Class-10 Ch-5 The Age of Industrialization- Extra Questions and Notes

By | December 11, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

History 

Chapter- 5 The Age of Industrialization,

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the text.

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Explain any three effects of industrialization on agriculture in the 18th century.

Ans. (1) Due to industrialization merchants from the towns began moving to the countryside which affected agriculture in the 18th century.

 (2) In the countryside, peasants and artisans began working for merchants.

 (3) By working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots which supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. it also allowed them to fuller use of their family labour resources.

2. What is `proto-industrialization’? Write the most dynamic industries in Britain in the first phase of industrialization.

Ans. (1) Proto-industrialization was the early phase of industrialization in Europe and England when there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories.

(2) The most dynamic industries in Britain were clearly cotton and metals.

 (3) Growing at a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialization up to the 1840s.

3. What were the crafts and trade guilds? List their functions.

Ans. (1) Crafts and trade guilds were the associations of producers that trained craftspeople. These were very powerful.

(2) Following were the functions of crafts and trade guilds: (I) They maintained control over production.

(ii) They restricted the entry of new people into the trade.

(iii) They regulated competition among traders and prices also.

4. What were guilds? How did they make it difficult for new merchants to set business in towns of England? Explain.

 Ans. (1) Guilds were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.

(2) (I) Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.

(ii) It was, therefore, difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns, so they turned to the countryside.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Why did the merchants from the towns in Europe move to the countryside during the 17th and 18th century?

Ans. (1) This was for supplying money to peasants and artisans persuading them to produce for an international market.

(2) With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the ‘ world, the demand for goods began growing. But merchants could not expand production ‘ within towns because urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful.

 (3) These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices and restricted the entry of new people into the trade. (4) It was difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns so, they turned to the countryside as the rulers had granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.

(5) Therefore, in the countryside, poor peasants and artisans had begun working happily for new merchants.

2. Highlight any three benefits of industrialization on the society

 Ans. (1) Industrialization in the 18th century had a big effect on society both in urban and rural areas.

(2) In the countryside cottagers and commons who depended on common and for their survival had now started working for the merchants.

(3) This enhanced their income which made their life better.

(4) Industrialization also caused population migration from rural areas to urban areas as factory emerged around towns.

(5) Industrialization greatly impacted old class structure. Now a new class, the working and middle class or bourgeoisie had emerged. It had created Modern Western Society.

3. Highlight any three features of the Industrial Revolution.                       

Ans. (1) The main characteristic features of industrialization include the application of scientific methods to solve production problems and increasing production.

 (2) Mechanization and division of labour, the growth of the economy, the mobility of the labour, fall in birth rate and rise in Per Capita Income were other features of industrialization.

(3) Industrialization was the period of social and economic change that transformed a group from an agrarian society into an industrial one involving the extensive reorganization of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

4. Which inventions helped the cotton textile industry to adopt the factory system Explain?

Ans. (1) In the eighteenth century, many inventions helped the manufactures to adopt factory system.

 (2) Flying shuttle improved the process of hand weaving looms with mechanized and automatic machine looms.

(3) The Spinning Jenny was a multi-spinal spinning frame which revolutionized the cotton spinning. It enabled workers to produce more yarn in a shorter amount of time.

(4) Power loom was a mechanized loom powered by a line shaft and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving.

 (5) A very important invention in the industry of textile was spinning frame. It was the first powered automatic and continuous textile machine. It enabled to move away from small home manufacturing towards factory production. All these machines required a centralized place therefore, factory system started taking place for fast production.

5. Explain the position of women in Britain in the 19th century.  

Ans. (1) During the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution had transformed the life of I women in Britain.

(2) For working-class women, life was an endless round of hard works and drudgery. As soon as they were old enough they worked in farms and in factories.

(3) In the 19th century, most working-class girls got some education.

(4) Lower class women could be servants, domestic help, factory workers, prostitutes etc. Middle and upper middle women were supposed to stay at home and look after the family.

 (5) Women were entirely shut out of political activities. They were hardly allowed to vote.

6. Explain the process of industrialization in Britain during the 19th century.

Ans. The main causes of the industrial revolution in England were as follows :

(1) A series of inventions in the 18th century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process and paved the way for industrialization in England.

(2) There had been enormous expansion in overseas trade of Britain. This was one of the major causes of technological revolution. With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing.

(3) The vast amount of capital which England had accumulated out of profits of her growing trade enabled her to make large expenditure on machinery and buildings. This led to new technological developments.

 (4) The geographical location of England greatly helped in the industrial revolution. It had extensive coastlines and many navigable rivers when water was the easiest means of transportation.

(5) The availability of coal and iron ores in large quantities greatly helped the growth of numerous industries in England.

7. Why were merchants not able to expand production within the towns of England? Explain any three reasons.

Or

 Why was it so difficult for merchants to set-up business in towns that they had to turn up to the countryside in 17th and 18th centuries in Europe?                   

Ans. (1) Due to an expansion of world trade, the merchants wanted to expand their production. But trade and craft guilds were very powerful.

(2) They could create many problems for the merchants in their town.

(3) Rulers had granted monopoly rights to different guilds to produce and trade in specific products. So, merchants were handicapped in towns.

 (4) In the countryside, peasants and artisans were available for work.

 (5) Craft guilds were very powerful. They maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.

8. Briefly explain the method and system of production in the countryside in England.

Or

 How did the factory production begin in England?

