Class-10 Chapter-6 The Making of a Scientist- Extra Questions and NCERT Solution

By | June 30, 2020

The making of a Scientist is well provided by Edumantra including Introduction, Message, Theme, Title, Characters, Summary in English, Summary in Hindi, Word meanings, Complete lesson in Hindi, Extracts , Long answers, Short answers, Very short Answers, MCQs and much more.

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 10th as Per Latest CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 6 English Languages and Literature- Footprints Without Feet (Latest 2018-19)

­­­­ The Making of a Scientist

By Robert W. Peterson  

About the Author- Robert W. Peterson              

Robert W. Peterson – A Short Biography

About the Author

Robert W Peterson was a famous American newspaper writer who later became a freelance author of magazine articles. He wrote with authority, particularly on the topics of sports and scouting. He was born in 1925 in Pennsylvania in the USA and died of lung cancer on 11 February 2006.

Introduction of the lesson- The Making of a Scientist

INTRODUCTION

Richard H. Ebright is one of the leas. ding scientists. He has contributed significantly to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. When Ebright was a little child, he used to collect butterflies, rocks, fossils and coins. He was an eager star-gazer also. But he was mainly interested in butterflies. During his school as well as college days, he did many experiments for which he was awarded many prizes. Most of his experiments were on butterflies. These experiments were a milestone in the world of science.

Plot/ Theme / Central Idea of the Lesson/ Literary Analysis of The Making of a Scientist/ Main Idea

Theme of the Story

The Making of a Scientist is the story of a scientist named Richard H Ebright. It is an interesting study of how Ebright became a scientist. After the early death of her husband, Ebright was everything for his mother. He used to get top grades in schools. At a very early age, when he was just in the second standard, he had already collected 25 species of butterflies found around his hometown. The book The Travels of Monarch X gave him a thorough knowledge about the monarch butterflies. In the second year of his high school, Ebright began to search an unknown hormone in the gold spots of butterflies. In later years, he discovered how a cell could read the blueprint of its DNA.

Important Word-Meanings of difficult words  from the lesson- The Making of a Scientist

WORD-MEANINGS

[PAGE 32] : Scout = member of an organisation  excited = ecstatic cells = a very minute unit of living matter string = line  kindergarten = school for children determination = firmness of purpose fossils= prehistoric remains astronomer = one who studies astronomy

[PAGE 33] : Curiosity = inquisitiveness telescopes = device to view far away objects microscopes = device to see very minute objects physical = relating to the body  hairstreak = a butterfly species purplish = having purple colour Melissa = a butterfly species variegated = having lines of different colours  crescent = shaped like the half moon  hackberry = a butterfly species monarch = a butterfly species Ouch migrate = move from one place to the other collector = one who collects things

[PAGE 34] : Adhesive = sticky tagged = attached string chase = follow  flock = group basement = caterpillar = larva of a butterfly  pupa = early stage of a butterfly adult = fully grown development = growth gossamer-winged = having very thin wings  eventually = tedious , tough, boring feedback = response recaptured = caught again

[PAGE 35] : Slides = small thin glass strips tissues = mass of cells  neat = clean display = show stack = many viral disease = disease caused by virus  beetle = an insect  copy = imitate  starling = a bird probably = perhaps

[PAGE 36] : Insect hormone = hormone of an insect  tiny = small spots = marks assumed = thought ornamental = decorative excellent = superb device = an instrument entomology = science dealing with insects culture = a process of testing fed = gave food sophisticated = advanced  identify = to know  structure = construction puzzles = problems blueprint = basis

[PAGE 37] : Nucleus =centre heredity =coming from forefathers molecules = smallest units processes = methods preventing = hindering champion debater = superb in debates canoeist = sailor of a small boat exhibits = displays competitive = the spirit of competition  ingredients = contents

ENRICH YOUR VOCABULARY

PAGE 32

 Former—earlier, Excite—to arouse, Scientific—relating to the practice of science, Theory—principle, that Explain—elaborate, Article—non-fictional prose, Proceeding—institution of a sequence of steps, Academy—a school for special training, Publish—to put into print, Achievement—the action of accomplishing something certainlyindeed, Collect—to gather, Kindergarten- a pre-school for children, Determination—decision, Activity—action, Rock—stone, Fossil— remains of plant or animal excavated from soil, Eager— curious to know, Astronomer— star gazer, Gazing— to watch, Lumbago—backache,

PAGE 33

  Curiosity—eagerness, Encourage—to boost, Wall Interest—sense of concern, Trips- tour, Telescope— an instrument used to see distant objects, Microscope— an instrument used to study the microorganisms, Equipment— instrument, with toil Companion— fellow, Almost— nearly, Physical— involving the body, Species— biological group, Migrate— to move periodically, Central—near a centre, Collector – amcremator

PAGE 34

  gesarnb—systematic investigation, to establish facts, University—the body of faculty and students, Adhesive—sticking substance, Wing—movable organ for flying, Collect—to gather Chan-to follow, Flock—a group of birds, sheep, etc., Female monarch—female butterfly. Basement—cellar, Life cycle—stages through which a living organism passes, Adult— grown up, Stage— phase, Eventually— finally, Tedious—tiresome, Feedback— response to an experiment, etc., Recapture—retake,

PAGE 35

  Tissue—part of an organism, Experiment—controlled test, Display—show or demonstration, Competitive—involving competition, Insect—small air-breathing anthropoid, Stack—push down list, Suggestion—idea, Project—planned undertaking, International—relating all countries, Cause—reason, Viral—caused by virus, Disease—ailment, Caterpillar—the larva of a butterfly or moth, Beetle—an insect, Result—outcome,viceroys—Viceroy kind of butterflies, Zoology—branch of biology that studies animals, Shall Division—section,

PAGE 36

  Unknown—not known, Hormone—internal secretion, Indirectly—not in a forthright manner, Cell—building block of life, Purpose—aim, Spot—roundish mark, Assume—suppose, Ornamental—decorative, Device—instrument, Development—evolution, Entomology—the scientific study of insect, Laboratory—place to carry out experiments, Institute—an association organised to promote art or science, Advance—better, Senior—elderly, Scale—scurf, Graduation—academic exercise of conferring diploma, Department—section, Further—ahead Agriculture—husbandry, Sophisticated—complicated, Chemical—material produced by change in atoms, Structure—construction, Identify—to recognise, Photo—picture, Biology—branch of science dealing with living beings, Puzzle—problem, Blueprint—design, Substance-matter, Nucleus—centre, Control—power to direct, Heredity—generic endowment, Determine—decide, Function—working,

PAGE 37

 Molecule—simplest structur al unit of an element or compound,

Model—blueprint, Explain—describe, Researcher—one who performs a research, Towards—in the direction of, Understand—to comprehend, Process—procedure, Prevent—to forbid, Champion—champ, Debater—arguer, Canoeist—paddler, All-around—jack of all trades,Expert—specialist, Particularly—specifically, Straight—simple, Admire—praise, Adviser—consultant, Effort—attempt, Sense—meaning, Ingredient—component,

Summary in English- The Making of a Scientist

DETAILED SUMMARY

Richard H. Ebright is one of the leading scientists. He has contributed significantly to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. He had been interested in science since his boyhood years. At the age of twenty-two. he excited the scientific world with a new theory. It was concerned with the working of cells. Ebright and his college room-mate explained the theory in an article. It was published in the journal entitled ‘Proceedings of the National Academy of Science’. It was first of his many achievements in the field of science. It started with his studies on ‘butterflies’.

