Ch- 4 The Making of a Global World- Extra Questions and Notes

By | December 11, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

History

Chapter- 4,  The Making of a Global World

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the text.

The Making of a Global World

THE PRE-MODERN WORLD

Long Answers:-

1. How did smallpox prove as the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors in the early modern phase? Explain.

Ans. (1) The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon but it was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.

(2) Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe.

(3) Smallpox, in particular, proved a deadly killer.

 (4) Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent ahead even of any European reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

(5) Guns could be bought or captured and turned against the invaders. But not diseases such as smallpox to which the conquerors were mostly immune.

2. “The global transfer of diseases became instrumental in colonization of Africa and South America.” Explain the statement.  

Ans. (1) Colonization of Africa and South America by Europeans was mainly due to diseases which they had carried out, not the arms.

 (2) The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonization of America was decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century.

 (3) It was not just a result of superior firepower. In fact, the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon, but the germs of diseases they carried on them.

(4) The germs of smallpox etc. had proved deadly killer as the original American inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases.

(5) Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent ahead even of any European reaching there. It paved the way for conquest by killing and decimated whole communities.

3. “Food offers many examples of long-distance cultural exchange.” Support your answer with three examples.                               

Or

In what ways did food items offer scope for long distance cultural exchange? Explain.

Ans. (1) Food offers many examples of long-distance cultural exchange. Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the lands they travelled. Even ‘ready’ foodstuff share common origins.

(2) Food such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes was not of indigenous origin until about five century ago. These foods were introduced by Christopher Columbus.

(3) In fact, many of our common foods came from America’s original inhabitants, the American Indians.

(4) Take spaghetti and noodles. It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti. Perhaps, Arab traders took pasta to fifth century Sicily an island now in Italy.

 (5) Similar foods were also known in India and Japan. So, the truth about their origin may never be known. Such guesswork suggests the possibilities of long-distance cultural contact even in the pre-modem world.

4. What was the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors of America? How did it pave the way for their conquest?                                            

 Ans. (1) The colonization of America was not just a result of superior firepower. In fact, the most powerful weapon of Spanish conquerors was not any conventional military weapon. These were the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.

(2) Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. Smallpox, in particular, proved a deadly killer.

 (3) Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent ahead even of any European reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

5. Explain with the help of any three suitable examples that the pre-modern world changed with the discovery of new sea routes to America.

Or

 “The pre-modern world shrank greatly in the 16th Century”. Substantiate this statement with five valid arguments.                                                                                                    

Or

 Describe the significance of silk-routes in the pre-modern period in the field of trade, cultural exchange and religion.                                                                               

Or

“The pre-modern world changed with the discovery of new sea routes to America”. Support the statement with three suitable examples.

Ans. (1) The pre-modern world changed with the discovery of new sea routes to America. It shrank greatly in the sixteenth century after European sailors found a sea route to Asia and also successfully crossed the western ocean to America.

(2) Before its discovery, America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world. But from the sixteenth century, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.

(3) Precious metals particularly silver, from mines located in present-day Peru and Mexico enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.

6. Explain any three characteristics of the silk routes.

Or

 The silk routes are a good example of trade and cultural link between distant parts of the world. Explain with examples.                                                           

Or

Enumerate the importance of silk routes.                                    

Ans. (1) The name ‘silk routes’ points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargos along this route.

 (2) Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa.

 (3) They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era. But, Chinese pottery also travelled the same route, as did textiles and spices from India and south-east Asia. In return, precious metals — gold and silver — flowed from Europe to Asia.

(4) Early Christian missionaries travelled through this route to Asia, as did early Muslim preachers a few centuries later.

 (5) Much before all this, Buddhism emerged from eastern India and spread in several directions through intersecting points on the silk routes.

7. How did the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world help in the colonization of the Am Erica?

 Ans. (1) The colonization of America was not just a result of superior firepower. In fact, the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. These were the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried with them.

(2) Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. Smallpox, in particular, proved a deadly killer.

 (3) Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any European reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

(4) Thus, guns could be bought or captured and turned against the invaders, but not diseases such as smallpox.

 (5) The conquerors were mostly immune to smallpox.

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY (1815-1914)

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What attracted the Europeans to Africa? Mention any three methods used to recruit and retain the African labourers.

Ans. (1) The Europeans were attracted to Africa because of its abundant land and minerals.

(2) (I) The European employers found it difficult to recruit labour in Africa because it had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries land and livestock sustained African’s livelihood and people rarely worked for wages. Therefore, heavy taxes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantation and mines.

