Ch. – 6- Work, Life and Leisure- Extra Questions and Notes

By | December 11, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

History Book Name

Chapter-6 Work, Life and Leisure,

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the text.

CITIES IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Which three features of the big modern city of Calcutta (Kolkata) fascinated the gods as described in the novel written by Durgacharan Roy? Explain.

Or

 Describe the features of the big modem city of Calcutta (Kolkata) as viewed by the gods in the novel written by Durgacharan Roy.                                      

 Ans. (1) Durgacharan Roy wrote a novel, Debaser Marty Alabaman (The Gods Visit Earth) in which Brahma, Vern and some other Gods visit Calcutta.

 (2) They were wonderstruck by the big modern city, the train, the large ships on the river Ganges, factories belching smoke, bridges and monuments and a dazzling array of shops selling a wide range of commodities.

(3) Gods were disturbed by another aspect of city life — its cheats and thieves, its grinding poverty and the poor quality of housing for many.

(4) The Gods were perturbed at the confusion of caste, religions and gender identities in the city.

2. Describe in brief how did ‘The city of Calcutta’ both amaze and confuse the Gods’.  

 Ans. (1) The gods were amazed by the big and modem city like Calcutta for the following reasons :

(I) The city of Calcutta had the train, the large ships on the river Ganges, factories belching smoke, bridges and monuments and a dazzling array of shops selling a wide range of commodities.

(ii) The gods were so impressed by the marvels of the teeming metropolis that they decided to build a museum and a High Court in heaven.

(iii) The city of Calcutta, in the 19th century, was brimming with opportunities for trade and commerce, education and jobs.

(I) The gods were confused also with city life. This was because, the city had its cheats and thieves, its grinding poverty and poor quality of housing for many.

(ii) Brahma himself got tricked into buying a pair of cheap glasses and when he tried to buy a pair of shoes, he was greatly confused by the shopkeepers who accused one another of being swindlers.

(iii) The gods were also perturbed at the confusion of caste, religions and gender identities in the city.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CITY

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. By which other name was the London underground railways called?

Ans. The London underground railways were called as ‘the iron monster’.

 LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Describe the life of children as depicted in Andrew Mean’s famous book The Bitter Cry of Outcast London’.

Ans. (1)Andrew Means a clergyman wrote The Bitter Cry of Outcast London’ in the 1880s. He Wrote about the children pushed into low paid work often by their parents.

(2) He showed why a crime was more profitable than labouring in small underpaid factories. A child of seven years old is easily known to make 10 shillings 6 pence a week from thieving. Before he can gain as much as the young, the thief (a boy) must make 56 gross of matchboxes a week or 1296 a day.

(3) Andrew Means had given a harrowing account of the squalor and poverty of Victorian London’s destitute poor. Thus, most densely inhabited apartments lacked even basic amenities. They lived in very dirty and pathetic conditions full of criminals.

2. Explain the position of women in Britain in the 19th century.

Ans. (1) In the 19th century, women in Britain were encouraged with a new spirit of individualism but they did not have access to new urban space like men.

(2) Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain faced increasingly higher levels of isolation, although their lives were made easier by domestic maids who cooked, cleaned and cared for young children at low wages.

 (3) Women who worked for wages had some control over their lives, particularly among the lower social classes. However, many social reformers felt the need to save the institution of family by pushing these women back into the home.

(4) Later on, many women lost their industrial jobs and conservatives people. rallied against their presence in public spaces, women were forced to withdraw into their homes.

 (5) But gradually, women come to participate in political movements for suffrage that demanded the right the vote or married women’s rights to a property.

3. Explain how the underground railways were able to solve transport problems as well as the housing crisis in London in the nineteenth century.

Ans. (1) Underground railways was a huge success in London. It had become a well-functioning transit system which made roads less crowded.

(2)As a result, the population in the city became more dispersed.

(3) Better planned suburbs and a good railway network enabled large numbers to live outside central London and travel to work. Areas such as Rosily and Harrow became dormitory towns.

(4) This was meant to have a double benefit of easing congestion and pollution in the cities and creating employment in the depressed regions.

(5) Thus, the underground railways provided a social service by clearing out unhealthy overcrowded localities.

4. ‘As London grew, crime flourished’. Substantiate the statement with three facts.

Ans. (1) In the nineteenth century, London progressed in all aspects of life but every good have a negative side also.

(2) With the Industrial Revolution, textile mills, factories started to shoot up in London and this situation attracted migrants from rural areas and other regions. It became the city of shopkeepers, patricians, soldiers etc. and at the same time, not every migrant could be offered jobs in the developing city of London.