Ebright was the only child of his parents. They lived in the north of Reading, Pennsylvania. There was nothing for Ebright to do there. He had no companions. He was not a good player. But his hobby was collecting things. Ebright was fascinated by butterflies. He started collecting butterflies in kindergarten. He also collected rocks, fossils and coins. He also became a star-gazer and an eager astronomer.

Ebright’s mother recognized his curiosity and encouraged him. She took him on trips. She also bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras and other equipment so that he could follow his hobbies. Ebright’s mother was his friend until he started school. She would bring home friends to him. He was her whole life after her husband’s death.

Ebright’s mother would find work for Richie if he had nothing to do. She found learning tasks for him. He had a great hunger for learning. He earned top grades in school. By the time he was in second grade. he had collected 25 species of butterflies. These were found around in hometown. One day his mother gave him a children’s book. It opened the world of science to Ebright.

That book was ‘The Travels of Monarch X’. It described how monarch butterflies migrate to Central America. This book fascinated him. At the end of the book, readers were invited to help study butterfly migrations. They were asked to tag butterflies for research by Dr Frederick A. Urquhart of Toronto University. Canada. Anyone who found a tagged butterfly was asked to send the tag to Dr Urquhart. Ebright started tagging monarch butterflies. The butterfly collecting season around Reading lasts only six weeks in late summer. He realized that chasing the butterflies one by one won’t enable him to catch many. So he decided to raise a flock of butterflies. He would catch a female monarch and take her eggs. He would raise them in his basement from egg to caterpillar to pupa to adult butterfly. Then he would tag the butterflies’ wings and let them go.

‘ However, soon Ebright began to lose interest in tagging butterflies. The reason was that there was no feedback. He was a little disappointed as only two butterflies had been recaptured. And they had been found not more than seventy-five miles from where he lived. By the time, Ebright reached the seventh grade. He got busy with other scientific experiments. He entered a county science fair. His entries were slides of frog tissues. But he did not win any prize He realised that the winners had tried to do real experiments. So he decided to do further research in his favourite field, that is, insects on which he had already been doing work.

Ebright wrote to Dr Urquhart for ideas. In reply, the famous scientist gave him many suggestions for experiments. These experiments kept Ebright busy all through high school. He also won many prizes in the county and international science fairs. For his eighth grade project, Ebright tried to find the cause of a viral disease that killed all monarch caterpillars. He thought the disease might be carried by a beetle. He tried raising caterpillars in the presence of beetles. But he didn’t get any real results. But he showed his experiment in the science fair and won. The next year his science fair project was testing the theory that viceroy butterflies imitate monarchs. He said that viceroys look like monarchs because birds do not find monarchs tasty. By copying monarchs, the viceroys escape being eaten by birds. His project was to see if birds would eat monarchs. This project was placed first in the zoology division and third overall in the county science fair.

In his second year in high school, Ebright’s research led to his discovery of an unknown insect hormone. Indirectly, it led to his new theory on the life of cells. He tried to answer a very simple question: What is the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa? To find the answer Ebright and another student built a device that showed that the spots were producing a hormone. It was necessary for the butterfly’s full development. This project won Ebright first place in the county fair and entry into the International Science and Engineering Fair. There he won third place for zoology. He also got a chance to work in Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.

Ebright’s interest in butterflies never abated. As a high school junior, he continued his advanced experiments on the monarch pupa. His project won first place at the International Science Fair. In his senior year, he grew cells from a monarch’s wing in a culture. He showed that the cells would divide and develop into normal butterfly wing scales only if they were fed the hormone from the gold spots. That project won first place for zoology at the International Fair. He also worked at the army laboratory and at the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture’s laboratory. The following summer Ebright went back to the Dept. of Agriculture’s lab and worked on the hormone theory. Finally, he was able to identify the hormone’s chemical structure.

A year-and-a-half later, one day, Ebright was seeing the X-ray photos of the chemical structure of cells. He got the idea for his new theory about cell life. Those photos provided him with the answer to one of biology’s puzzles: how the cell can ‘read’ the blueprint of its DNA. DNA is the substance in the nucleus of a cell that controls heredity. It is the blueprint for life. Ebright and his college room-mate James R. Wong drew pictures and constructed plastic models of molecules to show how it could happen.

No one was surprised when Richard Ebright graduated from Harvard with highest honours. He also became a graduate student researcher at Harvard Medical School. There he began experimenting to test his theory if the theory proves correct it will be a big step towards understanding the life processes. It might also lead to new ideas for preventing some types of cancer and other diseases.

Ebright has many other interests also. He also became a champion debater and public speaker, a good canoeist and an all-around outdoor-Person. He was also an expert photographer of nature and scientific exhibits.

Ebright’s social studies teacher, Richard Weiherer had high praise for him. Ebright said about his teacher that he opened his mind to new ideas. Richard A. Weiherer also spoke highly of Ebright about his interests. He won because he wanted to do the best job. He said that Ebright was competitive, but not in a bad sense. In the end, the writer says Ebright possessed those traits which are necessary for the making of a scientist. These are: Start with a first-rate mind, add curiosity and mix in the will to win for the right reasons. Ebright had these qualities.

