSONET is a standardized protocol for transmitting digital data over optical fiber networks. It provides high-speed and reliable communication by synchronizing the transmission of data across multiple nodes in the network.
404CCSCommon Command SetCCS is a set of standard commands used in computer storage devices, such as hard drives and optical drives. It enables consistent and compatible communication between the storage device and the computer system.
405CUPSCommon Unix Printing SystemCUPS is a modular printing system used in Unix-like operating systems. It provides a common interface and set of tools for managing and printing documents on various types of printers.
406ENIACElectronic Numerical Integrator and ComputerENIAC was one of the earliest general-purpose electronic computers. It was built in the 1940s and was used for complex calculations and computations.
407IVRInteractive Voice ResponseIVR is a technology that allows computer systems to interact with callers through voice and touch-tone inputs. It is commonly used in telephone systems to provide automated customer service, information retrieval, and call routing.
408HTPCHome Theater Personal ComputerHTPC refers to a personal computer that is specifically designed and configured for use in a home theater system. It is used for multimedia playback, streaming, recording, and other entertainment purposes.
409HDHigh DefinitionHD refers to high-definition video or display quality, which provides a higher resolution and improved visual clarity compared to standard definition.
410EVCEthernet Virtual CircuitEVC is a virtual connection established over an Ethernet network that allows for the transport of data packets between different devices or networks. It provides a logical path for communication within the Ethernet infrastructure.
411NMSNetwork Management SystemNMS is a software or hardware system used to monitor, manage, and control network resources and devices. It provides tools for network administrators to monitor network performance, configure devices, and troubleshoot issues.
412UTPUnshielded Twisted Pair CableUTP is a type of networking cable commonly used in Ethernet networks. It consists of pairs of twisted copper wires that provide reliable data transmission by reducing electromagnetic interference.
413FDDIFiber Distributed Data InterfaceFDDI is a high-speed networking technology that uses optical fiber cables to transmit data. It was commonly used in local area networks (LANs) to provide high-bandwidth and fault-tolerant connections.
414HANHome Area NetworkHAN refers to a network that connects devices and systems within a home. It allows for communication and sharing of resources between devices, such as computers, smartphones, smart appliances, and home automation systems.
415XMPPExtensible Messaging and Presence ProtocolXMPP is a communication protocol used for real-time messaging, presence information, and data exchange. It is widely used in instant messaging and collaboration applications.
416ISCSIInternet Small Computer Storage InterfaceISCSI is a protocol that enables the transmission of SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) commands over IP networks. It allows for the remote access and management of storage devices over a network.
417HDMIHigh-Definition Multimedia InterfaceHDMI is a digital audio/video interface commonly used to connect devices such as TVs, monitors, and home theater systems. It provides high-quality transmission of audio and video signals.
418ACPIAdvanced Configuration and Power InterfaceACPI is an industry standard for power management and configuration of computer systems. It allows the operating system to control power settings, device configuration, and system functions.
419SCSISmall Computer System InterfaceSCSI is a set of standards for connecting and communicating between computers and peripheral devices, such as hard drives, tape drives, and scanners. It provides a fast and reliable data transfer interface.
420NVRAMNon-Volatile Random-Access MemoryNVRAM is a type of memory that retains its data even when the power is turned off. It is commonly used to store system configuration settings, BIOS settings, and other critical data.
421BLOBBinary Large ObjectBLOB refers to a collection of binary data stored as a single entity in a database. It is typically used to store large files, such as images, videos, and documents.
422VPNVirtual Private NetworkVPN is a secure network connection that allows users to access a private network over a public network, such as the internet. It provides encryption and tunneling protocols to ensure confidentiality and data security.
423SFFSmall Form FactorSFF refers to compact computer components or devices that have a smaller physical size compared to standard counterparts. It is commonly used in small desktop computers, laptops, and embedded systems.
424CAIComputer-Assisted InstructionCAI is an educational approach that uses computer software and interactive multimedia to enhance the learning process. It provides interactive lessons, tutorials, and assessments to facilitate learning.
425EMPElectromagnetic PulseEMP is a burst of electromagnetic radiation that can disrupt or damage electronic devices and systems. It can be caused by natural phenomena, such as lightning strikes, or as a result of human-made events, such as nuclear explosions.
426EIDEEnhanced Integrated Drive ElectronicsEIDE is an interface standard for connecting storage devices, such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives, to a computer. It provides faster data transfer rates and additional features compared to the older IDE standard.
427AACAdvanced Audio CodingAAC is a digital audio compression format used for encoding high-quality audio files. It offers better compression efficiency and audio quality compared to older formats like MP3.