(ii) Inheritance Laws were exchanged so that peasants were displaced from land. Only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of which others were pushed into the labour market. WO Mineworkers were confined to the compounds. They were not allowed to move out as freely.

2. What were the Canal Colonies where and why were they introduced?

Ans. (1) Canal Colonies — the British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform semi-desert wastes into fertile agricultural lands that could grim wheat and cotton for export.

(2) The Canal Colonies, as the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, were settled by Peasants from other parts of the state.

(3) These colonies were inhabited since there was a great chance to get different jobs related to agriculture.

3. Why did the industrialists and people living in cities of Britain force the government to abolish Corn Laws in the 18th century? Give two reasons.

Ans.  (1) In the 18th century, people living in cities of Britain forced the Government to abolish or Laws.

(2) It was due to these two main reasons.

 (I)Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand tar food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices.

(ii) Under pressure from landed groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. Unhappy with high food prices, industrialists and urban dwellers forced the abolition of the Corn Laws after which food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.

4.Describe any three dramatic changes that occurred in west Punjab in the 19th century, in the field of agriculture

 Ans:- On a smaller scale, some dramatic changes occurred in west Punjab in the 19th century, in the field of agriculture.

(1) The British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform semi-0 desert wastes into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export.

(2) The Canal Colonies too inhabited along the with the cultivation of cotton and rubber expanded worldwide to feed British textile mills and rubber factories.

 (3) Between 1820 and 1914 world trade have multiplied 25 to 40 times because of rapidly developed regional specialization in the production of commodities.

(4) Trade of primary products such as wheat, cotton and minerals such as coal was around 60 per cent.

5. Mention any three main destinations of Indian indentured migrants.

 Ans. Main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were as follows:

 (1) The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands Mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji.

 (2) The Tamil migrants went to Ceylon and Malaya.

 (3) Indentured workers were also recruited for tea plantation in Assam.

6. Explain the three types of ‘flows’ within the international economic exchanges.

Or

 Identify the three different types of flows within international economic exchanges. Explain’ their effects on the life of the people in the 19th century                                                                         

Or

 Mention three types of movements of flows identified by the economists. How are they important?                                                                                                                                  

Or

 “Economists of the 19th century identify three types of movements or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges.” Explain.

Or

Mention the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchanges.

Ans. Economists identified three types of movements or flow within international economic exchanges. They were as follows :

(1) The first is the flow of trade which in the nineteenth century referred largely to trade in goods e.g., cloth or wheat.

(2) The second is the flow of labour e.g., the migration of people in search of employment.

 (3) The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investment over long distances.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1.Highlight any-three forms of cultural fusion which was the part of the making of the global world.

Ans. Different forms of cultural fusion were part of the making of the global world in the following manner:

(1) With the migration of Indian indentured labourers to the Caribbean, we witnessed increased intermingling of social and cultural traits. For example in Trinidad, the Muharram procession was transformed into a new carnival, called Hose, in which workers from different religions participated.

(2) Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean.

(3) ‘Chutney music’ popular in Trinidad and Guyana is another creative contemporary expression of the post-indenture experience. These forms of cultural fusion are part of the making of the global world where things from different places get mixed, lose their original characteristics and became something entirely new.

2. “Trade flourished and markets expanded in the lath 19th century, but there was a darker side to this process’. Substantiate.

Ans. (1) In many parts of the world, trade flourished and markets expanded in the late 19th century but there was a darker side to this process also.

 (2) (i) This development had caused loss of freedom and livelihood for many people.

 (ii) Europeans in the late 19th century had conquered red many countries which had brought I destructive economic, social and ecological changes in the colonies like in Africa in 1890s a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihood and the local economy.

(iii) The migration of indentured labour from India is an example which illustrates that it was a world of faster economic growth for some and great misery and poverty for others, technological advances in Europe and new forms of coercion in Asia and Africa.

3. Highlight any three methods that were used by the European powers for the recruitment of the indentured labour.

Or

 Highlight the methods used for the recruitment of the indentured labour in the 19th century.

Ans. (1) The European employers found it difficult to recruit labour in Africa because historically, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihood and people rarely worked for wages.

 (2) Employers used the following methods to recruit and retain labour: (i) Heavy taxes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines.

(ii) Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land. Only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of which the others were pushed into the labour market.

(iii) Mineworkers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.

4. Why did European flee to America in the 19th century? Give three reasons.

Ans. Thousands of people flee away from Europe to America in the 19th century because:

(1) After the Corn Laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced in the country. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated, the thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.

 (2) Deadly diseases were widespread.