SHORT SUMMARY

  1. Theory on How Cells Work: At the age of twenty-two, Ebright excited the scientific world with a new theory on how cells work. Richard H Ebright and his college room-mate explained the theory in the ‘Proceedings of the National Academy of Science’. It was the first time that this important scientific journal had ever published the work of college students. For Richard Ebright, his first achievement in science started with butterflies.
  2. Fond of Collecting Butterflies: Richard Ebright started collecting butterflies when he was just in kindergarten. He was also fond of collecting rocks, fossils and coins. He became an eager astronomer too. He sometimes gazed at stars all night.
  3. Mother Encouraged Interest in Learning: Richard Ebright’s mother encouraged his interest in learning. She took him on trips, bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras and other equipment. She helped him in many ways. Richard was just in third grade when his father died. Richard was her Mother’s whole life. They spent almost every evening at the dining table. Richard wanted to learn. He earned top grades in schools. By the time he was in the second grade, Ebright had collected all twenty-five species of the butterflies found around his hometown. Then, his mother bought him a children’s book called The Travels of Monarch X. The book told how monarch butterflies migrated to Central America. It opened the world of science to the eager collector.
  4. Tagging Butterflies: The book invited readers to help study butterfly migrations. Readers were asked to tag butterflies for research by Dr Frederick A Urquhart of the University of Toronto, Canada. Ebright started raising a flock of butterflies. He would catch a female monarch, take her eggs, and raise them in his basement through their life cycle.
  5. County Science Fair: In the seventh grade, he entered the County Science Fair and lost. It was a sad feeling for him. But it aroused the competitive spirit in Ebright. For his eighth grade project, Ebright tried to find the cause of a viral disease that killed all monarch caterpillars every few years. This time he won. The next year, his science fair project was to test the theory that viceroy butterflies copy monarchs because monarchs don’t taste good to birds. Ebright proved that viceroy butterflies do taste good to birds. This project was placed first in the zoology division and third overall in the County Science Fair. In his second year in high school, Ebright showed that the gold spots on a monarch pupa produced a hormone necessary for the butterfly’s full development. This project won him first place in the County Fair and an entry into the International Science and Engineering Fair.
  6. Theory about Cell Life: Ebright got the idea for his new theory about cell life. He found out that the cell can ‘read’ the blueprint of its DNA. DNA is the substance in the nucleus of a cell that controls heredity. Thus, DNA is the blueprint of life.
  7. Other Interests: Richard Ebright had time for other interests too. He became a champion debater and public speaker. He became a good canoeist. He also became an expert photographer, particularly of nature and scientific exhibits. He praised his social studies teacher, Mr Weiherer. He had opened Ebright’s mind to new ideas.
  8. Competitive—To be the Best: Richard Ebright was competitive but not in a bad sense. He was not interested in winning for winning’s sake or winning to get a prize. He wanted to be the best. The making of a good scientist was present in Ebright. He had a first-rate mind. He had curiosity. He had the will to win for the right reasons. The book The Travels of Monarch X opened the world of science to him. He had never lost his scientific curiosity.

Main Points of the Story

1. At the age of twenty-two, Richard H Ebright excited the world of science with a new theory on cells.

2. Richard’s scientific career started with butterflies.

3. Ebright collected butterflies when he was in kindergarten.

4. His mother encouraged his interest in learning.

5. She took him on trips and bought telescopes, microscopes, cameras and other equipment.

6. His father died very young and his mother became his only companion and motivator.

7. By the time Richard Ebright was in the second grade, he had collected twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown.

8. His mother gifted him a children’s book called The Travels of Monarch X.

9. The book described how monarch butterflies migrated to Central America and opened the world of science for Richard Ebright.

10. He sent tagged butterflies to Dr Urquhart, the writer of the book.

11. Ebright raised a flock of butterflies in his basement and would tag the butterflies’ wings to send them to Dr Urquhart.

12. In the seventh grade, he entered the County Science Fair and lost.

13. He wrote to Dr Urquhart for new ideas and received many suggestions for experiments.

14. The next year, his science fair project was to test the theory that viceroy butterflies copy monarch butterflies.

15. The project was placed first in the zoology division and third overall in the County Science Fair.

16. In his second year in high school, Richard Ebright discovered an unknown insect hormone.

17. He and his friend showed that tiny gold spots on butterflies produced a hormone that was necessary for the butterfly’s full development.

18. This project won Ebright first place in the county fair and an entry into the International Science and Engineering Fair.

19. He grew cells from a monarch butterfly’s wing in a culture.

20. Ebright was able to identify the hormone’s chemical structure.

21. He showed how the cell can ‘read’ the blueprint of its DNA, the blueprint for life.

22. Richard Ebright graduated from Harvard with highest honours, second in his class of 1, 516.

23. Ebright had time for other interests too.

24. He was a champion debater, a good canoeist, and an expert photographer.

25. Richard Ebright had great admiration for his social studies teacher, Richard A Weiherer who opened his mind to new ideas.

26. Richard Ebright was competitive but not in a bad sense. He wanted to be the best.

27. The Travels of Monarch X opened the world of science to him and he never lost his scientific curiosity after that.

The Making of a Scientist Extra Questions and Answers

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS/ Quiz- The Making of a Scientist

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

  1. Which theory is discovered by Ebright?

(A) how cells work                                     (B) how motion works

(C) how the digestion system works       (D) all of the above

Ans. (A) how cells work

  1. Richard H. Ebright was famous :

(A) singer                                                    (B) scientist

(C) doctor                                                   (D) engineer

Ans. (B) scientist

  1. What did Ebright start collecting in childhood?

(A) butterflies                                             (B) rocks

(C) coins                                                     (D) all of the above

Ans. (D) all of the above

  1. Who encouraged Ebright in his interest in learning?

(A) his mother                                           (B) his father

(C) his brother                                           (D) his teacher

Ans. (A) his mother

  1. Which was Ebright’s home town?

(A) London                                                 (B) Liverpool

(C) Reading                                                (D) Oxford

Ans. (C) Reading

  1. Ebright tried to grow caterpillars in the presence of :

(A) betties                                                   (B) snakes

(C) wasps                                                    (D) all of the above

Ans. (A) betties

  1. According to Ebright what was required for winning a prize in the science fair?

(A) real experiment                                    (B) mere display of things

(C) both (A) and (B)                                    (D) none of the above

Ans. (A) real experiment

  1. Which of the following is a type of butterflies?

(A) viceroy                                                   (B) monarch

(C) both (A) and (B)                                    (D) none of the above

Ans. (C) both (A) and (B)

  1. Which butterflies were not eaten by birds?

(A) viceroy                                                   (B) monarch

 (C) both (A) and (B)                                   (D) none of the above

Ans. (B) monarch

  1. Which book did Ebright’s mother give him to?

(A) Travels of Monarch X                           (B) Travels of Ebright

(C) Travels of Dr Urquhart                         (D) Travels of Viceroy X

Ans. (A) Travels of Monarch X

  1. Ebright took part in county…………… fair.

 (A) handicraft                                             (B) science

(C) cattle                                                      (D) insects

Ans. (B) science

  1. Ebright is an expert………….

(A) scientist                                                 (B) debator

 (C) photographer                                      (D) all of the above

 Ans. (D) all of the above

  1. Ebright graduated from :

(A) Harvard                                                 (B) London

(C) Toronto                                                 (D) Oxford

Ans. (A) Harvard

  1. At what grade did Richard get a hint of what real science is?

(A) fourth grade                                         (B) fifth grade

(C) sixth grade                                            (D) seventh grade

Ans. (D) seventh grade

  1. Who did Richard write for an idea of a real science experiment?

(A) his mother                                            (B) Dr Frederick A. Urquhart

(C) both (A) and (B)                                   (D) none of the above

 Ans. (B) Dr Frederick A. Urquhart

  1. Which of the following is a part of the life cycle of butterflies?

(A) egg                                                        (B) caterpillar

(C) pupa                                                      (D) all of the above

Ans. (D) all of the above

Extract Based / comprehension test  Questions and Answers of The Making of a Scientist

 Read the strafes given below enema and answer the questions that follow:

1. So he wrote to Dr Urquhart for ideas. and back Cattle a stack of suggestions for experiments, The kept Bright busy all lining high school and led to prize projects in the county and inter atonal science taws, tail man ass or, Newt’s response.