428DTPDesktop PublishingDTP refers to the process of using specialized software to create and design documents, such as brochures, newsletters, and magazines, for print or digital distribution.
429PCIPeripheral Component InterconnectPCI is a computer bus standard used for connecting peripheral devices, such as graphics cards, sound cards, and network cards, to the motherboard of a computer.
430CAEComputer-Aided EngineeringCAE is the use of computer software and simulation tools to assist in the design, analysis, and optimization of engineering systems and components.
431NTFSNew Technology File SystemNTFS is a file system used by the Windows operating system to organize and manage files on a storage device. It offers advanced features such as file encryption, access control, and journaling.
432IPPInternet Printing ProtocolIPP is a network printing protocol that allows users to send print jobs to remote printers over the internet or a local network. It enables features such as print job status monitoring and printer management.
433VLANVirtual Local Area NetworkVLAN is a logical network created within a physical local area network (LAN). It allows network administrators to group devices together based on criteria such as department, function, or security requirements.
434VXLANVirtual Extensible Local Area NetworkVXLAN is a network virtualization technology that enables the creation of virtual networks across physical network infrastructure. It is commonly used in data centers to provide scalable and flexible network architectures.
435CTLComputation Tree LogicCTL is a formal language used in computer science and logic to specify and reason about the behavior of concurrent systems, such as hardware or software systems.
436DATDigital Audio TapeDAT is a magnetic tape storage format used for recording and playback of digital audio. It was popular in professional audio recording and broadcasting applications.
437BiDiBi-DirectionalBiDi stands for Bi-Directional, referring to a communication or transmission that occurs in both directions. It is commonly used in networking and data transfer contexts.
438SVGScalable Vector GraphicsSVG is a file format used for describing two-dimensional vector graphics. It provides a scalable and resolution-independent way to represent images, logos, icons, and other graphical elements on the web.
439ECPExtended Capabilities PortECP is an enhanced parallel port standard that allows for faster data transfer and bidirectional communication between a computer and peripheral devices such as printers or scanners.
440TBTerabytesTB is an abbreviation for Tera-bytes, a unit of digital information storage equal to approximately one trillion bytes. It is commonly used to quantify large amounts of data, such as hard drive or cloud storage capacities.
441CMOSComplementary Metal-Oxide-SemiconductorCMOS is a technology used in the fabrication of integrated circuits. It refers to a type of semiconductor device design that uses both N-type and P-type transistors to achieve low power consumption and high noise immunity.
442OCROptical Character ReaderOCR is a technology that allows the extraction of text from scanned documents or images. It uses optical recognition algorithms to identify and convert printed or handwritten characters into machine-readable text.
443ZISCZero Instruction Set ComputerZISC refers to a type of computer architecture that relies on a single instruction to perform its operations. It simplifies the hardware design by executing all computations using the same basic instruction.
444ISAInstruction Set ArchitectureISA defines the set of instructions and capabilities that a computer’s processor can execute. It serves as an interface between software and hardware, providing a standardized way for software programs to communicate with the underlying hardware.
445HPCHigh-Performance ComputingHPC involves the use of powerful computing systems and parallel processing techniques to solve complex computational problems quickly. It is widely used in scientific research, simulations, data analysis, and other computationally intensive tasks.
446MSDNMicrosoft Developer NetworkMSDN is a comprehensive online resource provided by Microsoft for software developers. It offers documentation, tutorials, code samples, and tools to assist developers in creating applications for Microsoft platforms.
447BPIBytes Per InchBPI refers to the density of data storage on magnetic tapes or other storage media. It represents the number of bytes that can be stored per inch of tape length and is used to measure storage capacity.
448SVGASuper Video Graphics ArraySVGA is a display standard that provides higher resolution and color depth compared to the earlier VGA standard. It allows for sharper and more detailed graphics and is commonly used in computer monitors and graphics cards.
449RDFResource Description FrameworkRDF is a framework for representing and exchanging structured metadata about resources on the web. It provides a flexible way to describe relationships between resources using subject-predicate-object triples.
450MFPMulti-Function ProductAn MFP, also known as an All-in-One printer, combines multiple functions such as printing, scanning, copying, and sometimes faxing, into a single device. It offers convenience and space-saving benefits in office environments.
451FCPGAFlip Chip Pin Grid ArrayFCPGA is a packaging technology used in microprocessors. It involves the use of flip chip technology where the silicon chip is flipped and mounted directly onto the package substrate, providing improved electrical and thermal performance.
452ASRAutomated System RecoveryASR is a feature in Windows operating systems that allows users to create a backup of critical system files and settings. It enables the system to be restored to a functional state in the event of a system failure or corruption.