(3) Religious conflicts were common and religious dissenters were persecuted.

5. How did the abolition of ‘Corn Laws’ in England shape the global agricultural economy?Explain.                                                                                                                                         

Ans. (1) After scrapping of the ‘Corn Laws’, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country. So, Britain began to import food grains from the rest of the world.

(2) Around the world, especially in Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia, lands were cleared and food production expanded to meet the British demand.

(3) There had been complex changes in labour movement patterns, capital flow, ecology and technology.

(4) Crops were not grown by a peasant tilling his own land but by an agricultural worker. Food came from thousands of miles away.

(5) Food and other essential commodities were transported by railways and by ships manned by low paid workers from Southern Europe, Asia, Africa and Caribbean islands.

6. Mention any three circumstances that compelled Indians and Chinese to work as indentured labour in plantation and mining.

Ans. Following were the circumstances that compelled Indians and Chinese to work as indentured labour in the plantation and mining sectors:

 (1) In the mid-nineteenth century, some regions of India witnessed the decline in cottage industries, land rents rose and lands were cleared for mines and plantation. There was also unemployment in China.

(2) People failed to pay their rent. They became deeply indebted and thus, were forced to migrate as indentured labourers in search of work.

(3) The main destination of migrants were: Caribbean islands (Trinidad, Guyana, Surinam), Mauritius, Fiji, etc.

7. The indentured workers had discovered their own ways of surviving. Explain the statement with three examples.

Or

After the 19th century, how did the indentured labourers discover their own ways of survival? Explain.                                                                                                            

Ans. (1) Migrants were provided false information about living and working conditions. On arrival at the plantations, these labourers found the conditions harsh. There were a few legal rights.

 (2) The indentured workers discovered their own ways of surviving. Many of them escaped into the wilds. Though if caught, they faced severe punishment.

(3) Others developed new forms of individual and collective self-expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new.

(4) In Trinidad, the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival, called ‘Hose’ in which workers of all races and religions joined.

(5) The protest religion of Rastafarianism reflects social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean. Many cultural things from different places get mixed, lose their original characteristics and become something entirely new.

8. What were the Corn Laws? Why were they imposed? How did the scrapping of Corn Laws transform the economy of Britain? Explain.                     

Or

Mention any three effects of the British government’s decision for the abolition of the Laws. Corn                                     

Or

 Describe any five effects of the abolition of ‘Corn Laws’ in Britain. Or What was ‘Corn Law’? How was it abolished?                                                                                   

 Ans. (1) The Laws allowing the government to restrict the import of corn were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.

(2) It was imposed by the government to restrict the import of corn. This was done under the pressure of landed groups.

 (3) The scrapping of Corn Laws transformed the economy of Britain in a big way : (i) After the Corn Laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.

(ii) British agriculture was unable to compete with imports.

(iii) Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated.

(iv) Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work.

(v) They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.

(vi) As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose.

9. Why has the 19th-century indentured labour system been described as a new system of slavery? Explain any three suitable arguments.                         

Or

Why have the historians described the 19th-century indenture as a “new system of slavery”? Explain any five reasons.                                                                         

 Ans. 19th-century indentured labour system has been described as a new system of slavery because:

(1) Recruiting agents gave false information to tempt the labourers.

(2) Labourers were, sometimes, forcibly abducted.

(3) On arriving at the plantations, they found conditions to be different from what they had imagined.

(4) Their living conditions were harsh.

(5) Their payment was little. Deductions were made from wages if the work was found unsatisfactory. The workers had no legal rights.

10. Who were indentured labourers? How were they recruited? Explain the condition of the indentured labourers who went to work in different parts of the world.

Ans. (1) Indentured labourers were bonded labourers under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time to pay off their passage to a new country or home.

 (2) Recruitment was done by agents engaged by employers and was paid a small commission.

(3) The conditions of the labourers were as under:

(i) They were subjected to harsh, inhuman and unsympathetic conditions.

(ii) If they were caught while escaping, they faced severe punishment.

(iii) Deductions were made from wages if the work was found unsatisfactory.

 (iv)The workers had no legal rights.

11. What is Rinderpest? Who brought it to Africa? How did rinderpest help the Europeans to conquer Africa? Explain.

Or

 Describe the impact of Rinderpest on people’s livelihood and the local economy in Africa in 1890s.

                                                                                                    Or

 What was ‘Rinderpest’? How did it benefit the Europeans?

Or

 Describe briefly about Rinderpest. How did it help the European colonizers to conquer and subdue Africa?                                                                                           

Or

 What was Rinderpest? State any four effects of the coming of Rinderpest in Africa.