 (a) What happened ‘‘ Ebright acted up the ‘ideas”?

(b) Why did Bright wine to Dr Urquhart?

(c)Mat initiated Bright in the field at’ scientific research?

Ans. (a) Dr Urquhart responded with a stack of suggestions for experiments.

(b) Dwight was kept busy all through high school by the ideas and was led to prize projects in the county and international science fairs. 

(c)  He wite for scientific ideas.

(d) Dr A. Urquhart had invited his readers to help him study the migration of monarch butterflies; Bright started tagging the butterflies and thus started his first step in the fields.

2. Eventually, I began to lose interest in tagging butterflies. It’s tedious and there’s not much feedback,’ Bright said. -In all the time I did it,” he laughed, “only two butterflies I had tagged were recaptured-and they were not more than seventy-five miles from where I lived.

(a)’ Why did Bright lose interest?

(b) Explain the phrase. ‘they were not seventy-five miles’.

(c) Who was Richard Bright?

(d) What theory was given by him to the scientific world?

 Ans. (a) Bright lost interest because it was a tedious job with less feedback.

(b) The phrase is used ironically as Ebright had read about the migration of butterflies to central America and here they did not go far beyond seventy-five miles. So they could not migrate to central America.

(c) He was a great scientist.

(d) He gave his new theory about cell life.

3. Ebright has these qualities. From the time the book. The Travels of Monarch X opened the world of science to him. Richard Ebright has never lost his scientific curiosity.

(a) Which qualities does Ebright have?

(b) Who gave him ‘The Travels of Monarch X’?

(c) How did a book become a turning point in Albright’s life?

 (d) How did Ebright come in contact with Dr Urquhart?

Ans. (a) Ebright was competitive with a first-rate m ind, added with curiosity, mixed with the will to win for the right reason.

(b) His mother gave him the book.

(c) Due to the book ‘The Travels of Monarch X’, he could communicate with Dr Urquhart who guided and motivated him to initiate scientific research on butterflies.

 (d) This happened through the book, ‘The Travels of’ Monarch X’.

4. Beginning in kindergarten, Ebright collected butterflies with the same determination that has marked all his activities. He also collected rocks, fossils and coins. He became an eager astronomer, too, sometimes star-gazing all night.

(a) What was Ebright’s lionizing in kindergarten’?

(b) What was Ebright’s approach towards the activity?

(c) What did Ebright like to do as a child?

(d) Do you think Ebright became an eager astronomer too?

Ans. (a) Beginning in kindergarten he used to collect butterflies, rocks.

(b) His approach towards the activity one of determination.

(c) He was interested in lea riling new snide: rocks’ fossils and coins.

(d) Sometimes, he gazed at the stars throughout the night.

5.by the time he was in second grade, Ebright had collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown!’

(a) How many species of butterflies had Ebright collected?

 (b) Who is the person who kept Ebright engaged in learning things?

(c) Who is the speaker talking about?

 (d) How did Ebright’s mother help him?

Ans.  (a) Twenty-five species.

 (b) His mother.

 (c) Richard Ebright

(d) His mother took him on trips, bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, etc. and helped him in many other ways. Every evening both worked together at the dining room table.

6. So the more they look like monarchs, the less likely they are to become a bird’s dinner.

(a) Who are ‘they’ referred to here?

(b) Why are they less likely to become a bird’s dinner?

 (c) What was the objective of Ebright’s science fair project?

(d) Why do you think a visit to a science fair helped.  Richard to become a great scientist?

 Ans. (a) The viceroy butterflies are referred to here.

(b) Viceroy butterflies copy the monarchs, as monarchs apparently do not taste good to birds.

(c) Ebright’s project was to see whether, in fact, birds would eat monarchs.

(d) In the science fair, he realized that to win he should do a real experiment. He resolved to do it next time. This was his initiation to become a great scientist.

Main Characters of the Story- The Making of a Scientist

Character Sketch

1.Richard H Ebright

  • A multifaceted genius; a great scientist, debater, canoeist, etc.
  • Collected butterflies since childhood
  • Worked on monarch butterflies, the cell and its DNA
  • Inspired by his mother, Dr Urquhart and his teacher RA Weiherer

2.Richard H Ebright’s Mother

  • Encouraged and inspired Ebright’s interest in learning
  • Bought him instruments, cameras; his only companions
  • Got him the book The Travels of Monarch X that changed Richard Ebright’s life

3. Dr Urquhart

  • Famous for work on monarch butterflies
  • Taught at University of Toronto, Canada
  • Helped Ebright with new ideas and suggestions

4. Richard A Weiherer

  • Social Studies teacher of Ebright
  • Respected and admired by Ebright
  • Turned Ebright’s energy towards the Debating and Model United Nations clubs.

Short Answer Type Important Questions

Answer the following questions in 30-40 words:

1. Which project did Albright submit in his eighth grade? Why did he win?

 Ans. For his eighth grade project, he tried to find the cause of a viral disease that killed all monarch caterpillars every few years. He thought it all happened because of a hectic and tried raising caterpillars in the presence of beetles but he did not get any results, but he went ahead and showed his experiments and trials arid won a prize.

2.’Richard was the focus of his mother’s attention”. Compose a thesis on this.

Ans. Richard was three years old when he lost his father. Then he became the whole life of hi, mother, Ins mother was his only companion tint he started scout mythic brought home file tithe for in. At night they just did the things together. Ili-, mother encouraged his interest in learning. She took him on trips, bought loin telescopes.  Cameras and their equipment-h that him other ways, It motives ho brought him the book ‘The rave Kit-larch X”. Thus lit let row focus of’ twig tether’ attention.

3. What made in light straight. A grade pit dint in it-hoot?

 Ans. Ebright was tat lampion itchier and pubis types her and good comfits and all around outdoor person. He was an expert photographer of nature and stain tibia exhibit & had won many prizes in science fairs at the county level. He proved a lot of things about met/webs and other butterflies. He had already read the blueprint of DNA. All these made him straights. A grade student in school.

4. Comment on the role of Mr Weathered in Albright’s life,

Or

Who were the important people in Albright’s life? Why

 Ans. Ebright’s mother who encouraged him as a child and Dr Frederick A. Urquhart O. had inspired him to study about butterflies were quite important in Albright’s life, Also, Ridded A Weathered, Albright’s Social Studies teacher opened Albright’s mind to new ideas and praised him for his handwork and indomitable spirit.

5. Why did Ebright lose interest in tagging butterflies?

 Ans. Albright lost interest in tagging butterflies because it was a tedious work that did not provide much feedback.

6. Identify four values which Richard Ebright projected as a man of substance.

 Ans. Ebright was not only a good scientist but also a keen observer. He was good sea champion debater and a public speaker. He was an expert photographer, particularly of woo and scientific exhibits.