Ans. (1) In the 17th and 18th centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.

(2) Merchants could not expand production within towns because urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. So, they turned to the countryside.

(3) In the countryside, poor peasants and artisans began working for merchants. Cottagers and poor peasants who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering firewood, berries, vegetables, etc., had to now look for alternative sources of income.

(4) By working for the merchants, they remained in the countryside and continued to cultivate their small plots. It allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.

(5) Within this system, a close relationship developed between the town and the countryside. Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the countryside.

9. Explain the five causes of the industrial revolution in England.

Or

 Why did the industrial revolution begin in England in the latter half of the 18th century? Explain any three reasons.                                                                                                         

Ans:-The five causes for the Industrial Revolution in England are as under:

  1. The huge amount of capital available with the European opened avenues for further investment in technology and hence the Industrial revolution came about.
  2. The overseas trade of Great Britain was rising with time and this forced them to innovate their technology for large-scale production.
  3. Science was continuously witnessing large-scale research and innovations. The need to give practical shape to these research was felt.
  4. With the rising production, the need was felt to enhance the market. With this expanding market, the available technology would not compete.
  5. The most important raw material needed for industrial production like coal and iron were readily available. This facilitated the process of the Industrial Revolution.

10. How did the close relationship develop between the town and the countryside during the 19th century?                                                                                           

Ans. (1) Cloth merchants purchased wool from a wool stapler and carried it to the spinners.

 (2) The yarn (thread) that was spun, was taken in the subsequent stage of production to weavers, fullers and then to dyers.

 (3) The finishing was done in London before the export merchant sold the cloth in the international market.

11. Describe any five major problems faced by new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns before the industrial revolution.

Ans:- (i) Due to the expansion of world trade, the merchants wanted to expand their production. But hade and craft guilds were very powerful.
(ii) They could create money problems for the merchants in their town
(iii) Rulers had granted different guilds and the monopoly rights to produce and trade in specific products. So merchants were handicapped in towns.
(iv) Guilds regulated competition and prices.
(v) In the countryside, peasants and artisans were available for work.                                                    

12. What was proto-industrialization? Why did the poor peasants and artisans in the countryside begin to work for the merchants from the towns?  

Or

 “In the eighteenth century Europe, the peasants and artisans in the countryside readily agreed to work for the merchants.” Explain any three reasons.

Or

What is meant by proto-industrialization? How did it affect the rural peasants and artisans?

Or

How did the poor peasants and artisans benefit during the proto-industrialization phase?

Or

Why did poor peasants and artisans living in the countryside agree to work for merchants in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Europe? Explain the reasons.                    

Ans. (1) Proto-industrialization: It was the phase of industrialization before the Industrial Revolution, where there was large-scale industrial production for an international market which was not factory based.

 (2) Poor peasants and artisans began working for merchants because:

(i) Open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed.

(ii) Tiny plots of land did not provide enough for the family.

(iii) By working for merchants, peasants could remain in the countryside and cultivate their land.

 (iv) Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their incomes from cultivation.

 (v) The family labour resources could be fully used.

13. What is meant by proto-industrialization? Why was it successful in the countryside in England in the 17th century?                              

Or

What was ‘proto-industrialization’? Explain the importance of proto-industrialization.

Ana. (1) Proto-industrialization was the early phase of industrialization in Europe and England when there was large-scale industrial production for the international market. This was not based on factories.

(2) (I) The peasants had been shut-out of village commons due to enclosure movement.

 (ii) They now looked for alternative sources of income. When merchants offered an advance to produce goods for them, peasant households readily agreed. They could continue to cultivate their small plots and supplement their shrinking income from cultivation.

14. Why do historians agree that the typical workers in the mid-nineteenth century were not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer?

Or

 “Historians now have come to increasingly recognize that the typical worker in the mid-nineteenth century was not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer.” Analyze the statement.                                                                                                                         

Or

`The typical worker in the mid-19th century was not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer.’ Support the statement with examples.                            

 Ans. (1) The demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes. For example, in Britain 500 varieties of hammers were produced and 45 kinds of axes. These required human skills; not mechanical technology.

(2) The aristocrats and the bourgeoisie preferred things produced by hand. Hand-made products came to symbolize refinement and class.

 (3) Hand-made products were better finished, individually produced, and carefully designed.

15.”The modern industrialization could not marginalize the traditional industries in England.” Justify the statement with any four suitable arguments.

Or

 Why was it not easy to displace traditional industries by the new industries even at the end of the nineteenth century in Britain? Explain.                                                 

Ans. (1) The modern industrialization could not marginalize the traditional industries in England. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, less than 20 per cent of the total workforce was employed in technologically advanced industrial sectors.

(2) Textile was a dynamic sector, but a large portion of the output was produced not within factories, but outside, within domestic units.

 (3) Seemingly ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth in many non-mechanized sectors such as food processing, building, pottery, glasswork, tanning, furniture making, and production of implements.

(4) New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about using it. The machines often broke down and repair was costly.

(5) They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.

HAND LABOUR AND STEAM POWER

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Why did Indian businessmen avoid competing with Manchester goods in the Indian markets? Explain the reasons.

 Ans. Indian businessmen avoided competing with Manchester goods for many reasons.

(1)Due to industrialization in Britain, the British traders started exporting machine made clothes and other items in India.

 (2) Those goods were cheap and abundant. The European countries gradually gained power.