Or

 “Explain any three impacts of Rinderpest on the life of Africans.”

Or

 State any there impacts of ‘Rinderpest’ on African lives.                       

 Ans. (1) `Rinderpest’ is a cattle plague that affected the cattle of Africa.

(2) It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea’ in East Africa.

(3) (I) In the lath 19th century Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals and hoping to establish plantations and mines.

(ii) But they faced a problem of shortage of labour willing to work for wages.

(iii) The Africans had land and livestock and were not ready and willing to work for wages.

 (iv) Rinderpest, the cattle plague was brought into the country by imported cattle and had a devastating effect on the indigenous cattle wiping out about 90% of Africa’s cattle.

 (v) The loss of cattle forced the Africans to come into the labour market and work in plantations and mines.

12. Why did the European employers find it difficult to recruit labour in Africa*? Give two methods they used to recruit and retain labour.

Or

Why was there a shortage of labour willing to work for wages in Africa in the 1890s? How did Europeans try to recruit and retain labour? Explain any two methods.

Ans:-The European employers found it difficult to recruit labour in Africa because historically. Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihood and people rarely worked for wages.
Methods to recruit and retain labour :
(i) Heavy taxes: Tile colonial government started imposing heavy taxes which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines.
(ii) New inheritance laws: Inheritance laws were changed so that the peasants were displaced from the land: only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, others were pushed into the labour market
(iii) Restriction on movement: Miners were also enclosed in compounds, and were not allowed to move about freely.    

Steps were taken:

Employers used many methods to recruit and retain labour –
1. Heavy taxes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations
and mines.
2. Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land; only one
member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of which the others were
pushed into the labour market.
3. Mine workers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.

13. What was the role of technology in transforming the 19th-century world? Explain with an example.                        

Or

Assess the role of technology in shaping the world economy of the 19th century.

Or

How did technological inventions transform the 19th-century world? Give three examples.

Or

How did technology help to solve hardships of food availability throughout the world in the late 19th century? Explain with example.

Or

What was the impact of technology on food availability? Explain with the help of examples.

Or

 Explain, giving examples, the role played by technological inventions in transforming the 19th-century world.                                                                                   

Ans. (1) Technology, in the form of improvements in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped to move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.

(2) Earlier, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. The meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. Then came a new technology namely refrigerated ships, which enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances.

(3) Now, animals were slaughtered for food and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe.

(4) To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat to their diet.

(5) Better living conditions promoted social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.

14. Define the term ‘Trade surplus’. How was the income received from a trade surplus with India used by Britain?

Ans. (1) When the value of exports is higher than the value of imports, it is called ‘Trade Surplus’.

(2) (i) Britain used this surplus to balance its trade deficits with other countries — that is, with countries from which Britain was importing more than it was selling to.

(ii) This is how a multi-lateral settlement system works—it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country

(iii) By helping Britain balance its deficits, India played a crucial role in the late nineteenth-century world economy.

 (iv) Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances taken to home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.

15. Why is it said that India played a crucial role in the 19th-century world economy? Explain.                     

Or

 How did India play a crucial role in the nineteenth-century world economy? Explain with examples.                                                                                

Ans. India played a crucial role in a world economy in the 19th century in the following manner :

(1) In the 19th century, Britain was a major economic power. She had built a trade network worldwide and had a huge income.

(2) The value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British airports from India. Thus, Britain had ‘trade surplus’ with India.

 (3) There were some countries where Britain was spending more on her imports and earning deals from exports, Britain had to meet trade deficits with these countries.

 (4) Britain used her trade surplus with India to balance her trade deficits with °the? countries.

(5) Britain’s trade surplus with India also helped her to pay the so-called ‘home charges. Thus by helping Britain balance its deficits, India played a crucial role in the lath 19% century world economy.

THE INTER-WAR ECONOMY

LONG ANSWERS:-

1.Explain any three causes which led to the decline of Indian cotton textiles in the early nineteenth century.                      

 Ans. The main causes which led to the decline of Indian cotton textile in the early nineteenth century were as under :

(1) Industrial Revolution in Britain: The Industrial Revolution in Britain had a great impact on textile production. Britain started producing machine-made textiles which were often of better quality and cheaper than Indian textiles. Indian artisans could not compete with British goods. Therefore, Indian textile slowly started declining.

(2) Loss of external markets: Initially, textiles from India had high demands in Europe. But British textile manufacturers felt threatened by this demand. Therefore, strict laws banning the import of the textile in Britain were passed which resulted in a slow death for Indian textile.

