Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus
Chapter- 6 Work, Life and Leisure Cities in the Contemporary World
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Question 1. Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.
Answer: The Population of London expanded from the middle of 18th century and within 70 years (1810-1880) it increased fourfold.
Reasons: a. The most important reason is migration from the rural areas. The open fields disappeared and introduction of new technology in farming increased unemployment in rural areas. London started attracting these rural.
b.London did not have large But Apart from London dockyard, five major type of industries which attracted migrants were clothing and foot ware, wood and furniture , metals and engineering, printing stationary and precision products.
c.During the first world war, London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical This increased the number of large factories, which in turn increased the number of people coming to the city in search of work.
Question 2. What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this change.
Answer: (i) In the 18th and 19th centuries, a large number of women were employed in the factories because during that period, most of the production activities were carried out with the help of the family.
(ii)With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs and were forced to work within households. According to the 1861 Census, about a quarter million women worked as domestic servants in London, most of them were from migrant families,
(iii)Many women increased their family income by taking lodgers or paying Some earned their living through tailoring, washing or matchbox making.
(iv)However, in the 20th century, women again started getting employed in wartime industries and offices because most of the male citizens were fighting at the front.
Question 3. How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following? Illustrate with historical examples.
a.A private landlord
b.A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order
c.A leader of a political party
- Increasing density of the population demanded more land leading to increase in price of land and increase in rents.The existence of large urban population meant that there would be many people requiring a place to stay .
- Individual landowners put up cheap, and usually unsafe tenements for the new migrants.The increased demand for places to stay was profitable for private landlords who could rent out rooms at high rates.
- In cities like Bombay the multistory structures by private landlords like ‘Chawla’s’ grew in numbers.
- The existence of a large urban population will cause more crimes ,social conflict and rebellion. Police are responsible for maintaining law and order, Hence a police Superintendent would definitely have increased work on his/her hands.
- The police had to control petty ‘criminals’ like who lived on stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, cloths kept for drying.
- There were some skilled in their trade like cheats and tricksters, picketers and thieves.
- To discipline these people by imposing high penalties for criminal offered work to ‘deserving poor’.
- The existence of a large urban population cause many social problems ,such as problems of housing, food, water, etc.These issues become political issues when they are taken up by political parties .
- A political party and its leaders can mobilize the masses to support them in these political causes .
- in 19th century London saw riots by the poor demanding relief from severe conditions of poverty and then dock workers also and so the politicians became very active.
Question 4. Give explanations for the following:
a)Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth
- Well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century for following reasons:
- one-room houses of the poor came to be seen as the breeding ground of diseases, and hence, a threat to public health
- Fire hazards became a worry in these over-crowded, badly ventilated, unhygienic homes
- There was a widespread fear of social disorder, especially after the 1917 Russian Revolution. Housing schemes were undertaken to avoid a rebellion by the poor.
- They supported it to decongest localities, reduce pollution and improve landscape of the city.
b)Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of Answer:
- Bombay became an attractive destination for people seeking jobs after the British administration replaced Surat with Bombay as its principal western port.
- The consequent increase in trade and industries led to a great influx of people. Thus, migrants were (and still are) an important facet of Bombay.
- Most of the people in the film industry were migrants from cities like Lahore, Calcutta, Madras contributing to national character of film industry.
- They wanted to portray the plight of lower class of people through films. Thus, a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
c)What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth
- In mid-seventeenth century, Bombay became East India Company’s principal western port, replacing Surat.
- Later, by the end of the nineteenth century, it had become an important administrative centers as it became capital of Bombay presidency
- It developed as an industrial Centre. All through these years, the prospects for trade and commerce, and employment kept increasing, thereby making Bombay an attractive destination for migrants.
Question 1. What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people.
There were many forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England
- For the upper classes, an annual “London Season” comprised of opera, the theater and classical music events was one of the sources of leisure.
- For the working classes, pubs, discussions and meetings for political action served the same purpose
- Libraries, art galleries and museums were new types of entertainment brought about through the utilization of state money.
- Music halls and cinema theaters too became immensely popular with the lower classes.
- Industrial workers were encouraged to undertake seaside vacations to rejuvenate from the bans of working in the polluting environment of factories.
Question 2. Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the Underground railway. Why was the development of the Underground criticized?
Answer: Social Changes –
- The London was getting congested due to flow of migrants causing increase in slums as well as pollution.
- The development of suburbs as a part of the drive to decongest London led to the extension of the city beyond the range where people could walk to work.
- Though these suburbs had been built, the people could not be persuaded to leave the city and stay far away from their places of work in the absence of some form of public transport.
- The Underground railway was constructed to solve this housing problem. It was criticized initially because:
- Initially people were afraid to travel underground. A newspaper reported the danger to health and asphyxiation (lack of air) and heat.
- It was referred to as iron monsters, which added to the mess of the city. Charles Dickens
- Large amount of poor were displaced, many houses were destroyed.
Question 3. Explain what is meant by the Haussmanisation of Paris. To what extent would you support or oppose this form of development? Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper, to either support or oppose this, giving reasons for your view.
Answer: Haussmanisation of Paris refers to the rebuilding of the Paris with vigour, under the chief architect Baron Haussmann in the mid nineteenth century. It involved the forcible reconstruction of cities to enhance their beauty and impose order. The poor were evicted from the centre of Paris to reduce the possibility of political rebellion and to beautify the city.
Question 4. To what extent does government regulation and new laws solve problems of pollution?
Answer: Government laws play an important role in controlling the rates of pollution in a city. However, simply passing laws is not enough. They need to be properly enforced as well. It is also a fact that people tend to find ways of getting around laws.
So, apart from legislation, government also needs to carry out intensive public awareness programmes aimed at educating the public about the need and ways of controlling pollution; and about how they too have a stake in environmental governance.
5.Discuss one example each of the success and failure of legislation to change the quality of
The Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853 did not work to clear the air in towns like Derby, Leeds and Manchester.
The British state used public funds to provide for entertainment forms such as museums, art galleries and libraries for the working classes.
Failure: The availability of one-room tenements and no housing facilities for a major part of the industrial revolution time period caused the family to get divided into smaller
There were even cases where rural people had to leave their families behind and live alone in the urban areas where they worked.
Success: British administrative officials built houses in new suburbs for fulfilling the housing needs of the working