(3) Indian manufacturer produced coarse cotton yarn in comparison to milling made clothes of Britain.

(4) The British monopolized and controlled a large sector of Indian industries.

(5) They made all the decisions in their favour, therefore, Indian businessmen did not try to compete with Manchester goods.

2. Describe any three problems faced by the Indian cotton weavers in the 19th century.

Ans. By the turn of 19th-century cotton weavers faced many problems:

(1) The export market collapsed and the local market shrank due to mill-made clothes imported from Britain.

 (2) They could not get a sufficient supply of good quality raw cotton to weave clothes.

 (3) By the end of the 19th century, factories were set up in India. These two started flooding the market with machine-made goods that made Indian weavers cloths market small. The demand shrank that resulted in creating losses to the Indian weavers.

3. Explain with examples that the demand for labourers was seasonal in many industries in Victorian Britain.

 Ans. (1) In Victorian Britain, the demand for labourers was seasonal in many industries which resulted in prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again.

(2) Some returned to the countryside after the winter when the demand for labour in the rural I areas opened up in places.

(3) Many looked for odd jobs, which till the mid-nineteenth century were difficult to find.

(4) For example, Gasworks and breweries were especially busy through the cold months. So they needed more workers to meet their peak demand. Once the winter season was over, the extra employed labour was workless.

 (5) Book-binders and printers, catering to Christmas demand, too needed extra hands before December. In all such industries production fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour employing workers for the season.

4. Who improved and patented the steam engine in 1781? Describe the four processes of industrialization during the nineteenth century                                

Ans. (1) James Watt improved the steam engine produced by Newcomer and patented the new engine in 1781.

 (2) The process of industrialization in Britain started due to many inventions in the 18th century which increased the efficiency in the production. It resulted in a revolution in an industry in Britain.

 (3) There had been enormous expansion in overseas trade of Britain. This was the major cause of technological revolution with the expansion of world trade and the growing trade enabled her to make large expenditure on machinery and buildings. This led to new technological developments.

(4) The geographical location of England greatly helped in the industrial revolution. It had extensive coastlines and many navigable rivers which were the easiest means of transportation.

 (5) The amount of capital accumulated by Britain from overseas business and the availability of coal and iron ores in large quantities greatly helped in the process of industrialization.

5. Why was there a demand for human labour in England in Victorian Britain? Explain

Ans. (1) In Victorian Britain, there was no shortage of human labour. So, industrialists had no problem of labour shortage or high wages.

(2) The upper classes, the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie preferred things produced by hand. Hand-made products came to symbolize refinement and class.

(3) New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about using it. The machines often broke down and repair was costly.

6. Why could mechanical technology not replace human labour in Victorian Britain? Give five reasons.                                

Or

Why were the British industrialists not keen to introduce modern machinery in the nineteenth century? Explain any five reasons.                                                                 

 Ans. (1) In Victorian Britain, there was no shortage of human labour. So, industrialists had no problem of labour shortage or high wage costs.

(2) New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about using it. The machines often broke down and repair was costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.

(3) In all such industries where production fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers for the season.

(4) A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to produce uniforms, standardized goods for a mass market. But, the demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes.

(5) Aristocrats preferred things made by hand.

7. How did job-seekers spend their nights in Britain? Explain with examples.

Ans. Job-seekers spent their nights in Britain in the following ways:

(1) They spent their night under bridges or in night-shelters.

 (2) Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals.

(3) Some job-seekers stayed to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authorities. They also stayed in a workhouse.

8. Why did the workers destroy Spinning Jenny? Explain with facts.

Or

Why did the workers in Britain attack the Spinning Jenny? Explain three reasons.  

Ans. Workers destroyed Spinning Jenny because:

(1) Most of the workers had got employment in the textile industries. Many women workers depended on hand spinning jobs for their livelihood.

(2) The introduction of Spinning Jenny, not only produced a large number of goods but also saved time. So, industrialists started using this machine.

(3) This led to an increase in unemployment. Therefore, many workers attacked the Spinning Jenny.

9. How were the lives of workers negatively affected due to an abundance of the labour? Explain.

Or

 How did the abundance of labour in the market affect the lives of the workers in the nineteenth century, Europe? Explain with examples.                               

Or

 Describe the condition of the workers in the nineteenth century in England.

Or

 Explain the life of workers in England in the 20th century.                

 Ans. (1) The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers adversely. Notably, when there is plenty of labour, wages are low.

 (2) The actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing networks of friendship and kin relations.

(3) Many job-seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or in night shelters.

(4) Seasonal nature of work in many industries meant prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again. Most of the workers looked for odd jobs during the offseason.

 (5) Although wages increased somewhat in the early 19th century, they tell us little about the welfare of the workers. When prices rose sharply during the prolonged Napoleonic war, the real value of what the workers earned fell significantly. The same wages could now buy fewer things. The income of workers depended not only on the wage rate but the period of employment also.

10. Why did some industrialists of Europe in the 19th century prefer hand labour to the machine?

Or

Why did industrialists not want to get rid of hand labour once machines were introduced?

Or

 Why did the industrialists of Europe prefer hand labour over machines during the 19th century? Explain any five reasons.

 Ans. Industrialists in the 19th century Europe preferred hand labour to machine because :

 (1) Industrialists had no problem of labour shortage or high wage costs.

(2) In many industries, the demand for labour was seasonal. Gasworks and breweries were especially busy through cold months. So, they needed more workers to meet their peak demand.