(3) No interest was shown by British rulers: In India, the British rulers were not very keen on industrialization. After the Industrial Revolution when machine goods replaced the hand-made, no help was rendered to the Indian textile workers to absorb them in new mills as in Britain. Thus, many workers were jobless due to no demand.

2. Describe Henry Ford’s Assembly line method.

Ans. (1) Henry Ford adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit.

(2) He realized that the assembly line method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles.

 (3) The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously such as fitting a particular part to the car, at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt.

(4) This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work. Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break or even have a friendly word with a workmate.

(5) As a result, Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at three-minute intervals, 8 speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods.

3. ‘The impact of the Great Depression of 1929 was different on the Indian rural and industrial society.’ Justify the statement.

Ans. (1) The Great Depression of 1929 had a severe impact on India which was then under the rule of British Raj. The Government of British India adopted a protective trade policy which though beneficial for the United Kingdom, caused great damage to the Indian economy.

(2) During the period of 1929-1937 exports and imports fell drastically crippling seaborne international trade. The railway and the agricultural sector were the most affected.

(3) Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Through, agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the world market were worst hit.

(4) Across India, peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands and sold jeweller and precious metals to meet daily expenses.

(5) For urban India, the depression was less grim because of falling prices those with fixed incomes like town dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees found themselves better off. Everything cost less. They benefited by industrial investment which grew because the government had extended tariff protection to industries.

4. When did the Great Depression begin? Explain its impact on the world.

 Ans. (1) The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1930s. It was caused by the post-war fragile economy.

(2) (i) During the period most parts of the world experienced the catastrophic decline in production, employment, incomes and trade.

 (ii) The exact time and impact of the depression varied across countries. But, in general, agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected.

(iii) Many countries financed loans from the US. Now, US overseas lenders panicked at the sign of financial crisis. American capitalists stopped all loans from the US to European countries thus halting all production there resulting in large-scale unemployment. Banks in Europe collapsed and the value of currencies fell down.

(iv) In India, the Great Depression too left a great impact. International prices crashed and the demands of products became less. This increased the indebtedness of the peasants who had to sell their land, cattle or precious metals to survive.

5. Analyze the effects of the Great Depression of 1929 on the lives of the Indians.

Ans. (1) In the 19th century, Colonial India had become an exporter of agricultural goods and importer of manufacturers.

(2) The depression immediately affected Indian trade. India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934.

 (3) As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged between 1928 and 1934. Wheat prices in India fell by 50 per cent.

(4) Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit.

 (5) The depression proved less grim for urban India. Because of falling prices those with fixed incomes, now found themselves better off.

6. Describe the condition of workers who were working under ‘Assembly line’ method.

Ans. (1) The Assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously such as fitting a particular part to the car at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt. This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work.

 (2) Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a, break or even have a friendly word with a workmate.

 (3) At first, workers were unable to cope with the stress of working on assembly lines in which they could not control the pace of work. So, they quit in large numbers but Ford co doubled the daily wage which benefited the workers in the long run.

7. When and between whom the First World War was fought?

Ans. The First World War was fought between Allie’s power (Britain, France and Russia and Axis power (Germany, Italy and Japan) in 1914.

8. How did the Great Depression of 1929 affect the Indian trade? Explain.

Ans. (1) Earlier, colonial India had become an exporter of agricultural goods and importer of manufactures. The depression immediately affected Indian trade. India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934.

(2) As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Between 1928 and 1934, wheat prices in India fell by 50%.

(3) Peasants and farmers suffered the most. Agricultural prices fell sharply. But, the government refused to reduce its revenue demands. Especially, peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit.

(4) Peasants fell deeper and deeper into debt. As gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw jute crashed more than 60%. Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times fell deeper into debt.

 (5) As peasants’ indebtedness increased, they used up their savings, mortgaged lands and sold whatever jeweller and precious metals they had. In these depression years, India became an exporter of precious metals particularly gold.

9. Examine how the First World War transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor.

Ans. In the following ways, the First World War transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor.

(1) During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods. The US became the big supplier of war needs. So, the war helped boost the US economy.

(2) The war led to the snapping of economic links between some of the world’s largest economic powers which were now fighting each other to pay for them.

(3) So, Britain borrowed large sums of money from US banks as well as the US public. Thus, the war transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor.

10. What is meant by the Great Depression of 1929? Explain any four factors responsible for this Great Depression.  

Or

Elucidate any three factors that led to the Great Depression.