 (3) This led to an exploding situation and resulted in an increased crime rate and criminal activities persisted along with the growth of London city.

 (4) Poor migrants were not able to meet their needs therefore, they started committing either Even unemployed people were considered as criminals by London police.

 (5) The crime was considered more profitable than labouring in small underpaid factories. Pick-pocketing and stealing seemed lucrative than being a labour.

5. Why did people of London call underground railway the iron monster’? Give any three reasons.   

 Ans. (1) At first, people were afraid to travel underground railway of London.

(2) The compartment was filled with passengers who were smoking pipes.

(3) The atmosphere was a mixture of sculpture, coal dust and foul fumes from the gas lamps above.

(4) There was a problem of suffocation due to lack of oxygen supply. It was considered to be a menace to health.

(5) Many felt that the ‘iron monsters’ i.e., London underground railway added to the mess and unhealthiness of the city. There had been massive destruction in the process of construction. To make approximately two miles of railway, 900 houses had to be destroyed.

6. Explain any three reasons for the increasing concern for the London poor during the nineteenth century.   

 Ans. (1) The vast mass of one room houses occupied by the poor was a serious threat to public health.

(2) They were overcrowded, badly ventilated and lacked sanitation to the general public.

(3) In slums, there was always a fear of fire hazards created by poor housing.

(4) There was a widespread fear of social disorder after the Russian Revolution in 1917.

(5) Workers’ mass housing schemes were planned to prevent the London poor from turning rebellious.

7. Describe any three main features of a garden city as conceived by Ebenezer Howard.

Or

 Explain the concept of the ‘Garden City’. Who developed this system in London?

Ans. (1) Ebenezer Howard was an architect and planner who developed the principle of the Garden City.

(2) Garden City is a pleasant space full of plants and trees. Such greenery makes the place beautiful.

(3) Howard wanted to develop a city where people would both live and work.

(4) He believed Garden Cities would also produce better quality citizen. If the locality of inhabitant will be clean and full of greenery then, the lifestyle of the citizens will be better.

8. What did historian Gareth Stedman Jones say about the ‘city of London’?

Or

 Mention the major industries of London in the 19th century and 20th century.

Ans. (1) London was a city of clerks and shopkeepers.

 (2) It was a city of small masters and skilled artisans.

(3) It was a city of the growing number of semi-skilled and sweated out workers, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.

(4) Apart from the London dockyards, five major types of industries that employed a large number of people were: clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing and stationery and precision products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal.

 (5) During the First World War, London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods and the number of large factories increased until they accounted for nearly one-third of all jobs in the city.

9. Why was the development of the underground railway in London criticized?

Or

 Why was the development of an underground railway in London criticized? Explain any three Reasons.                                                                                    

Ans. (1) The London underground railway partially solved the housing crisis by carrying large masses of people to and from the city.

(2) The compartment was filled with passengers who were smoking pipes.

(3) The atmosphere was a mixture of sculpture, coal dust and foul fumes from the gas lamp above. There was a problem of suffocation due to lack of oxygen supply. It was considered to be a menace to health.

 (4) Many felt that the ‘iron monsters’ added to the mess and unhealthiness of the city.

(5) It led to a massive displacement of the London poor, especially between the two World Wars. To make approximately two miles of railway, 900 houses had to be destroyed.

10. “The London underground railway became a .huge success.” Explain.

Or

‘The London underground railways eventually became a huge success’. Support the statement with examples.                                                                   

Ans. (1) The London underground railway partially solved the housing crisis by carrying large masses of people to and from the city.

(2) By the 20th century, most large metropolises such as New York, Tokyo and Chicago could not do without their well-functioning transit system. While the London underground railway became a huge success. By 1880, it was carrying 40 million passengers a year.

(3) Population in the city became more dispersed. Better-planned suburbs and a good railway network enabled large numbers to live outside Central London and travel to work.

11. State any three characteristics of the ancient cities.

Or

Enumerate the major characteristics of an ancient town.

Ans. (1) The cities first appeared along river valleys.

(2) Towns and cities that first appeared along river valleys, such as Ur, Nippur and Mohenjo-Daro, were larger in scale than other human settlements.

 (3) Ancient cities could develop only when an increase in food supplies made it possible to support a wide range of non-food producers.

(4) Cities were often the centres of political power, administrative network, trade and industry; religious institutions and intellectual activity.

 (5) These cities supported various social groups such as artisans, merchants and priests. Cities themselves can vary greatly in size and complexity. They can be densely settled modern-day metropolises, which combine political and economic functions for an entire region, and support very large populations or they can be smaller urban centres with limited functions.