(3) Book-binders and printers, catering to Christmas demand, too needed extra hands before December. All those industries where production fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour by employing workers for the season.

(4) A range of products could be produced only with hand labour.

(5) In Victorian Britain, the upper classes — the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie —preferred things produced by hand. Hand-made products came to symbolize refinement and class.

11. Why in Victorian Britain, the upper classes preferred things produced by hand? Give four reasons.

Or

 “The upper classes, during the Victorian period preferred things produced by hands.” Explain any three reasons.                                                                

Or

Why were hand-made products preferred in Victorian Britain? Explain any three reasons.

Or

Why did the upper classes prefer things produced by hand in Victorian Britain? Explain.

Ans. In the Victorian period, the upper classes preferred things produced by hand because :

(1) Hand-made products came to symbolize refinement and class.

(2) They were better finished.

(3) They were individually produced.

(4) They were carefully designed.

 (5) Machine-made goods were for export to the colonies.

INDUSTRIALISATION IN THE COLONIES

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Describe any three conditions that were favourable for the continuing growth of industries in 18th century India.

 Ans. (1) Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cotton was produced in many countries, but the finer varieties often came from India.

(2)A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports.

 (3) A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade-financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters.

2. Name the sea routes that connected India with Asian countries.              

 Ans. (1) A vibrant sea trade operated through the main colonial ports.

 (2) Seurat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and the Red Sea Ports:

(3) Masulipatam on the Coromandel Coast and Hooghly in Bengal had trade links with South-east Asian Ports.

3. Why did Seurat lose its importance as a port in the eighteenth century? Explain.

Ans. (1) In the 17th century, supply merchants linked the port towns to inland regions for enhancing the trade with other countries. But by the 1750s this network started breaking down.

 (2) Exports from the port of Seurat declined because the European companies gradually gained power—first securing a variety of concessions from local courts then the monopoly rights to trade.

(3) In the last years of the seventeenth century, the gross value of trade that passed through Seurat had been 16 million. By the 1740s, it had slumped to 3 million.

4. Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. How this situation had entirely changed during colonization?

Ans. (1) As the cotton industry developed in England the industrial groups pressurized the government to impose import duties so that their goods can be sold without any competition from outside. This affected Indian textiles as India was the largest exporter to England.

(2) Secondly, East India Company flooded the Indian market with British goods which hit Indian textile hard.

(3) There was a great scarcity of good quality raw cotton as these were exported to England. Indian textiles began to decline because weavers were unable to pay the high price.

5. With the Industrial Revolution, the machine-made goods became cheaper and weavers could not compete with them.’ Justify the statement with relevant reasons.

Ans. (1) British imposed import duties on cotton textiles thus, the cotton export market declined.

(2) The machine-made goods were cheaper and weavers could not compete with them because they had only manual work which was not sufficient to produce goods on the large scale.

(3) Exports of British goods to India increased. Manchester goods flooded Indian markets. Foreign goods became popular in India because English men were in power, they promoted Manchester’s goods.

6.”The old ports of Seurat and Hooghly declined by the end of the 18th century”. Why? Explain any three reasons.

Or

Explain any three factors responsible for the decline of the Seurat and Hooghly ports of India.

Ans. (1) As European companies were gaining power, they had secured monopoly rights to trade.

(2) Local bankers were slowly going bankrupt.

(3) The credit that had financed the earlier trade, began drying up.

7. Why did the Indian textile industry decline by the end of the 19th century? Explain any three reasons. Me

Or

 Explain any three factors responsible for the decline of Indian textile industry by the end of the 19th century.                                                                      

Or

 Explain any three factors responsible for the decline of the cotton textile industry in India in the mid-nineteenth century.                                                               

Or

What led to the decline of textile exports from India in the 19th century? Explain in three points                                                                                               

Ans:-Three reasons for the decline of Indian textile industries by the end of the 19th century are as follows:

1) after the industrial revolution Britain started producing machine-made textiles which were often of better quality and cheaper than Indian textiles

2) textiles from India had high demands in Europe. So, the British passed strict laws and banned the import of textiles in Britain.

3) Also, India had no support from the colonial British government.

LONG ANSWERS

1. Explain any three major problems faced by the Indian merchants and industrialists in the 18th century.                                

 Ans. Indian merchants and industrialists had to face many problems in the 18th century because of the following reasons:

(1) European managing agencies dominated industrial production in India. They were interested only in the production of Tea Coffee, plantation, mining, indigo and jute for export which had a very small domestic market. Not very profitable for Indian growers.

(2) The British disallowed Indian merchants to trade with Europe in manufactured goods. They were allowed to export raw materials and food grains which marginalized profits.

(3) The British Merchants-industrialists had their exclusive chambers of commerce. Indian merchants were not allowed to be the members. With the entry of modern ships, Indian merchants were edged out of the shipping business.

2. “The colonial control over the Indian merchants tightened after the end of the eighteenth century. Explain the statement.  

Ans. (1) After the end of the eighteenth century, the Indian merchants business was virtually dominated by colonial rulers. The network of export trade in textiles controlled by the Indian merchants broke down by 1750.

(2) European trading companies gained power. First, they acquired trading concessions from local rulers, then monopoly rights to trade.

(3) This resulted in the decline of the old ports of Seurat and Hooghly. Exports from these old Ports fell dramatically and local bankers slowly went bankrupt.