7. Which project of Ebright won first prize in the county science fair?

 Ans. Ebright didn’t win anything at his first science fair, thereby realizing that actual experiments alone worked. Later, he started winning prizes. Ebright with his scientist friend first built a device that showed that the tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa were producing a hormone necessary for the butterfly’s full development. This project won the first prize in the county science fair and third prize in zoology in the International science fair.

8. What all hobbies did Albright develop in kindergarten?

Ans. As a child, Ebright had a driving curiosity. He was interested in learning new things. He was good in studies and earned top grades in the class. He also collected rocks, fossils and coins. He became an eager astronomer too.

9. How did Richard’s mother help him to become a scientist?

Or

How did Ebright’s mother help in his learning?

Ans. Ebright had a driving curiosity and a bright brain — essential ingredients for becoming a scientist. His mother encouraged him to learn more. She exposed him to the world around him by taking him to trips, bought him books, telescope, microscope, cameras, mounting materials and other equipment, which helped him in his learning.

10.”Science shows a connection between structure and function.” Show this to be so, for the spots Albright saw on Monarch pupas.           

 Ans. Ebright grew cells from a monarch’s wing to show that cells could divide and develop into a normal butterfly wing scales only if they were fed with the hormones from the gold spots, Later, he identified the chemical structure of the hormone and found how cells can read the blueprints of its DNA.

11. How can Albright’s theory of cell life be a revolution in the medical field if it is proved correct?

Ans. Ebright identified the chemical structure of the gold spot hormone and found so cells can read the blueprint of its DNA. To further test his theory, he began doing experiments’ if it proves correct it will be a big step towards understanding the process of life. It might lead to new ideas for preventing some types of cancer and diseases.

12. What were the factors which contributed to making Ebright a scientist?

Or

 What are the essential qualities for becoming a scientist, according to Albright’s teacher?

 Ans. Sharp brain, d y observant, anal tic mind, driving curiosity, the keen interest in the subject and strong will for the right cause are some of the essentials for the making of a scientist. He should not run after prizes, have a competitive spirit but not in a bad sense.

13. What results are expected if Richard Ebright’s theory is proved correct?

 Ans. If Richard Ebright’s theory proves to be correct, it will be a big step towards understanding the processes of life. It might lead to new ideas for preventing some types of cancer and other diseases.

14. Why did Richard Ebright tag a flock of butterflies?

Or

Why did Richard Ebright start a project of tagging the butterflies?

Ans. Once Ebright’s mother bought him a book .’The Travels of Monarch X’. At the end of the hook, the writer Dr A. Urquhart had invited the readers to help him in the study of butterfly migration by tagging them. So he started tagging the butterflies.

15. Describe Richard Ebright’s childhood.

Or

How did Ebright spend his time in Pennsylvania?

 Ans. Ebright grew up north of Reading, Pennsylvania. He was the only child of his parents. His father died when he was in third grade. As a child, he was good in studies and also collected rocks, fossils and coins.

16. How did the hook become a turning point in Richard Ebright’s life?

Ans.  Once his mother bought the book. ‘The Travels of Monarch X’. At the end of the book, Dr A. Urquhart had invited readers to help him study the migration of monarch butterflies by tagging them. This became a turning point in his life.

17. Mention any two of Ebright’s contributions to the world of science.

Ans. He carried experiments to prove successfully that hormone produced by the gold spots of a pupa is responsible for the growth and formation of butterfly-wings. He also discovered how a cell could read the blueprint of its DNA that controls heredity.

 Q.18. To which field of science has Richard H. Ebright contributed?          [H.B.S.E. March 2017 (Set-A)]

  Ans. Richard H. Ebright is one of the leading scientists. He had been interested in science since his boyhood. He has contributed significantly to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

Q.19. What were the hobbies of Ebright in his childhood?

Ans. Ebright’s hobby was collecting things. Ebright was fascinated by butterflies. He started collecting butterflies in kindergarten. He also collected rocks, fossils and coins. He also became a star-gazer and an eager astronomer.

Q20. How did Ebright’s mother help him in his hunger for learning?

Ans. Ebright’s mother would find work for Richie if he had nothing to do. She found learning tasks for him. He had a great hunger for learning. He earned top grades in school. By the time he was in second grade, he had collected 25 species of butterflies.

Q.21. Which book did Ebright’s mother give him? How did this book change his life?

Ans. One day Ebright’s mother gave him a children’s book. That book was ‘The Travels of Monarch X’. It described how monarch butterflies migrate to Central America. This book fascinated him. This book stimulated his interest in butterflies. He devoted his time to the study of butterflies and won many prizes. In this way, this book changed his life.

Q.22. What did Ebright realize when he started tagging butterflies?

Ans. Ebright started tagging monarch butterflies. He realized that chasing the butterflies one by one won’t enable him to each many. So he decided to raise a flock of butterflies.

Q.23. How did Ebright raise a flock of butterflies?

Ans. Ebright would catch a female monarch and take her eggs. He would raise them in his basement, from egg to caterpillar, to pupa to adult butterfly. Then he would tag the butterflies’ s’ ‘ and let them.

Q.24. Why did Ebright begin to lose interest in tagging butterflies?

Ans. Ebright began to lose interest in tagging butterflies. The reason was that there was no feedback. He was a little disappointed as only two butterflies had been recaptured. And they had been found not more than seventy-five miles from where he lived.

Q.25. What happened with Ebright when he entered a county science fair for the first time?

Ans. He entered a county science fair Ebright for the first time. His entries were slides of frog tissues. But he did not win any prize.

Q.26. What did Ebright realize when he did not win any prize in the county science fair?

Ans. He realised that the winners had tried to do real experiments. So he decided to do further research in his favourite field, that is, insects on which he had already been doing work.

Q.27. What happened when Ebright wrote to Dr Urquhart for ideas?

Ans. Ebright wrote to Dr Urquhart for ideas. In reply, the famous scientist gave him many suggestions for experiments. These experiments kept Ebright busy all through high school. He also won many prizes in the county and international science fairs.

Q.28. Why do the viceroy butterflies imitate the monarch butterflies?

Ans. In one of his science fair projects, he tested the theory that viceroy butterflies imitate monarchs. He reached the conclusion that viceroys look like monarchs because birds do not find monarchs tasty. They like to eat viceroy butterflies. By copying monarchs, the viceroys escape being eaten by birds.

Q.29. Which simple question led to the discovery of an unknown insect hormone?

Ans. In his second year in high school, Ebright’s research led to his discovery of an unknown insect hormone. Indirectly, it led to his new theory on the life of cells. He tried to answer a very simple question: “What is the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa?’

 Q.30. What did Ebright discover about the spots on a monarch butterfly’s pupa?

Ans. Ebright tried to find out that what was the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch butterfly’s pupa. To find the answer Ebright and another student built a device that showed that the spots were producing a hormone. It was necessary for the butterfly’s full development.

Q.31. What idea did Ebright get when he was looking at the X-ray photos of cells?