12. Why did well-off Londoners support the need to build housing for the poor in the 19th century? Explain three reasons.

Or

Why did well-off people demand good housing society for the poor people? 

Or

Describe the reasons to recognize the need for housing for the poor in London.

Ans:- (i) The poor and filthy living conditions of one room houses which posed a serious threat to public health.
(ii)There was the danger of fire hazards.
(iii) There was a fear of social disorder or rebellion by the workers, especially after the Russian Revolution in 1917. So to prevent the London poor from turning rebellious workers’ mass housing scheme was introduced.

 13. What steps were taken to clean London iii the early and mid-20th century?

Or

Describe any Describe any World War.

Or

 Explain any three steps taken to clean up London.

Ans. (1) Large blocks of apartments were built. It has been proved that housing scheme brings a magical change in the urban area where land is very important. In this case, no one is permitted to build a personal apartment.

(2) Rent control was introduced to check the housing shortage. The number of people migrated from the countryside during the development of industries needed shelter. In this case, there was a rule formed by the government in London to prevent illegal rent from the working poor people.

(3) Greenbelt was created around London. Demands were made for new ‘lungs’ for the city, and some attempts were made to bridge the difference between city and countryside through such ideas as the Green Belt around London.

(4) Many wealthy Londoners moved into the countryside. The principle of Garden city was developed. A pleasant space full of plants and trees where people would both live and work was developed. This would also produce better quality citizens.

(5) Single-family cottages were built for the working class by local authorities.

14. How did the marginal groups threaten London? What was the root cause of this problem? How did the authorities in London try to solve this problem?

Ans. (1) The police were worried about the law and order and industrialists wanted an orderly workforce.

 (2) There were professional criminals like cheats, tricksters, pick-pockets and petty thieves too in the marginal groups.

(3) Most of the people in the marginal groups were very poor who lived by selling lead stolen from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal and cloth drying from hedges.

(4) In order to discipline them, the authorities counted the number of criminals, watched their activities and investigated their lives.

 (5) High penalties were imposed and deserving poor people were offered work.

15. Evaluate the uses of the London underground railways.                   

                                                                                       Or

Which three problems were solved by the underground railway in London during the 19th century?                                                                     

Or

Critically examine the impacts of the London underground railway.

Or

Explain the benefits of London Tube railway for the population in the city.

Or

‘Even though the underground railway eventually became a huge success, it was opposed by many people initially.’ Explain five valid reasons for this opposition.                                            

Ans. (1) Merits of uses : (I) The London underground railways partially solved the housing crisis by carrying a large number of people to and from the city.

(ii) Frequent services linked the suburbs to the cities.

 (iii) It helped in decongestion of a city.

(iv) It resulted in better-planned suburbs.

(v) It reduced social distinction in the long run.

(2) Demerits of uses : (i) People were afraid to travel because it was full of pollution.

(ii) It was seen as a health hazard and an iron monster.

(iii) This resulted in a displacement of poor as their houses were destroyed.

16. How did the condition of women workers change from 19th to 20th centuries in London?

Or

What were the changes in the work available to women in London during the 19th and 20th century? Explain the factors that led to this change.

Ans. (1) With technological development, women lost their industrial jobs and had to take up work within household jobs.

(2) The 1861 census recorded a quarter of a million domestic servants in London, of whom the vast majority were women, many of them were recent migrants.

 (3) A large number of women used their homes to increase family income by taking in lodgers or through such activities.

(4) Women of London during the 20th century took up tailoring, washing, matchbox making, etc. However, there was a change once again in the twentieth century.

(5) As women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.

17. Why the population of London multiplied in the late 19th and 20th centuries? Explain.

Or

 `London was a magnet city for the migrant population’. Justify the statement with five facts.

Or

“During the 19th century, the city of London was a powerful magnet for migrant Population”. Support the statement with examples.

Or

 Explain any three reasons for which the population of London city expanded during the nineteenth century                                                                                

Or

Why did the population of London city expand over the 19th century? Explain.            

Or

Why was London called the ‘city of the magnet’? Give three reasons.

Ans. (1) The population of London multiplied fourfold in 70 years between 1810 kid 1880 increasing from 1 million to 4 million.

 (2) London was a powerful magnet for migrant population, even though it did not have large factories.

(3) 19th century London was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small traders and skilled artisans, semi-skilled and sweated out workers, of soldiers and servants, of casual workers, street sellers and beggars.

(4) Apart from London dockyard, five major types of industries employed large numbers; clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing and stationery, and precision products.