453VANValue-Added NetworkA VAN refers to a third-party network service provider that offers additional services on top of basic data transmission. It may provide services such as EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) translation, data transformation, and secure communications.
454PIOProgrammed Input/OutputPIO is a method of data transfer between a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) and peripherals. It involves the CPU actively controlling the data transfer process, issuing commands and managing the data flow.
455RGBRed, Green, BlueRGB is a color model used in digital displays and image processing. It represents colors by combining varying intensities of red, green, and blue light. By adjusting the intensity of each primary color, a wide range of colors can be displayed.
456FDMAFrequency-Division Multiple AccessFDMA is a technique used in telecommunications to allow multiple users to share the same frequency spectrum. Each user is assigned a unique frequency band within the overall spectrum to enable simultaneous communication.
457SWFShock Wave FlashSWF is a file format used for multimedia and interactive content, typically associated with Adobe Flash. It allows for the delivery of vector graphics, animation, audio, and video on the web.
458POPPost Office ProtocolPOP is a protocol used for retrieving email from a mail server to a client device. It allows users to download their email messages from the server to their local device for offline access.
459CBEMAComputer Business Equipment Manufacturers AssociationCBEMA is an industry association that focuses on the standards and practices related to computer and business equipment manufacturing. It addresses various aspects including product design, performance, and reliability.
460GBGigabytesGB is a unit of digital information storage that represents one billion bytes. It is commonly used to measure the capacity of storage devices such as hard drives, solid-state drives, and memory cards.
461EDPElectronic Data ProcessingEDP refers to the automated processing of data using electronic devices and computer systems. It involves the collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of data to support various business operations and decision-making processes.
462DIMMDual In-Line Memory ModuleDIMM is a type of computer memory module used in desktops, servers, and workstations. It contains multiple memory chips on a small circuit board and provides a high-density, high-capacity memory solution.
463VMVirtual MemoryVM is a memory management technique that allows a computer to use disk storage as an extension of its primary memory (RAM). It enables running programs to utilize more memory than physically available by swapping data between RAM and the disk.
464SHDSLSingle-pair High-speed Digital Subscriber LineSHDSL is a digital subscriber line technology that provides high-speed data transmission over a single copper pair. It is used for internet access, data networking, and telecommunications services.
465DTPDesktop PublishingDTP refers to the process of creating and designing printed materials using specialized software and hardware. It involves combining text, graphics, and images to produce professional-quality documents such as brochures, flyers, and magazines.
466NTFSNew Technology File SystemNTFS is a file system developed by Microsoft for Windows operating systems. It offers features such as file and folder permissions, encryption, compression, and support for large file sizes and volumes.
467FDDFloppy Disk DriveFDD is a storage device that reads and writes data to floppy disks. Floppy disks were widely used as portable storage media in the past but have been largely replaced by other storage technologies.
468IPPInternet Printing ProtocolIPP is a network protocol that enables printing over the Internet or an IP-based network. It allows users to send print jobs to remote printers and provides features such as print job management and status monitoring.
469VLANVirtual Local Area NetworkVLAN is a network segmentation technique that allows a single physical network to be divided into multiple logical networks. It provides improved network security, performance, and flexibility by separating traffic into distinct broadcast domains.
470VXLANVirtual Extensible Local Area NetworkVXLAN is a network virtualization technology that enables the creation of virtualized Layer 2 networks over an existing Layer 3 infrastructure. It facilitates the scalability and flexibility of network deployments in cloud computing environments.
471FPGAField-Programmable Gate ArrayFPGA is an integrated circuit that can be configured or programmed by the user or designer after manufacturing. It offers flexibility in terms of functionality and can be customized to perform specific tasks.
472IoTInternet of ThingsIoT refers to the network of interconnected physical devices embedded with sensors, software, and connectivity, enabling them to exchange data and interact with each other over the internet. It encompasses various smart devices and systems, such as smart home appliances, wearable devices, and industrial automation.
473SMTPSimple Mail Transfer ProtocolSMTP is a standard communication protocol used for sending and receiving email messages between email servers. It enables the transmission of email messages over the internet, allowing users to send, receive, and relay emails across different email systems and networks. SMTP is an essential component of the email infrastructure and is responsible for the reliable delivery of email messages.
474XSSCross-Site ScriptingXSS is a type of security vulnerability commonly found in web applications. It occurs when an attacker injects malicious scripts into trusted websites, which are then executed by the victim’s web browser. XSS vulnerabilities can allow attackers to steal sensitive information, manipulate website content, or launch further attacks. Preventing XSS attacks typically involves input validation, output encoding, and adhering to secure coding practices when developing web applications.