Or

Why is the year of 1929 known as the Great Depression? Explain any three factors responsible for the Great Depression.                                                                                    

Ans. (1) The Great Depression began in around 1929.

(2) It means that the world experienced a catastrophic decline in production, employment, incomes and trade.

(3) Three main reasons for Great Depression were as follows: (i) The world economy became fragile due to the First World War.

(ii) Agricultural prices fell significantly. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production to maintain their overall income. As a result, farm produce rotted for lack of buyers.

 (iii) Many countries financed loans from the US. Now, US overseas lenders panicked at the sign of financial crisis.

(iv)  American capitalists stopped all loans to the European countries thus, halting all production there.

(v) Thousands of banks were bankrupt and were forced to close. Factories closed down leading to unemployment.

11. Why is the period from 1929 till the mid-1930 referred to as ‘The Great Depression’? Explain any three reasons.      

 Ans. (1) The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1930. During this period most parts of the world experienced a catastrophic decline in production, employment, incomes and trade.

 (2) The reasons for Great Depressions are as follows : (i) Agricultural over-production made the prices fall rapidly. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers expanded production. It worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for lack of buyers.

(ii) Many countries in the mid-1920s financed their investments through loans from the US but in the first half of 1929, countries depending crucially on US loans now faced an acute crisis.

(iii) The third reason was that the US attempt to protect its economy in the depression by doubling import duties also dealt another severe blow to world trade.

12. Explain the causes of the Great Depression.

Or

Explain the impact of the ‘Great Depression’ that began in around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1930s across the world. 

Ans:-The Great Depression was an economic crisis that affected the whole world and left 13 million people unemployed. The entire American banking system almost collapsed with over 5,000 banks going out of business. The causes of the Great Depression are still a subject of great debate among economists today.

Possible Causes

  • Property and land prices collapsing after a property boom, causing investors to lose money.
  • Too many people speculating on the stock market to try and make money quickly.
  • Black Tuesday – the stock market crash that happened on October 29, 1929, is considered to be one of the main causes of the depression. Stockholders lost over 40 billion dollars, which had a devastating effect on the world economy.
  • Unbalanced distribution of wealth: wealthy Americans owned more than a third of all the American assets. When the economy started to struggle, these people started to hoard the money that caused industries to struggle even more.
  • An overabundance of small banks that didn’t have enough funds to pay out all the people’s savings at once after the stock market crash. In the 1920s, bank deposits were not insured and when a bank would fail, all the people who banked there lost their savings.
  • Reduction in spending. As mentioned before, people stopped spending money after the stock market crash. This meant there were more products that were produced than people were buying, forcing factories to reduce their workforce. With the unemployment rising, spending decreased, even more, putting more people out of work, creating a downward spiral.
  • America recalling debt from European countries caused the economies of countries that were already struggling financially after the war to collapse.

There are many factors that came to play and that may have contributed to the Great Depression. What is certain is that there was one big domino effect that caused the one economy after the other to struggle, leaving thousands of people without income.                                                                                                         

13. Explain any five consequences of the Great Depression of 1929 on Indian economy.

Or

 Explain the impact of the Great Depression of 1929 on the Indian economy.

Ans:- (i) India’s exports and imports nearly halved.

(ii) As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged.

(iii) Wheat prices in India fell by 50 per cent

(iv) Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers.

(v)The colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands.
(vi)I India’s peasants’ indebtedness increased.
(vii) They used up their savings and sold Jewellery and precious metals. The Great Depression helped the urban people especially the fixed income earners.

14.How did Henry Ford revolutionize mass production in the U.S.? Explain.

Ans. (1) Henry Ford adopted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit.

(2) The assembly line allowed a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. It forced Workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously.

(3) This increased their efficiency in the single task and the speed of production too.

(4) Standing in front of the conveyer belt, no worker could delay the motion or take a break.

(5) In the beginning, many workers quit since they could not cope up with the stress of work.

(6) Henry Ford doubled their wages and against that he not only increased the speed of the conveyer belt but also banned trade unions.

15. How far is it correct to say that “The First World War was the first modern industrial war”?Explain.                                                                                                     

Or

Why is it said that there was no other war earlier like the First World War? State in three points.

Or

 “The First World War was a war like no other before.” Explain any three features about the war that support the statement.                                                                                                               

Or

 In what sense was the First World War the first modem Industrial war?

Or

Give three reasons to prove that the First World War was the first modem industrial war.

Ans. The Firs’, World War was the first modern industrial war because:

(1) The fighting involved the world’s leading industrial nations which now harnessed the vast powers of modern industry to inflict the greatest possible destruction on their enemies.