3. How did the colonial control over trade affect the position of Indian merchants? Explain.

Ans. The problems faced by Indian cotton weavers continued. They were as follows:

(1) Their export market collapsed due to the increase in import duties on them in England.

 (2) Their local market shrank as they were flooded with cheap Manchester imports.

(3) They could not get a sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.

 (4) When the American civil war broke out and cotton sill: plies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India. Indian weavers were forced to buy cotton at very high prices.

(5) By the end of the 19th century, factories in India began production and flooded the market with machine goods. This created the problem of survival for weaving industries.

4. The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.’ Comment.

Or

 Why did the East India Company appoint gomasthas ? Give three reasons.

Ans. (1) The East India Company appointed a paid servant, called gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.

(2) Those weavers who took loans, had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha.

(3) The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers.

(4) The new gomasthas were outsiders. They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with espy and peons, and punish weavers for delays in supply.

 (5) There were clashes between weavers and gomasthas in many weaving villages.

5. Why did the network of export trade in textiles controlled by the Indian merchants break down by the 1750s? Mention any two effects of such a breakdown?

 Ans. (1) The network of export trade in textiles controlled by the Indian merchants broke down by the 1750s for the following reasons:

(i)European trading companies gained power. First, they acquired trading concessions from local rulers, then monopolized rights to trade.

(ii) This resulted in the decline of the old ports of Seurat and Hooghly.

(iii) Exports from the old ports fell dramatically and local bankers slowly went bankrupt.

(2)Impacts : (I) Weavers devoted entire time to weaving. They were forced to accept the prices fixed by the company.

(ii) There were reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. The new gomasthas were outsiders. They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with spays and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply. The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers.

 (iii) Weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relations.

6. Why was East India Company keen on expanding textile exports from India during 1760? Explain any three reasons.

Ans. (1) Consolidation of the East India Company’s power after the 1760s did not initially lead to a decline in textile export from India.

 (2) British cotton industries had not yet expanded.

 (3) Fine Indian textiles were in great demand in Europe.

7. What problems were faced by the Indian cotton weavers in the 19th century? Describe.

Or

State any three problems faced by the cotton weavers of India.

Or

 Explain new problem faced by the weavers in 1860s.

Or

Highlight any three major problems of Indians weavers in the 18th century.

Ans:- The problems faced by the cotton weavers in India during the mid 19th century are as follows:

♦ A long decline of textile exports from India The local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports.

♦ Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.

♦ Weaving regions of India narrated stories of decline and desolation.

♦ They could not get a sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.

8. What steps were taken by the East India Company to control the market of cotton and silk goods? What was its impact?

Or

What did English East India Company do to ensure regular supply of cotton and silk during the 18th century? Explain.                                                                                                        

Ans. (1) (I)  The East India Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and appointed ‘gomasthas‘ as supervisors.

 (ii) The system of advances was introduced to have a direct control over the weavers.

(2)Impacts: (I) Weavers devoted entire time to weaving.

(ii) They were forced to accept the prices fixed by the company.

 (iii) There were reports of clashes with gomasthas because the new gomasthas were outsiders, they acted arrogantly, marched into villages with espy and peons and punished weavers for delays in supply.

9.What role did the Indian merchants play in the growth of textile industries before 1750? Explain any three points.                              

Ans. (1) Before 1750, India dominated the international market in textiles. A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports.

 (2) A variety of merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade-financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters.

(3) Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions.

 (4) They gave advances to the weavers, procured the woven cloth from weaving villages, and carried the supply to the ports.

(5) At the port, the big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

10. Describe any four impacts of Manchester imports on the cotton weavers of India.

Or

 Explain any three major problems faced by Indian weavers when Manchester came to India in the 19th century.                                                                        

Or

 Analyze the results of the import of Manchester cloth to India during the 18th century.

Ans. (1) Their export market collapsed and the local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports.

(2) Cotton goods were produced by machines at lower costs in England. So, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.

(3) They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality because the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off.

 (4) Britain had to turn to India.

(5) As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices.

11. How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian we avers?

Or

 How did East Indian Company procure the regular supply of cotton and silk goods?

Or

 What did English East India Company do to ensure regular supply of cotton and silk during the 18th century? Explain.                                                                  

 Ans. (1) The East India Company had to face obstacles to procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers.

(2) The French, Dutch, Portuguese, as well as the local traders, competed in the market. However, the East India Company established political power and asserted monopoly right to trade.

 (3) The company tried to eliminate existing traders and have direct control over the weaver and appointed a paid servant called gomastha to supervise and collect supplies.

(4) It prevented company weavers from dealing with other buyers. One way of doing was through the system of advances.

 (5) Those weavers who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. They could not take it to any other trader.

12. The establishment of political power by the East India Company resulted in the ruination of the Indian weavers.” Support the statement with suitable examples.

Or

Explain the three major steps taken by the East India Company to develop a system of management and control to assert a monopoly over the right to trade.                           

Or

 How did the colonial economic policies affect the weaving industry in India between the 18th and 19th century? Explain.                                                                                                 

 Ans. (1) After gaining power, the British East India Company asserted a monopoly right to trade. It developed a system that would eliminate competition, control cost and ensure regular supply of cotton and silk goods. These measures ultimately led to the ruination of Indian weavers.

(2) The measures adopted were as follows :

(I) The company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with cloth trade and establish a direct control over the weavers.

