Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus
Chapter-4 The Making of a Global World
The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts.
Question 1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.
Answer: Examples of the different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century:
Asia and Europe –
- Traders and travelers introduced new type crops where they traveled.
- It is believed that noodle traveled to Europe from China.
- Chinese pottery, textiles, spices from India and south east Asia
- Precious metals like Gold and Silver flowed from Europe to Asia.
America- Europe- Asia
- Common foods like potatoes, Soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes etc reached from native America to Europe and Asia.
- Even germs of diseases were exchanged amongst different regions.
Question 2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonization of the Americas.
- Europeans like Spaniards,Portuguese flowed in to America after its discovery.
- The global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonization of the Americas because the native American Indians were not immune to the diseases that the settlers and colonizers brought with them.
- The Europeans were more or less immune to small pox, but the native Americans, having been cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years, had no defense against it. These germs killed and wiped out whole communities, paving the way for foreign domination.
- Weapons and soldiers could be destroyed or captured, but diseases could not be fought against.
Question 3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following:
a.The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn
b.The coming of rinderpest to
c.The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World
d.The Great Depression on the Indian
e.The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian
Answer: a. The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws lead to the inflow of cheaper agricultural crops from America and Australia British agriculture was unable to compete with imports.
Many English farmers left their profession and migrated to towns and cities. Some went overseas. This indirectly led to global agriculture and rapid urbanization, a prerequisite of industrial growth.
b. Rinderpest was devastating cattle disease which was carried by infected cattle from British Asia to Eastern it spread in Africa like a wild forest fire.The coming of rinderpest to Africa caused a loss of livelihood for countless Africans. Using this situation to their advantage, colonizing nations conquered and subdued Africa by monopolizing scarce cattle resources to force Africans into the labour market.
c.Most of the victims of world war belonged to young generations of working As a result,it reduced the workforce in Europe, thereby reducing household income. The role of women increased and led to demand for more equality of status. It made the feminist movement stronger. Women started working alongside men in every field. Women and youngsters became more independent and free with long-term effects.
d.By the early twentieth century the global economy had become an integral The impact of the Great Depression in India was felt especially in the agricultural sector. It was evident that Indian economy was closely becoming integrated to global economy. India was a British colony and exported agricultural goods and imported manufactured goods. The fall in agricultural price led to reduction of farmers’ income and agricultural export.
India’s trade exports and imports almost halved between 1928 and 1934
The government did not decrease their tax and so, many farmers and landlords became more indebted to moneylenders and corrupt officials. It led to a great rural unrest in India.
e. Impact of MNC’s decision to relocate production in Asian Countries:
- It provided for cheap labor to MNC’s
- It stimulated world trade.
- Increased capital inflow in the Asian Countries
- Brought about new technology and production methods to the Asian Countries.
- Greater choice of goods and services to the people.
- Greater employment opportunities for Asian countries.
- Rapid economic transformation resulting in the growth of economies like India, China
Question 4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
Answer: Two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability were:
Improvement in transport – Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped transport food more cheaply and quickly from production units to even faraway markets.
Export of meat to Europe – Meat which was out of reach of poor Europeans became accessible. Refrigerated ships helped transport perishable foods such as meat, butter and eggs over long distances.
Question 5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement? Answer:
- The main aim of the post war international economic system was to ensure economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
- Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.
- It established the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to deal with external surpluses and deficits of member nations, and financed post-war reconstruction.
- The post war international economic system is also often described as the Bretton Woods system.
Question 6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
Answer: I am working in Trinidad (Caribbean) as an indentured labourer. Through this letter, I want to tell you about my hardship and misbehaviour of the contractor towards me. The contractor at the time of hiring me did not provide the correct information regarding place of work, mode of travel and living and working conditions.
Very few legal rights are provided to us. The contractor uses harsh and abusive language at the worksite. He treats us like coolies and we are an uneasy minority in the cocoa plantations in Trinidad.
Whenever I do not attend my work, I am prosecuted and sent to jail. There is a lot of work at the plantations with heavy workload and sometimes I have to finish all of it one day. In case of unsatisfactory work (in the contractor’s thinking), my wages are cut. I am living a life of a slave and in great trouble.
Question 7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
Answer: The three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange are trade flows, human capital flows and capital flows or investments. These can be explained as—the trade in agricultural products, migration of labour, and financial loans to and from other nations.
Flow of trade – India was a hub of trade in the pre-modern world, and it exported textiles and spices in return for gold and silver from Europe. After colonization the flow of Indian textiles i.e. fine Indian cotton to Britain declined and
Flow of labour – In the field of labour, indentured labour was provided for mines, plantations and factories abroad, in huge numbers, in the nineteenth century. This was an instrument of colonial domination by the British. These labours migrated in hope of better future but were exploited to a greater extent.
Flow of Capital -Lastly, Britain took generous loans from USA to finance the World War. Since India was an English colony, the impact of these loan debts was felt in India too. The British government increased taxes, interest rates, and lowered the prices of products it bought from the colony. Indirectly, but strongly, this affected the Indian economy and people.
Question 8. Explain the causes of the Great Depression.
Answer: The Great Depression was a result of many factors: Post world war – I economy was already fragile.
- Prosperity in the USA during the 1920s created a cycle of higher employment and incomes. It led to rise in consumption and demands. More investment and more employment created tendencies of speculations which led to the Great Depression of 1929 Up to the mid-1930s.
- Stock market crashed in 1929. It created panic among investors and depositors who stopped investing and depositing. As a result, it created a cycle of depreciation.
- Failure of the banks. Some of the banks closed down when people withdrew all their assets, leaving them unable to invest. Some banks called back loans taken from them at the same dollar rate inspite of the falling value of dollar. It was worsened by British change in policy to value pound at the pre-war value.
Question 9. Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
Answer: G-77 countries is an abbreviation for the group of 77 countries that demanded a New international Economic Order (NIEO); a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, without being victims of neo-colonialism, that is, a new form of colonialism in trade practiced by the former colonial powers.
The G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank) because these two institutions were
designed to meet the financial needs of industrial and developed countries, and did nothing for the economic growth of former colonies and developing nations.