(2) It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern large-scale industry.

(3) The scale of death and destruction was vast i.e., 9 million dead and 20 million injured.

(4) It was unthinkable before the industrial age, without the use of industrial arms.

(5) During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods.

17. Describe the effects of the Great Depression of 1929 on the United States of America.

Or

 The US was severely affected by the great depression of 1929.’ Justify the statement with examples                                                                 

Ans. The United States was greatly affected by the Great Depression of 1929.

(1) With the fall in prices, US banks had also slashed domestic lending and called back loans.

(2) Many houses and businesses collapsed.

 (3) Faced with falling incomes, many households were unable to repay the loans. They had to give up their houses, cars and other consumer durables.

(4) Unemployment soared, people trudged long distances looking for work.

(5) Unable to recover investment and loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to close. By 1933, over 4000 banks had closed and 110,000 companies had collapsed.

REBUILDING A WORLD ECONOMY: THE POST-WAR ERA

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Why did the Fixed Exchange Rate system collapse in the 1960s? Give three reasons.

 Ans. (1) From the 1960s, the rising cost of its overseas involvements weakened the US’s finances and competitive strength.

(2) The US dollar now no longer commanded confidence as the world’s principal currency.

(3) It could not maintain its value in relation to gold. This led to the collapse of the fixed exchange rates.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1.What was the main aim of the post-war international economic system? Mention the two Breton Woods Institutions established in 1944 with their main objectives.

Ans. (1) (i) The main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.

(II) Economists and politicians drew two key lessons from inter-war economic experience. First, an industrial society is based on mass consumption.

(III)But to ensure mass consumption, there was a need for high and stable incomes. Incomes could not be stable if employment was unstable. Thus, stable incomes also require steady, full employment.

(iv) Since markets alone could not guarantee full employment. Therefore, the government would have to step in it to minimize fluctuations in price, output and employment. Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government.

(v) The framework of this programme was agreed upon at the united nations monetary and financial conference held in July 1944 at Breton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.

 (vi) The Breton woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and income for the western industrial nations and Japan.

(2) Breton Wood established two institutions:

(a) International Monetary Fund,

(b) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank).

2. ‘China became attractive destinations for investment by foreign MNCs in the 19th and 20th centuries.’ Justify the statement

Ans. (1) From the late 1970s, MNCs also began to shift production operations to low wage Asian countries.

(2) Wages were relatively low in countries like China. Thus, they became attractive destinations for investment by foreign MNCs competing to capture world markets.

(3) Most of the TVs, mobile phones and toys in shops are made in China.

(4) This is because of a low structure of the Chinese economy, most importantly, its low wages.

(5) The main factors behind investment by foreign MNC’s in China in the 19th and 20th centuries were also low wages and low cost of production.

3. What is the exchange rate? Differentiate between Fixed and Flexible or floating exchange rates.

Ans. (1) Exchange rates—They link national currencies for purpose of international trade.

 (2) There are broadly two kinds of exchange rates: (i) Fixed exchange rates. They are fixed and government intervenes to prevent movements in them.

(ii) Flexible or floating exchange rates—These rates fluctuate depending on demand and supply of currencies in foreign exchange markets, in principle without interference by governments.

4. What was NIEO? Why was it formed? Also, throw some light on the G-77 summit.

Or

 Explain the role of the New International Economic Order (NIEO).                               

Ans. (1) NIEO is the New International Economic Order.

 (2) Most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the western economies experienced in the 1960s and 1960s.

(3) (i) Therefore, they organized themselves as a group – the Group of 77 or G-77.

(II) G-77 or NIEO would give these countries the real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

5.`G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of Breton Woods Twins’. Explain the statement with three arguments.

Or

 Describe the circumstances responsible for the formation of G-77.                       

 Ans. It is rightly said that G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of Breton Woods Twins. This has the following reasons :

(1) The Breton Woods Twins — the IMF and the World Bank were dominated by the former colonial powers. As a result, most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth that the western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. So, they organized themselves as a group — the group of 77 or G-77 to demand a new international economic order.

(2) Former colonial powers exploited the natural resources of developing nations through the IMF and the World Bank.

 (3) The developing nations organized themselves into G-77 so as to gain real control over their natural resources.

(4) They wanted to get more development assistance and fairer prices for raw materials.

(5) They also wanted a better opportunity for their manufactured goods in the markets of developed nations.