 (ii) It appointed a paid servant called gomastha‘ to supervise the weavers, collect supplied and examine the quality of cloth.

(iii) The company weavers were prevented from selling to other buyers. The weavers wish tied to the company by a system of advances. Loans were given to the weavers for proud cited and they had to hand over the finished products to the gomasthas.

 (iv) The price that the weavers received was low, but they had no choice but to sell after goods to the British because the loans tied them to the British.

(v) This was a situation of helplessness and desperation that made them to revolt again* the British or migrate to other places and become agricultural labour.

FACTORIES COME UP

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Highlight any three advantages of cotton mills that turned up in the early 19th century in India.

Ans. In the 19th century, many ways: (1) Cotton mills provided employment to a large number of people as the production was enhanced for the purpose of export.

(2) The export of Indian textile brought the Indian textile industry in the limelight as the quality was appreciated worldwide.

(3) They fueled the fire of nationalism and replaced colonial competition during World War-I.

2. How did industries develop in India in the second half of the nineteenth century?

Ans. (1) The history of many business groups goes back to trade with China. The British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England. Many Indians became junior players in this trade.

 (2) The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854. By 1862, four mills were at work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms.

(3) Around the same time in 1855, first jute mill was set up in Bengal. The Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s. By 1874, the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras began production.

3. Analyze the contribution of Dwarkanath Tagore in the field of industrial development

Or

Describe the contributions of Dwarkanath Tagore as an entrepreneur of Bengal.

Ans. (1) Dwarkanath Tagore was an entrepreneur of Bengal.

(2) First of all, he was involved in China trade.

 (3) Later, he set up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.

(4) He believed that India would develop through westernization and industrialization.

(5) He invested in shipping, ship-building, mining, banking, plantations and insurance.

4. How did Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata contribute to iron and steel development: Explain.

Ans. Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata contributed to iron and steel development in h following ways :

(1)Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India.

 (2) In 1912, J.N. Tata set up the first iron and steel works at Jamshedpur in India.

 (3) Iron and steel industries in India started much later than textiles. In colonial India, industrial machinery, railways and locomotives were mostly imported.

5. Where was the first cotton mill set up in India? Write the views of Dwarkanath Tagore towards the development of India?

 Ans. (1) The first cotton mill was set up in Bombay in 1854 and it went into production two years later.

(2) The views of Dwarkanath Tagore towards the development of India.

 (i) Dwarkanath Tagore believed that India would develop through westernization and industrialization.

(ii) He invested in shipping, shipbuilding, mining, banking, plantations and insurance.

(iii) Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in China trade before he turned to industrial investment, setting up six Joint Stock Companies in the 1830s and 1840s.

OR

The very first section of the underground railway in London started on 10th January 1863.

It helped to solve the housing problem in the following ways :  

(a) The population in the city became more dispersed.

 (b) Better planned suburbs were developed.  

(c) A good railway network enabled a large number of people to live outside Central London and travelled to work.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Describe the achievements of any three early industrialists in British India.

Or

 Describe the contributions of the early industrialists of India in shaping the industrial development of India.                                                                                                                                                            

 Ans. The early industrialists of India contributed significantly to shaping the industrial development of India :

 (1) Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy: He was the son of a Paris weaver. He was involved in the China trade and shipping.

(2) Dwarkanath Tagore: First of all, he was involved in China trade. Later, he set up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s. He believed that India would develop through westernization and industrialization. He invested in shipping, ship-building, mining, banking, plantations and insurance.

(3) Din’s haw Petit: He built a huge industrial empire in India. He was involved in China trade and raw cotton shipments to England.

(4) Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata: Initially, he was involved in China trade and raw cotton shipments to England. In 1912, he set up the first iron and steel works in India at Jamshedpur.

(5) Seth Hukumchand: He was a Marwari businessman who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917. He also traded with China.

2. Who was a jobber? What were his main functions?

Or

Who were the jobbers? Explain their main functions. Or who were jobbers? Explain any four functions of the jobbers.                                         

Ans. (1) The jobber was a person with some authority and he used to help the industrialists to get workers. His role was to ensure job to workers and workers to industrialists. He used to be an old and trusted worker.

Following were the functions of jobber :

(I) He got people from his village.

(ii) He ensured them jobs.

 (iii) He helped the workers to settle in the cities.

(iv) He provided money in times of crisis.

2. Mention any three restrictions imposed by the British government upon the Indian merchants in the 19th century.

 Ans. The restrictions imposed by British government were as under:

(1)Space within which Indian merchants could function became ‘limited.

 (2) They were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods.

(3) They had to export mostly raw materials and food grains, raw cotton, opium, wheat and indigo required by the British.

(4) They were gradually edged out of the shipping business.

(5) Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies controlled a large sector of Indian industries.

3. Explain how the condition of the workers steadily declined in the early twentieth century of Europe.                                                                                                 

 Ans. (1) Workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in the mills.

 (2) For workers, getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased.

(3) The numbers seeking work were always more than the jobs available.

(4) Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. Very often the jobber was an old and trusted worker. He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided the money in times of crisis.

(5) The jobber, therefore, became a person with some authority and power. He began demanding money and gifts for his favour and controlling the lives of workers.

THE PECULIARITIES OF INDUSTRIAL GROWTH

 LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Explain the statement “Certain groups of weavers were in a better position than others to survive the competition with mill industries.”