(5) During the First World War, the number of large factories increased and a large number of people joined the newly created jobs.

SOCIAL CHANGE IN THE CITY

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Explain any five sources of entertainment for the common people of London in the nineteenth century. 

 Ans. (1) Many new types of large-scale entertainment for the common people came into being, some made possible with money from the state.

(2) Libraries, art galleries and museums were established in the nineteenth century to provide common people with a sense of history.

(3) The number of visitors visiting British museum in 1810 was 1,27,643 that jumped to 8,25,901 by 1846.

(4) Music halls were popular among lower classes and by the early twentieth century, cinema became the great entertainment for the masses.

(5) Working classes met in pubs to have a drink, exchange news and sometimes, also to organize for political action.

 (6) British industrial workers were increasingly spending their holidays by the sea, to derive the benefits of the sun and bracing winds.

2. What was the London season? Highlight any two other ways through which the London people spent holidays during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.                    

 Ans. (1) For the wealthy Londoners, there was the annual ‘London Season’ where elite groups could enjoy several cultural events such as the opera and theatre.

(2) Working classes too had their own means of entertainment they used to meet in pubs and enjoy a drink, exchange news and discuss political events.

(3) The establishment of libraries, museums and art galleries provided entertainment to common people.

(4) Music halls and later cinema houses became a source of mass entertainment.

(5) Industrial workers spent holidays by the sea-shore and enjoyed both sun and the wind which was a great source of entertainment.

 (6) By the early twentieth century, cinema became the great mass entertainment for mixed audiences.

3. Explain any in London five social changes that took place in the family lived in the 18th century’

Or

How did the industrial cities completely transform the shape of British family?

Or

Explain any five social changes which took place in the life of the people in industrial cities of eighteenth-century England.              

 Ans. In the eighteenth century in London, many social changes have taken place. The main changes are given below.

(1) Ties between members of households loosened.

 (2) Among the working class, the institution of marriage tended to break down.

(3) Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain faced increasingly higher levels of isolation although domestic maids made their lives easier by their help in household work.

 (4) Women who worked for wages had some control over their lives, particularly among the lower social classes.

(5) Many social reformers felt that the family as an institution had broken down. To save or reconstruct the family, women should be back into the home.

4. How was the condition of an urban family transformed by the 20th century?

Ans. (1) Ties between members of households loosened, and among the working class, the institution of marriage tended to break down.

(2) Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain faced increasingly higher levels of isolation. Although their lives were made easier by domestic maids who cooked, cleaned and cared for young children at low wages.

 (3) By the 20th century, the urban family had been transformed partly by the experience of the valuable wartime work done by women who were employed in large numbers to meet war demands. The family now consisted of much smaller units.

(4) The family became the heart of a new market, of goods and services, and of ideas.

(5) If the new industrial city provided opportunities for mass work, it also razed the problem of mass leisure on Sundays and other common holidays.

5. Describe any three methods of leisure of wealthy people in the late eighteenth century England.

Ans. (1) For wealthy people in England, there had long been an annual ‘London Season’.

(2) Several cultural events, such as the opera, the theatre and classical music performances were organized for an elite group of 300-400 families in the late 18th century.

(3) Meanwhile, working classes met in pubs to have a drink, exchange news and sometimes also to organize for political action.

6. Ties between members of households loosened in Britain in the era of industrialization. Explain the statement.                                                                                                                                   

 Ans. (1) The function and the shape of the family have completely transformed my life in the industrial city.

(2) Among the working class, the institution of marriage tended to break down.

 (3) Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain faced increasingly higher levels of isolation, although their lives were made easier by domestic maids who cooked, cleaned and cared for young children at low wages.

(4) The city encouraged a new spirit of individualism to arraign both men and women and a freedom from the collective values that were a feature of the smaller rural communities.

(5) But men and women did not have equal access to this new urban space. The public Vic became increasingly a male preserve, and the domestic sphere was seen as the proper Place for women.

7. How did people entertain themselves in their leisure time in urban Britain in the 19th century ?                                                                                                                                   

Or

What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth-century England to provide leisure activities for the people?

Or

How did people of different classes organize their new-found leisure in England? Explain.

Or

 Explain any five sources of entertainment which came up in the 19th century in England to provide leisure activities.

Or

 Describe five forms of entertainment that came up in the 19th century England.

Or

How did the people of all classes entertain themselves in their leisure time in urban Britain after industrialization?

Ans:- Various forms of entertainment were:-

1) there used to be an annual London season for the wealthy Britishers in which several cultural events were organised

2) working classes met in pubs to drink, exchange of news and sometimes also to organise political actions.