Ans. One day, Ebright was seeing the X-ray photos of the chemical structure of cells. He got the idea for his new theory about cell life. Those photos provided him with the answer to one of biology’s puzzles: how the cell can ‘read’ the blueprint of its DNA.

Q32. How did Richard Ebright excite the scientific world at the age of twenty-two?

Ans. Richard Ebright was just twenty-two when he ‘excited’ the scientific world with a new theory. It was on how cells worked. Ebright and his college room-mate explained the theory in an article in the ‘Proceedings of the National Academy of Science’. It was the first time that this famous scientific journal had ever published the work of college students.

Q33. “… There was one thing I could do —collect things.” What did Richard Ebright do in his childhood?

Ans. Richard Ebright was the only child. “There wasn’t much could do there. But there was one thing I could do — collect things,” said he. So he did. While still in kindergarten, he started collecting butterflies. By the time he was in the second grade, he had collected all 25 species of butterflies found around his hometown. He also collected rocks, fossils and coins. He sometimes did star-gazing all night.

Q34. “Richie was my whole life after his father died …,” said Richard’s mother. Describe Richard Ebright’s relationship with his mother.

Ans. Richard was in third grade when his father died. He was her mother’s whole life and her only companion until he started school. She and Richard spent almost every evening at the dining table. She found work for him and Richard wanted to learn. His mother encouraged his interest in learning.

Q35.How did Richard Ebright’s mother be a source of inspiration and encouragement in his quest for learning?

Ans. Richard Ebright was fortunate enough to have a highly helping and encouraging mother. She compensated the early loss of his father. She encouraged his interest in learning. She took him on trips, bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, mounting materials and other equipment. She found work for him and helped him in learning things and in many other ways.

Q36. What book opened the world of science to the eager young collector, Richard Ebright?

Ans. Richard Ebright was fond of collecting things. By the time he was in the second grade, he had collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown. But the book that opened the world of science to the eager young collector was The Travels of Monarch X. It was a children’s book gifted to him by his mother. The book described how monarch butterflies migrated to Central America.

Q37. Why and where did Richard Ebright send the tagged butterflies?

Ans. At the end of the book, The Travels of Monarch X, readers were invited to help study monarch butterflies’ migration. They were asked to tag butterflies for research by Dr Urquhart. Soon, Richard Ebright was attaching light adhesive tags to the wings of monarch butterflies. He used to send them to Dr Urquhart for his research work.

Q38. How did Ebright’s basement become home to thousands of monarch butterflies?

Ans. Richard Ebright used to send tagged monarch butterflies to Dr Urquhart for his research work. Chasing butterflies one by one was difficult and he couldn’t catch many. So, he decided to raise some of the butterflies in his basement. He would catch a monarch butterfly, take her eggs and raise them. Then, he would tag the butterflies’ wings and let them go. So, his basement became home to thousands of monarch butterflies.

Q39. When and how did Richard Ebright get a hint of what real science is?

Ans. Richard Ebright was in the seventh grade when he got a hint of what real science was. Actually, he entered a county science fair — and lost. He didn’t get anything while everybody else had won. It was a very sad feeling for young Ebright. His entry was slides of frog tissues. He showed them under a microscope. He realised that the winners had tried to do real experiments. On the other hand, he failed because he simply made a neat display.

Q40.Who was Dr Frederick A Urquhart? Why did Richard Ebright look to him for fresh ideas?

Ans. Dr Frederick A Urquhart was a scientist and teacher at the University of Toronto, Canada. He was doing research on butterfly migrations. Ebright sent him many tagged butterflies for his research work. Richard Ebright looked to him for fresh ideas and suggestions. Dr Urquhart sent many suggestions for experiments which helped Richard Ebright in winning many prizes in County and International Science Fairs.

Q41. Why do viceroy butterflies copy monarch butterflies? What reasons did Richard Ebright give in this regard?

Ans. One of Richard Ebright’s projects was to test the theory that viceroy butterflies copied monarch butterflies. Viceroys looked like monarchs becausemonarchs didn’t taste good to birds. Viceroy butterflies, on the other hand, tasted good to birds. So, they try to copy and look like them to protect themselves from birds.

Q42.Were twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa just ornamental? What did Richard Ebright prove in this regard? What honours did this project bring to Richard Ebright?

Ans. Many thought that the twelve gold spots on a monarch pupa were just ornamental. But Dr Urquhart didn’t believe it. Richard built a device that showed that the spots were producing a very important hormone. That hormone was necessary for the butterfly’s full development.

This project won Ebright first place in the county fair and an entry into the  International Science and Engineering Fair.

Q43. What lesson did Richard Ebright learn when he didn’t win anything at the County Science Fair?

Ans. Richard Ebright was in the seventh grade when he sent his first project in the County Science Fair. Everybody else had won something. But he returned empty-handed. It was really a sad experience for him. But his loss taught him an important lesson in life. He realised that to be a winner he would have to do real experiments. His project of merely showing slides of frog tissues under a microscope didn’t click. He should have done real experiments and that is what real science is all about.

Q44. How did Richard Ebright grow cells from a monarch butterfly’s wing? What did that project win for Ebright?

Ans. Richard Ebright continued his journey farther. He grew cells from a monarch’s wing in a culture. He showed that cells could divide and develop into normal butterfly wing scales. They must be fed from the hormone received from the gold spots. This project won first place of zoology at the International Fair.

Q45. How and where did Richard Ebright identify the hormone’s chemical structure?

Ans. After his freshman year at Harvard University, Ebright went back to the laboratory of the Department of Agriculture. He did more work on the hormones of the gold spots. Using sophisticated instruments there, he was able to identify the hormone’s chemical structure.

Q46. How did Richard Ebright give an answer to one of the biology’s puzzles—how the cell can read the blueprint of its DNA?

Ans. When Richard Ebright saw X-ray photos of the chemical structure of a hormone, he didn’t cry, “Eureka!” He didn’t even say, “I’ve got it!” He was sure that the photos gave him the answer to one of biology’s puzzles. He had found out how the cell could read the blueprint of its DNA. DNA is the substance in the nucleus of a cell that controls heredity. It is the blueprint for life.

Q47.Richard Ebright was a famous scientist but he had time for other interests too. What were the other interests and hobbies of Ebright?

Ans. Richard Ebright’s journey as a scientist started since he first began collecting butterflies. However, he found time for other interests and hobbies too. He became a champion debater and public speaker. He was a good canoeist. He was also an expert photographer. He excelled in photographing nature and scientific exhibits.

Q48.Why did Richard Ebright admire his teacher Richard A Weiherer?

Ans. Richard Ebright had great respect and admiration for his Social Studies teacher. He was Richard’s adviser to the Debating and Model United Nations Clubs. Richard A Weiherer was the perfect person for Ebright who opened his minds to new ideas.

Q49.What was Richard A Weiher’s opinion of his student Richard, Ebright?

Or

How did Richard A Weiherer, the Social Studies teacher of Ebright, judge him?