 Ans. (1) Handicrafts people adopt new technology if that helps them to improve production without excessively pushing up costs. So, weavers began to use looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker.

(2) Amongst weavers, some produced coarse cloth while others wove finer varieties.

(3) The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently.

 (4) While the demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. Even famines did not affect the sale of Banaras or Blucher saris.

(5) Mill could not imitate specialized weavers. Sari with woven borders, or the famous lunge and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easily displaced by mill production.

2. How did the handloom cloth production expand steadily in the twentieth century? Explain.

Ans. Reasons for growth of handloom production:

(1) Adopting technological changes by the weavers to increase production without raising costs.

(2) Those who catered to the Erich always had a demand for their goods. Examples: Banaras and Blucher saris.

(3) Mills could not imitate specialized weaves. Example: Saris with intricate borders, lunges, handkerchiefs.

3. What was the condition of Indian industries before the First World War? How did it change after the First World War?

 Ans. (1) (I) The early cotton mills in India produced coarse cotton yarn rather than fabric. The only imported yarn was of the superior variety.

(ii) By the first decade of the 20th century, a series of changes affected the pattern of industrialization. Industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production.

(iii) Till the First World War, industrial growth was slow. The war created a dramatically new situation.

(2)(I) With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.

(ii) As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs e.g., jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents, leather boots, etc.

(iii) New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Over the war years, industrial production boomed.

(iv) After the war, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufacturers and capturing the home market.

4. What were the after-effects of the First World War on the import of British goods into India?

Ans. (1) With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.

(2) As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs.

(3) After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market.

(4) Unable to modernize and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically.

(5) Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

5. Why did the Indian industrial growth suddenly shoot up in the years of the First World War? Explain any three reasons.

Or

 How the First World War helped the development of Indian industries?                        

Or

Explain the impact of the First World War on industrial production in India.

Or

“The First World War created the favourable conditions for the development of industries in India.” Support the statement with suitable examples.                                                           

Or

 Explain why industrial production in India increased during the First World War.

Or

 Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War? Give any three reasons.                                                                                                       

Or

The First World War gave a great boost to the Indian industries.’ Support the statement with examples.                                                                                                         

 Ans. The Indian industrial growth suddenly shot up during the First World War because:

(1) British mills were busy with war production, Manchester imports into India declined.

(2) Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.

(3) As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs; jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots.

 (4) New factories were set up and old ones ran in multiple shifts.

(5) Many new workers were employed and industrial production boomed.

7.”By the first decade of the twentieth century, a series of changes affected the patterns of industrialization in India.” State any three such changes.

 Ans. (1) Nationalists mobilized people to boycott foreign cloth.

 (2) Industrial groups organized themselves to protect their collective interests.

 (3) They pressurized the government to increase tariff protection and other concessions.

(4) Industrial production and demand increased.

(5) New workers were employed.

8. ‘The First World War created dramatically a new situation for Indian Industries’. Analyze how this change took place.

Or

“With the 20th century series of changes affected the pattern of industrialization. Substantiate in three points.                                                                                                                            

Or

 How did the First World War create a dramatically new situation in the industrial development in India? Explain.                                                                                                        

Or

 “The First World War created dramatically a new situation for Indian industries”. Justify the statement

Or

 How did the First World War create a dramatically new situation in Indian industries? Explain.

Ans. (1) Prior to World War I, industrial growth in India was slow, due to the stringent policies of the colonial power dictated by British industrial interests.

(2) British mills geared to war production, Manchester imports to India declined.

 (3) As war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply British war needs.

(4) New factories were set up and old ones worked in multiple shifts.

 (5) After the war, an economy of British crumbled due to war and growing competition from the U.S., Germany and Japan. Manchester could not regain its old position.

9.’Industrialization in India was a mixed blessing.’ Justify the statement.

 Ans. (1) Positive aspects of industrialization : (i) This resulted in cheap and good quality goods.

(ii) New entrepreneurs set up factories and gain management experience.

 (iii) New jobs for labour were created. Mass of labour shifted from agriculture to industry`

(2)Negative aspects of industrialization : (I) Seasonality of work: Some workers had jobs only for a few months.

(ii) Weavers: Artisans lost their means of survival that resulted in the lifting of destitution

(iii) Merchants and traders: They lost their secured export markets. As a result, the/ and misery. 1.1 in find run grimaces of survival.

 (iv)Over-crowding and congestion: Industrialization resulted in mass migration from rural to urban areas that further led to overcrowding and urban slums.

MARKET FOR GOODS

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1.”Consumers are created through advertisement.” Support the statement with three suitable examples.

 Ans. (1) Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary.

(2) They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs.

 (3) They appear in newspapers, magazines, street walls and expand the markets for the product. They shape a new consumer culture.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Explain with examples the importance of advertisement in the marketing of the goods.

Ans. (1) To market the goods and enhance the sale, a producer had started advertising. Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary.

 (2) They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs.

 (3) The advertisements appear in newspapers magazine, street walls and expand the markets for products. They shape a new consumer culture.

(4) For example, the Manchester made cloth carried a label with ‘Made in Manchester’ written in bold. This assured the buyers the quality of the cloth.

(5) The Indian manufacturers printed the image of Bharat Math and a nationalists message on the label.

2. How did the Indian and British merchants and manufacturers advertise their products in India to promote their sale?

Or

Analyze the different modes of advertisement used by the producers to popularize their products and promote sale in the 19th century. India.                                                                                 

Ans. (1) The Manchester made cloth carried a label with ‘Made in Manchester’ written in bold. This assured the buyers of the quality of the cloth.