6. What is G-77? What did the G-77 countries want to gain from the New International Economic Order? Describe. (2012-33, 76) Or What led to the birth of Group of 77 (G-77) in the 1960s? What was their main demand? (2014-1C2S5UQ6)

Or

 What is G-77? What were its demands?                                          

Ans. (1) Most developing nations did not benefit from the fast growth of the western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. So, they organized themselves as a group — the group of 77 or G-77.

(2) Following were the demands of the G-77 group:

(I) Real control over their natural resources.

(ii) More assistance in their development.

(iii) Fairer price for raw materials.

(iv) Better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

(v) They demanded a New International Economic Order (NIEO). By the NIEO they wanted to meet their objectives.

7. Describe any five factors that led to the end of the Breton Woods system and the beginning of globalization.        

 Ans. (1) From the 1960s, the rising costs of its overseas involvements weakened the US’s finances and competitive strength.

(2) The US dollar now no longer commanded confidence as the world’s principal currency.

(3) US dollar could not maintain its value in relation to gold.

(4) This eventually led to the collapse of the system of fixed exchange rates and the introduction of a system of floating exchange rates.

(5) International financial system also changed in important ways. Developing countries were forced to borrow from western commercial bait and private lending institutions.

(6) Industrial world was hit by unemployment. MNCs turned to China due to its low-wages. g.

8. What is meant by the Breton Woods system? Explain.

Or

What is meant by the Breton Woods agreements? Explain in detail.                 

 Ans. (1) The main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world. Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Breton Woods in New Hampshire, USA. The post-war international economic system is also often described as the Breton Woods system.

 (2) It established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations and the World Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

(3) The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Breton Woods institutions or sometimes, the Breton Woods twins.

9. Briefly explain the two key lessons which economists and politicians drew out from inter-war economic experiences.

Or

 State two lessons which the economists and politicians learnt from inter-war economic experience.                                                                                          

Or

What lessons were learnt from inter-war economic experiences by the economists and politicians during the Second World War? Describe. 

Ans. Economists and politicians drew two key lessons from inter-war economic experiences:

(1) An industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption for which there was a need for stable incomes guaranteed by stable employment. This economic stability had to be ensured by the government.

(2) The goal of full employment could only be achieved if governments had the power to control flows of goods, capital and labour.

 (3) The main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1.”In the nineteenth century, the indentured labour system was one of the major features of the colonial government.” In the light of the above statement describe which values of indentured labourers were affected.

 Ans. (1) Proper information: They were misinformed by the contractors about the destination Of work and working conditions. So, they felt cheated.

(2) Freedom: Sometimes the workers were forcibly abducted as less willing migrants.

(3) Health: Under the changed climatic conditions, they were subjected to hard works. This affected their health adversely.

(4) Family relationship: They were taken to another continent. And not allowed to visit home. This way they were detached from their families.

(5) Cultural identity: In foreign countries, they had no way to live with their cultural practices and values.

2. “Ancient silk route proved a vital trade route between East and West.” How can you say that this route helped in spreading of the values of one place to the another?

Ans. The silk route helped in spreading of the values of one place to the another in the following ways :

(1) The spread of science and technology.

 (2) The spread of religious thoughts and practices.

 (3) The spread of various types of fruits, seeds and food items.

(4) The spread of clothing behaviour.

(5) The spread of art and architectural skills.

 (6) Spread of spiritualistic ideas and moral values.

QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE

1. State any three important developments through which world changed profoundly during the 19th century.  

2. How did the abolition of ‘Corn Laws’ in England shape the global agricultural economy? Explain.                                                                                               

3. Describe the contribution of indentured labourers towards the cultural fusion in the emerging global world.

4. Describe any three changes in the global agricultural economy after 1890.

5. Explain the impact of the First World War on the British economy.  

6. When and why did the World Bank and IMF start financial interventions in the developing countries?            

7. Describe two crucial influences that shaped post—Second World War reconstruction.

8. How did social, political and technological factors help giving shape to an economy in the nineteenth century?

9. “Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand”. Explain the statement in The light of slid route.

10. Describe the Canal Colonies. Where and why were they introduced?

11. What factors led to the progress of Industrialization in Europe in the 19th century?

12. How did the introduction of the potato crop in Europe affect the life of the people in Europe?                                                                                                    

13. Describe any three changes in the global agricultural economy after 1890.

14. Critically examine the expansion of trade facilities in the 19th century.

15. Explain the ‘Corn-laws’. Why did the British Government decide to abolish Corn-law?

16. Highlight the main basis of the Breton Woods International financial system.

17. “The multinational companies (MNCs) choose China as an alternative location for investment?” Explain the statement.                   

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