Ans. Mr Richard A Weiherer was Ebright’s Social Studies teacher and adviser. Richard A. Weiherer described Ebright a man of varied interests. Ebright put in 3 to 4 hours at night doing debate research. Besides, he was doing all his research with butterflies and his other interests. Ebright was competitive and wanted to be the best.

Q50.Did Richard Ebright have all the ingredients that are necessary for the making of a scientist? Give a reasoned answer.

Or

Assess Richard Ebright as a scientist.

Ans. Fortunately, Richard Ebright had all the essential ingredients that are necessary for the making of a great scientist. He had a first-rate mind and always got first grades in schools. At Harvard, he was second in his class of 1510. He had the curiosity of knowing ‘why’ and ‘how’ of things. Last but not least, he was competitive and wanted to be the best. He had the will to win for the right reasons.

Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each

Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:

1.’Success is failure turned inside out’. Prove the above statement with instances from the journey taken by Richard Albright from losing at the science fair to winning at the international fair.                                                                                                                                                 

 Ans. Success is the fruit of failure. It never comes straight but through failure. This can be seen in the life of Richard Albright. Although he earned top grades in school, on everyday things he was just like every other kid. He faced many failures in his life but every failure strengthened his will to succeed. When he was in seventh grade he participated in County Science Fair with his slides of frog tissues. But he could not win a prize. This made him determined to win the prize and in his eighth grade, he again participated in the science fair with the experiment of viral disease in monarch caterpillars and won the prize. The very next Year he participated with his experiment of whether viceroy butterflies copy the monarch butterflies in order to save their life from the birds and this project won Albright, third prize in overall county science fair.

His experiment regarding gold spots of monarch liar which he built a device that showed. That the spots produced hormones necessary for the full development of butterflies won third prize in international science and engineering fair.

Next year his advanced experiments on the monarch pupa won him first place at the international science fair. Thus, for Richard Albright, we can say that success is failure turned inside out.

2. How does Richard Albright become a scientist?

Ans. Richard Ebright had been a curious child even when he was in kindergarten. His curiosity prompted him to collect rocks, fossils, coins and butterflies. His mother’s encouragement and his bright mind also contributed to making him a success. His mother got him all that he needed to develop his scientific bent of mind. His response to Dr Fredrick A. Urquhart to collect butterflies for his research gave him an opportunity in his endeavours. Then in the seventh grade, he got a hint of what real science is when he entered a country science fair and lost. He realized that winners had tried to do real experiments, not simply make a neat display. Thereafter, Ebright worked sincerely on every science project he got every year in school. Then he stood first in a county fair that gave him entry into international science and engineering fair where he won third place. He then went on to win the highest honours and graduated from Harvard. His high school research into the purpose of the spots on a monarch pupa eventually led him to his theory about cell life. Thus he became a renowned scientist.

3.”Richard Ebright was a successful scientist who gave a new theory of cells to the scientific world.” Elucidate.

Ans. Ebright tried experiments on butterflies for a science fair. In his project, in the second year of high school, he tried to explain the purpose of twelve tiny gold spots on a Monarch pupa. He found out that those spots produced a hormone necessary for the full development of a butterfly. He continued with his experiments even after graduation using sophisticated instruments of the university. He discovered the chemical structure of the hormone. He came across his new theory of cell life. It gave an answer to one of the questions — “How a cell can read the blueprint of DNA.

4. Ebright’s backbone was his mother. How did she contribute to his learning? What kind of work did she find for him even at the dining table? What values did Ebright imbibe from his mother?

Or

 Discuss the role of Ebright’s mother in making him a scientist.

 Ans. Ebright’s mother played an important role in making him a scientist. She motivated him to learn new things. She took him on trips, bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, mounting material and other equipment.

Every evening mother and son worked together at the dining table. If Ebright had nothing to do, she would find his work — learning work. He was a keen learner, liked learning and got `A’ grade throughout his schooling. She also bought him a book, `The Travels of Monarch X’, which opened the world of science to him. Ebright’s mother helped him to become a scientist by sustaining his interest in the scientific field.

Q.5. How did Ebright’s mother encourage him to become a scientist?

Ans. Ebright’s mother recognized his curiosity and encouraged him. She took him on trips. She also bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras and other equipment so that he could follow his hobbies. Ebright’s mother was his friend until he started going to school. She would bring home friends to him. Ebright’s mother would find work for him if he had nothing to do. She found learning tasks for him. He had a great hunger for learning. He earned top grades in school. By the time he was in second grade, he had collected 25 species of butterflies. One day his mother other gave him a children’s book. It opened the world of science to Ebright.

Q.6. Which book proved to be a turning point in Ebright’s life?

Ans. One day, Ebright’s mother gave him a book. That book was ‘The Travels of Monarch X’. It described readers were monarch butterflies migrate to Central America. This book fascinated him. At the end of the book, deere invited to help study butterfly migrations. They were asked to tag butterflies for research by Dr Frederick of Toronto University, Canada. Anyone who found a tagged butterfly was asked to send the tag to Dr Frederick. Ebright started tagging monarch, butterflies. The butterfly collecting season around Reading lasts only six weeks in late summer. He realized that chasing the butterflies one by one won’t enable him to catch many. So he decided to raise a flock of butterflies.

Q7. What experiments did Ebright do about monarch butterflies?

Ans. Ebright wrote to Dr Frederick for ideas. In reply, the famous scientist gave him many suggestions for experiments. These experiments kept Ebright busy all through high school. He also won many prizes in the county and international science fairs. Ebright tried to find the cause of a viral disease that killed all monarch caterpillars. He thought the disease might be carried by a beetle. He tried raising caterpillars in the presence of beetles. But he didn’t get any real results. But he showed his experiment in the science fair and won. The next year his science fair project was testing the theory that viceroy butterflies imitate monarchs. By copying monarchs, the viceroys escape being eaten by birds. This project was placed first in the zoology division and third overall in the county science fair.

Q.8. How did Ebright discover an unknown insect hormone?

Ans. In his second year in high school, Ebright’s research led to his discovery of an unknown insect hormone. Indirectly, it led to his new theory on the life of cells. He tried to answer a very simple question. What is the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa? To prove Ebright and one other student built a device that showed that the spots were producing a hormone. It was necessary for the butterfly’s full development. This project won Ebright first place in the county fair and entry into the International Science and Engineering Fair. There he won third place for zoology.

Q.9. How did Ebright get the idea for his new theory about cell life? How can this theory be beneficial?

Ans. One day, Ebright was seeing the X-ray photos of the chemical structure of cells. He got the idea for his new theory about cell life. Those photos provided him with the answer to one of biology’s puzzles: how the cell can ‘read’ the blueprint of its DNA. DNA is the substance in the nucleus of a cell that controls heredity. It is the blueprint for life. Ebright and his college room-mate James R. Wong drew pictures and constructed plastic models of molecules to show how it could happen. At the Harvard Medical School, Ebright began experimenting to test his theory. If the theory proves correct, it will be a big step towards understanding life processes. It might also lead to new ideas for preventing some types of cancer and other diseases.