 (2) The British manufacturers used images of Indian gods and goddesses on the labels. It symbolized the divine approval for the commodity. It also created familiarity with the Indian buyers.

(3) Manufacturers got colanders printed with the images of gods and the advertisement of their product. The colanders were seen on the walls of hotels, tea shops, households, etc.

(4) Images of historical characters and heroes from the past were also displayed on Wanders thus, sending the message that the product was as worthy of respect as were these respectable characters.

(5) The Indian manufacturers printed the image of Bharat Mata and a nationalist message on the labels. They also printed ‘Made in India’ on the labels, thus, appealing to the nationalist sentiments. Most of the baby products carried the image of Lord Krishna to appeal to the religious sentiments.

3.Explain any three methods used by the producers to expand their markets in the 19th century.

Or

 What measures were adopted by the producers in India to expand the market for their goods in the nineteenth century?                                                                                

Ans. To expand the market for their goods in India, the producers adopted the following measures 

(1) They put labels on the cloth bundles. The label was needed to make the place of ‘manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer.

(2) The label was also a mark of quality.

 (3) Images of Indian gods and goddesses regularly appeared on these labels. It was the association with gods gave divine approval to the goods being sold. The imprinted im711_ of Krishna or Saraswati was also intended to make the manufacturer from a foreign;:s appear somewhat familiar to Indian people.

(4) By the late nineteenth century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularize their products.

(5) Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people who could not read.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1.”You must have seen various types of advertisements. These help in the marketing of the products.” In light of the above statement, mention which value of the Indian people were exploited by the manufacturers to sell their products in early 20th century India.

Ans. (1) Loyalty to the kings e.g., Ran lit, Singh.

(2) Faith in God and goddesses e.g., Vishnu, Lama.

(3) Love for children e.g., Krishna.

(4) Nationalism e.g., Bharat Mata.

(5) Cultural identity e.g., Historical places and buildings.

(6) Pride of natural landforms e.g., Himalaya.

2.”During East India Company’s rule, Indian trades and traders were deeply affected.” In the light of the above statement, mention the factors that made cotton weaver’s conditions miserable during the 18th century

Ans. (1) A monopoly of trade by East India Company.

 (2) Indirect control over weavers.

(3) Secured supply of raw materials to the company.

(4) Flooding of a market with the British machine-made cheap goods.

(5) Weavers prevented from dealing with other traders for a better margin.

(6) Weavers forced to buy raw cotton at higher prices.

QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE

1. How did industries develop in India in the second half of the nineteenth century? Explain.                                                                                                  

2. Describe the role of industrialization in the shaping of the modern cities in England.   

3. Why did industrialists in Britain use manual labour while in America machines came to be used increasingly by producers? Explain.

4. Why were workers hostile to the introduction of new technology? Explain the reasons.

5. Name the sea routes that connected India with Asian countries.  

6. Explain the network of export trade that was prevalent in India.

7. How did the expansion of the British industries in India affect the weavers? Explain.

8. How was Indian trade beneficial for the British during the 17th century ? Give three reasons.                                

9. Highlight the position of weavers who produced course cloth in the twentieth century.

10. Highlight any three peculiarities of industrial growth in India in the 19th century.

11. What did the Indian manufacturers do to promote the sale of indigenous goods? Explain.                                                                             

12. How did industrialization affect the life of the workers in England ? Give three points.

13. Explain any three reasons for the clashes between the weavers and the gomasthas.

Or

 Explain any three reasons, for frequent clashes between gomasthas and weavers in the Indian villages.                                                                                                    Or

 Why were there clashes between the weavers and the gomasthas ? Explain.

14. Explain the ways by which the British manufacturers persuaded the Indian people to buy their products.    

15. Explain the availability of labour in Victorian Britain.                             

16. What was the London season? Highlight any two other ways through which the London people spent holidays during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.                                 

17. How did the Industrial Revolution give rise to capitalism? Explain.

18. Why did Cotton textile become the chief industry in England? Explain any three reasons.

19. Analyze how the British transform India from a cotton manufacturing country to a raw cotton exporter.                                             

20. What was the impact of the advance system on the weavers’ lives?            

21. Industrialization gave birth to imperialism’. Justify the statement with three arguments.

22. How did the seasonality of employment affect the lives of Indian workers during the 18th century? Explain.                          

23. Why were cotton and metals considered the most dynamic industries in mid-nineteenth century Britain? Explain.                                                                                                      

Or

How did cotton factories become an integral part of the English landscape in the early nineteenth century? Explain.                                                                                          

24. Analyze how the new inventions and technology helped in setting up the factory concept in the early 19th century.     

25. Analyze any three aspects based on the life of workers during the Victorian age.

26. Where did workers get a better opportunity of employment after the 1840’s Britain?  Explain.                                                                                      

27. Who were `gomsthas‘? How did they become good partners of the British management System?                                                      

28. Why could Manchester never recapture its old position in the Indian market after the First World War? Explain.                                                                                            

29. Name the early entrepreneurs who had established their industries in our country. pro nowhere did they get the capital for their industries? Explain.

30. How did Paris businessmen contribute to industrial growth? Explain with examples.

31. Describe any three conditions that were favourable for the continuing growth of butanes in 18th century India.                                                                            

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