3) libraries, art galleries and museums were established.

4) music halls were popular among lower classes.

5) cinema became a great mass of entertainment for mixed audiences.

POLITICS IN THE CITY

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Explain ‘Haussmanization of Paris’.      

Ans. (1) In 1852 Louis Napoleon III became the emperor and wanted to rebuild Paris with the help of chief architect Baron Haussmann. He forcibly reconstructed cities to enhance their beauty and imposed order.

(2) The poor were evicted from the centre of Paris to reduce the possibility of political rebellion and to beautify the city.

(3) For 17 years after 1852 Haussmann rebuilt Paris and by 1870 one-fifth of the streets of Paris were Haussmann’s creation. In addition, policemen were deployed, night petrol was begun and bus shelters and tap water introduced.

 (4) Even some rich people too felt the monstrous transformation of Paris. Many felt that Haussmann had killed the street and its life to produce an empty boring city full of similar looking boulevards and facades.

 (5) But outcry against Haussmann’s Paris soon got converted into civic pride as the new capital became the toast of all Europe. Paris became the hub of many new architectural, social and intellectual developments. This phase was called ‘Hanssmanization of Paris’.

2. Explain what is meant by the Haussmanization of Paris. To what extent would you support this form of development?

Ans. (1) (I) Baron Haussmann was the chief architect of the new Paris of Louis ) Napoleon-III.

(ii) The Haussmanisation of Paris refers to the forcible reconstruction of Paris to enhance its beauty and impose order.

 (iii) The poor were evicted from the centre of Paris to reduce the possibility of political rebellion and to beautify the city.

(iv) For 17 years after 1852, Haussmann rebuilt Paris. Straight, broad avenues or boulevards and open spaces were designed and full-grown trees were transplanted.

 (v) By 1870, one-fifth of the streets of Paris were Haussmann’s creation.

(2) (I) I would support this form of development if the proper rehabilitation work is done for the displaced persons.

(ii) We have seen that the city of Paris soon got converted into civic pride as the new capital became the toast of all Europe.

(iii) Paris became the hub of many new architectural, social and intellectual developments that were very influential right through the 20th century, even in other parts of the world.

THE CITY IN COLONIAL INDIA

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What are chaws?

 Ans. Chaws were multi-storied structures which had been built from at least the 1860s in the native parts of the town.

2. Which city is referred to as `Maya pure?

Ans. Bombay was referred to as `Mayapurf.

3. When did Bombay become a capital of Bombay Presidency?

 Ans. Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819.

4. By whom was the first movie in Bombay shot in the year 1896?

 Ans. The first movie in Bombay was shot by Harishchandra Sahara Bhatwadekar.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. How did Bombay appear as a blend of dream and reality of slums and star bungalows? Give reasons.

Or

 Bombay is a city of dream and star bungalows — a blend of dream and reality of slums. Support the statement with examples.                                                                          

Ans. (1) Bombay became the capital of Bombay Presidency in 1819. By 20th century more and more people migrated to Bombay.

(2) There was the problem of housing due to overcrowding. The residential area was limited while the population was increasing. Day-by-day. Water supply problem too increased People quarrelled every morning for water. Problems of employment were increasing day-by-day. Skilled and unskilled people moved to Bombay for the better life.

(3) The mass migration of people created the housing problem which was solved by Chaw system. These Chaws were multi-storied structures having one room flat and common toilet and water tap.

(4) On the other hand, richer Paris, Muslims and upper caste traders and industrialists of Bombay lived in sprawling spacious bungalows.

(5) Bombay had also become India’s film city producing the film for a national audience. Thousands of people came here every year looking for a bright career in the film industry. Bombay films have contributed in a big way to produce an image of the city as a blend of dream and reality of slums and star bungalows.

2. Examine the living conditions of different sections of society in Bombay prior to reclamation.

Ans. (1) Prior to reclamation, the homes of the common people were small. Streets and neigh bbourhoods were used for a variety of activities such as cooking, washing and sleeping.

(2)Caste and family groups in the mill neighbourhood were headed by someone who was similar to a village headman.

 (3) People who belonged to the depressed classes found it even more difficult to could housing. Lower castes were kept out of many chaws and often had to live in shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles. While rich and affluent classes sprawling bungalows with all basic amenities.

3. Analyze any three effects of population growth on Bombay during 19 centuries.

Ans. (1) Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819 After that the city expanded quickly. With the growth of trade in cotton and opium, a large number of traders and bankers, artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay. Bombay was over-populated.

(2) There was the problem of housing due to over-crowding. The residential area was limited while the population was increasing day-by-day.