Q10. Give a character sketch of Richard Ebright highlighting his achievements and his added interests.

Ans. Richard H Ebright was a many-faceted genius. He was a competent scientist, a lovable son, a respecting pupil and above all, a man with varied interests and hobbies. But first and foremost, he was a scientist. His fame rests on his wonderful works and achievement on butterflies. By the time he was in the second grade, Ebright collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around in his hometown. Ebright was a great learner. He learnt an important lesson at his first county science fair. He learnt that winners do real experiments than making a neat display. The book, Travels of Monarch X

opened the world of science to the eager young collector. One of his famous projects was based on the theory that viceroy butterflies copied monarch butterflies to escape being eaten by birds. This project was placed first in the zoology division. Later, Ebright showed that the spots on a monarch pupa produced a hormone necessary for the butterfly’s development. He also proved that DNA controls heredity and is the blueprint for life.

Richard Ebright got all his encouragement, help and inspiration from his mother. He was her only companion and they spent almost every evening at the dining table. She encouraged his interest in learning. She bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras and other instruments for him. Dr Urquhart helped him with new suggestions and ideas. His Social Studies teacher, Richard A Weiherer, opened his mind to new ideas and made him competitive.

Richard Ebright was more than a scientist. He found time for other interests and hobbies. He was a champion debater and public speaker. He was a good canoeist and an expert photographer. He had a first-rate mind, competitive spirit and scientific curiosity.

Q11. Describe Richard Ebright’s various achievements in science, particularly his great work on the monarch butterflies. Who did Ebright look to for getting fresh ideas and suggestions?

Ans. Richard Ebright had all the necessary ingredients that are required in the making of a scientist. He had a first-rate mind, was competitive and had the will to win. Above all, he was a great collector and never lost his scientific curiosity. His scientific journey started very early. While he was still in the second grade, he had collected all the species of butterflies found around his hometown. The Travels of Monarch X was the book that changed his life. It opened the world of science to the eager collector. His failure at his first county science fair taught him an important lesson. He learnt that winners do real experiments. One of the most important projects of Richard Ebright was to prove that viceroy butterflies try to look like monarch butterflies. They do so to avoid being eaten by birds. Ebright also proved that twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa produced a hormone that was necessary for the butterfly’s full development. His other project won first place for zoology at the International Fair. It showed that if cells are fed the hormone from the gold spots, they can develop into normal butterfly wing scales. The crowning achievement of Ebright’s brilliant scientific career was his work on the chemical structure of a hormone. He proved that a cell can read the blueprint of its DNA and thus DNA controls heredity and is the blueprint for life.

Richard Ebright looked to Dr Urquhat for fresh ideas and suggestions. The book, The Travels of Monarch X, opened the world of science to him. He sent tagged butterflies to Dr Urquhart for his research works. Dr Urquhart’s new ideas and suggestions helped Ebright to achieve prizes and honours in the county and International Science Fairs.

Q12. How did The Travels of Monarch X open the world of science to Richard Ebright? Elaborate.

Ans. It is absolutely true that the book called The Travels of Monarch X changed the very course of Ebright’s life. That book told how monarch butterflies migrated to Central America. Richard Ebright was a passionate and eager collector. By the time he was in the second grade, he had collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown. Had he not got The Travels of MonarchX, Richard Ebright’s butterfly collecting would have ended. The book was a children’s book and was gifted to him by his mother. At the end of the book, readers were invited to help study butterfly migrations. They were asked to tag butterflies for research to Dr Urquhart. Soon, Ebright started sending tagged butterflies to Dr Urquhart of the University of Toronto, Canada. Then, Ebright started raising a flock of butterflies in his basement. For several years his basement was home to thousands of monarch butterflies in different stages of development.

Dr Urquhart had a dominating influence on Richard Ebright’s life. He made him do elaborate experiments on monarch butterflies. Ebright succeeded in proving that viceroy butterflies copy monarch butterflies to avoid being eaten by birds. He also showed how DNA controls heredity and is the blueprint for life.

Q13. Describe the contribution of his mother in Richard Ebright’s life. What role did she play in making Ebright a scientist?

Ans. They say that behind the success of a man stands a woman. And in Richard Ebright’s success as a scientist and also as a man, solidly stood his mother. Richard Ebright’s father had died when he was just in the third grade. “Richie was my life after his father died …,” said his mother. He was her only companion and they spent almost every evening at the dining table. Ebright’s mother encouraged his interest in learning. She knew that her son had a driving curiosity along with a bright mind. She took him on trips, bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, mounting materials and other equipment. She helped Ebright in many ways. She was an important link between Dr Urquhart and her son. She wrote to Dr Urquhart and after her advice, Ebright sent tagged butterflies to him in Canada. She knew that her son had a passion for collecting things. By the time he was in the second grade, Ebright had collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown. His interest in his butterfly collecting would have ended had she not got him a children’s book called The Travels of Monarch X. That book told how monarch butterflies migrated to Central America. It opened the world of science to the eager collector.

Q14. How did Richard Ebright’s not winning anything at his first County Science Fair motivate him to become a great scientist? What lessons did he learn from his failure there?

Ans. Richard Ebright had started the work of butterflies and insects from a very early age. His main work was based on butterflies, particularly monarch butterflies. By the time he was in the second grade, he had collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown. But he learnt the lesson of his life when he was in the seventh grade. He got a hint of what real science was. He entered the County Science Fair with a project. His project was slides of frog tissues, which he showed under a microscope. In the fair, he failed miserably. He didn’t get anything while everybody else had won something. It was really a very sad feeling for him. From his first county science fair, Ebright came to know what real science was. He also learnt a lesson of knowing what made a winner. He realised his mistakes. He had only made a neat display of frog tissues under a microscope. He realised that winners had tried real experiments.

 From then onwards, he looked to Dr Urquhart for new ideas and suggestions. Dr Urquhart gave him a number of suggestions for experiments. Continuous research and experimentations won him great honours and prizes locally as well as internationally.

Q15.What other interests, besides science did Richard Ebright pursue? Why did Ebright respect and praise his Social Studies teacher so much?

Ans.No doubt, first and foremost, Richard Ebright was a scientist. He was interested in science, he first began to collect butterflies. But this scientist found time for other interests too. He was a man of many parts — a multifaceted genius. Not only did he collect butterflies but also took a deep interest in other activities. He collected rocks, fossils, and coins. He became an eager astronomer. He would indulge in star-gazing sometimes all night. Ebright also became a champion debater and public speaker. In this field, his Social Studies teacher turned Ebright’s tremendous energy towards the Debating and Model United Nations Clubs. He was a good canoeist and all-around outdoors-person. He was also an expert photographer. He excelled in nature and scientific exhibits. In brief, besides being a remarkable scientist, Richard Ebright enjoyed all pleasures, adventures, hobbies and entertainments that a happy and civilised living provided to him.

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