(3) Water supply problems increased. People often fought over the water every morning. Poor sanitation was another problem which aggravated the problems of city-dwellers.

4. Mention the three presidency cities of India. Why were they referred to as `multi-functionality cities’?

 Ans. (1) Presidency cities were the capitals of Bombay (Mum hath Bengal and Madras (Chennai) presidencies in British India.

(2)They were referred to as multi-functionality cities because : (I) Presidency cities had major ports, warehouses, home offices, and army camps.

(ii) Somewhere presidency cities had educational institutions, museums and libraries.

5. When and why was the Rent Act passed in Bombay during the British days? What I was its outcome?

Ans. (1) Rent Act was passed in 1918 in Bombay during the British days.

 (2) This act was passed to keep rents reasonable because this time rent was so high.

(3) Rent Act had the onsite effect of producing a severe housing crisis since landlords withdrew house from the market.

6. Why was Bombay called as a Mayapuri or Mayanagri?

Ans. (1) Film industry: The Bombay films have contributed in a big way to produce an image of the city where foreigners settled their colony and ruled over India. It is situated on the bay of the Arabian sea, many import and export business is carried there.

 (2) Since the making of the first film in 1896, Dadasaheb Pale’s film `Raja Harischandrif (1913) attracted people. Till now, many experiments occurred there in different films, based on various issues of society.

(3) By 1925, Bombay had become India’s film city producing the film for a national audience. Now, telefilms and other media house productions are made there which provide opportunities to artists, technicians, and other skilled and unskilled workers.

(4) Thousands of people come here every year looking for a bright career in the film industry. It is the evidence of a new film where new face come out with a good sense of humour.

 (5) Bombay films have contributed in a big way to produce an image of the city as 8 blends of dream and reality of slums and star bungalows.

7. How did Bombay come under the British control?

Ans. (1) In the seventeenth century, Bombay was a group of seven islands under Portuguese control.

(2) In 1661, after the marriage of Britain’s King Charles II to the Portuguese Princes%, the control of this island passed into British hands.

 (3) The East India Company quickly shifted its base from Seurat, its principal western port to Bombay.

8. How did Bombay become a major industrial centre? Explain.

Ana, (1) In the seventeenth century, Bombay was under the control of Portuguese. Later, it was handed over to Britain; the East India Company made Bombay its base.

(2) Initially, Bombay was an outlet for cotton textiles from Gujarat. Later, it was developed as a port city. Cotton and opium were exported from here.

(3) Gradually, it also became an important administrative centre in Western India. By the end of the 19th century, Bombay emerged as a major industrial centre.

9. Explain any three major problems faced by people who migrated to Bombay (Mumbai) during the nineteenth century.

Or

 Highlight any three problems faced by people who migrated to Bombay.

Or

 Explain any three major problems faced by people who migrated to Bombay (Mumbai) during the nineteenth century.                                                                                        

 Ans. (1) There was the problem of housing due to over-crowding. The residential area was limited while the population was increasing day-by-day.

(2) Water supply problems increased. People quarrelled every morning for a turn at the tap.

(3) Problems of employment were increasing day-by-day. Skilled and non-skilled persons wanted to move to Bombay to live a better life but the reality was that jobs were limited there. So, most of them did not get a job. The flood of migrants in some years created panic and alarm in official circles.

10. Explain any five features of Chaws of Bombay (Mumbai).

Or

Explain any three features of Chaws of Bombay.

Or

What is meant by thaws’ in Bombay? Who lived there? Mention any three characteristics of the Chaws which made the life of the residents like hell.                                  

 Ans. (1) In Bombay thaws’ means multi-storied buildings which had been built from the 1860s in the native parts of the town.

(2) These houses were largely owned by private landlords such as merchants, bankers and building contractors for earning quick money from migrants.

 (3) (i) Each chaw was divided into smaller one-room tenements.

 (ii) It had a common toilet and water tap.

(iii) Many families could reside at a time in a tenement.

11. State the main reason behind town planning in Bombay. How did it differ from town Planning in London?

Ans. (1) (i) Planning in Bombay came about as a result of fears about the plague epidemic.

 (ii) Expansion of the city has always posed a problem in Bombay because of the scarcity of land.

(iii) Bombay was a crowded city. While every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average Space of 155 square yards, Bombay had a mere 9.5 square yards.

 (2)(I) On the other hand, town-planning in London emerged from fears of social revolution%

(ii) There was a widespread fear of social disorder, especially after the Russian Revolution in 1917.

(iii) Workers’ mass housing schemes were planned to prevent the London poor from turning rebellious.

12. Describe the steps taken to solve the problem of housing in Bombay.

Or

 State any three steps taken in Bombay to solve the problem of housing.

Ans. (1) Chaws were multi-storied structures which had been built in the native parts of the town. These houses were largely owned by private landlords, such as merchants, bankers and building contractors.

 (2) The City of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898. It focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city centre.

 (3) In 1918, a Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable. But, it had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.

 (4) The City of Bombay developed massive reclamation projects. Reclamation refers to the reclaiming of marshy or submerged areas or another wasteland for settlements, cultivation or other use. There had been several reclamation projects.

(5) The seven islands of Bombay were joined into one landmass only over a period of time. The earliest project began in 1784.

13. How did people entertain themselves in the chaws?                                

Or

 How did people entertain themselves in the chaws of Bombay?

Ans. (1) There was an open space in the middle of four chaws. There the magicians, monkey players or acrobats used to regularly perform their acts.

(2) The Nandi bull used to come. There was the Kadaklakshmi. The performers beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs.

 (3) Chaws was also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.

14. Describe three historic processes that have shaped modern cities in decisive ways.

Ans. (1) The rise of industrial capitalism:

(i)Many decades after the beginning of the industrial revolution, most western countries were largely rural.

 (ii) Industrialization changed the form of urbanization in the modern period.

(iii) Cities were often the centres of political power, administrative network, trade and ` industry, religious institution, and intellectual activity, and supported various social groups such as artisans, merchants and priests.

(2)The establishment of colonial rule over large parts of the world :

(I) In the 17th century, Bombay was a group of seven islands under Portuguese control.

(ii) In 1661, control of the islands passed into British hands after the marriage of Britain’s King Charles-II to the Portuguese princess. The East India Company quickly shifted its base from Seurat to Bombay.

(iii) Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819, after the Murat° defeat in the Anglo-Maratha war.

15. How did the development or expansion of Bombay (Mumbai) differ from Lond-cf; Give any three points of difference.

Or

 How did the development or expansion of Bombay differ from London? States any three points of difference between the two.                                                          

Or

How did the lawn planning in Bombay differ from London? How did it take place?

Ans. (1) Bombay was an over-crowded city, where a person had only 9.5 sq yards of space whereas it was around 155 sq yards per person in London.

(2) Bombay did not grow according to a plan, whereas London grew according to plan.

(3) London had an average density of 8 persons per house, whereas the density in Bombay was as high as 20.

16. Why did more and more people migrate to Bombay by the early 20th century? Explain three reasons.                                                                                                        Or

“A large number of migrants were attracted to Bombay in the 20th century.” Explain the statement.                                                    

Or

How did Bombay attract a large number of migrants in the 20th century? Explain.     

 Ans. More and more people migrated to Bombay by the early 20th century because :

 (1) It became the capital of Bombay Presidency in 1819 and expanded.

(2) Due to the growth of trade in cotton and opium, a number of traders, bankers, artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay. Establishment of textile mills increased migration.

 (3) It dominated the maritime trade of India till the 2.0th century.

 (4) It was also at the junction head of 2 major railways.

(5) It became an important administrative centre in Western India. Then, by the end of the 19th century, it became a major industrial centre.

17. How did Bombay emerge as an important colonial city?                   

Or

 Bombay was a prime city of India in the 19th century. Explain the statement giving any three facts.

Or

Why was Bombay considered the prime city of India? Explain three reasons.            

Or

 Manton any three reasons that made Bombay the prime city of India.

 Ans.

 (1) Bombay was the principal western port of the East India Company.

 (2) It was an important centre for cotton textiles.

 (3) It became an important administrative centre of western India.

 (4) It emerged as a major industrial centre in the 19th century.

 (5) It became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819, after the Maratha defeat in the Anglo-Maratha war.

18. ‘The chaws of Bombay were a cosmopolitan community in itself.” Explain the statement with appropriate examples.

Ans. (1) Many families could reside in these chaws. The open space in the centre of awls was used for a variety of activities, performances and exchange of news related to Jobs, strikes, riots, etc.

 (2) Chaws were generally headed by someone who was similar to a village headman.

 (3) Mostly the jobbers were the local leaders who settled disputes, arranged informal credits and organized food supplies. People lived like an integrated family in these chaws.

19. Why was the land reclamation in Bombay necessary? Mention any two land reclamation projects taken up in Bombay.

Or

 Highlight any three massive land reclamation projects undertaken to develop Bombay.

Or

 Describe the land reclamation policy of Bombay.

Or

What do you mean by “Land Reclamation”? Explain the history of land reclamation in Mumbai.                                                                                                                                       

Or

What is ‘reclamation’? Why were reclamation projects undertaken in Bombay? Explain any two such projects.                                                                                                                         

Or

“Describe any five features of land reclamation in Bombay.

Ans. (1) The reclaiming of marshy or submerged areas or another wasteland for settlement, cultivation or other use is called reclamation.

(2)The land reclamation was necessary for Bombay because: (i) Expansion of city has always posed a problem because of the scarcity of land.

(ii) The seven islands of Bombay were joined into one landmass only over a period of time.

 (iii) As the population continued to increase rapidly in the early twentieth century, every bit of the available area was built over and new areas were reclaimed from the sea.

(iv) The establishment of textile mills increased the demand for land. It also led to a fresh surge in migration.

(3)(i) Back Bay Reclamation Company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar Hill to the end of Collabra. The city expanded to about 22 square miles.

(ii) Bombay Port Trust built a dry dock between 1914-1918 and used the excavated earth to create the 22-acre Ballard Estate. Subsequently, the famous Marine Drive of Bombay was developed.

20. Why is Bombay a city of dreams for some, while a city of hardship for others? Explain.

Ans. (1) Bombay was a city of dreams because                                                          

(i)There was a huge expansion of industries in Bombay.

(ii)The industries had numerous job opportunities and, thus, attracted many peeps from the outside.

 (iii) Also, Bombay became the hub of Indian films.

(2)Bombay was a city of hardship because :

(i) It lacked in housing facilities. Mostly, people lived in chaws with minimum basic amenities.

(ii) It was a costly city, which made the life of daily wages earners very miserable.

(iii)People had to travel long distances to reach their job locations daily.

(iv) In industries, labourers were exploited.

21. Explain what led to the expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-19th century

Or

What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century?                                                                                                                                       

Or

 Explain any three reasons for the expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-18th century.

Ans. (1) When Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819, the city quickly expanded.

(2) With the growth of trade in cotton and opium a large number of traders and bankers, artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay.

 (3) The establishment of textile mills led to a fresh intake of the population. People migrated from Ratnagiri and far away places.

 (4) When Bombay became the hub of Indian films, many new people — singers, actors, poets, play writers migrated to the city.

(5) Bombay was at the junction head of two major railways. This encouraged a higher scale of migration into the city

CITIES AND THE CHALLENGE OF THE ENVIRONMENT

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. When was smoke nuisance legislation passed first time in India?

Ans. In 1863, smoke nuisance legislation was passed first time in India.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. How did the development of cities influence the ecology and environment in the late nineteenth century? Explain by giving an example of Calcutta (Kolkata).

Or

“City development occurred everywhere at the expense of ecology and environment.” Substantiate your answer with suitable examples.                                                        

 Ans. (1) City development occurred everywhere at the expense of ecology and the environment. Natural features were flattened for the growing demand for space.

(2) In Calcutta, coal was used as fuel in the industries. People also used coal, wood and dung as fuel. It produced dense smoke, which made the air poisonous and caused many diseases like respiratory and skin diseases.

 (3) Another problem was noise pollution in Calcutta produced from the machine and other industrial equipment. Vehicles in large numbers were run on roads of Calcutta. It not only Increased level of noise but also played a major role in increasing the level of air pollution. All these factors were harmful to ecology and the environment.

2. Write about the pollution problems of Calcutta in the 19th century.

Or

 Calcutta (Kolkata) had a long history of air pollution”. Explain any five reasons for it.

Or

 State the history of air pollution in Calcutta during the nineteenth century.

Ans. (1) Calcutta had a long history of air pollution. Its inhabitants inhaled grey smoke! particularly in the winter.

(2) High levels of pollution were a consequence of the huge population that depended on 4 dung and wood as fuel in their daily life.

(3) The main polluters of Calcutta were the industries and establishments that wed steam engines run on coal. The railway line introduced in 1855 brought a dangerous nee pollutant into the picture — coal from Ranging.

(4) The city was built on marshy land, the resulting fog combined with smoke to generate thick black smog.

 (5) The rice mills of Tollygunge began to burn rice husk instead of coal.

3. How does urbanization pose a threat to the environment?

Ans. (1) Natural features are flattened out or transformed in response to the growing demand for space for factories, housing and other institutions.

 (2) Urbanization mainly begins due to industrialization. While large quantities of refuse and waste products from industries pollute air and water. Also, excessive noise becomes a feature of urban life.

(3) High levels of pollution are a consequence of the huge population that use fuel in their daily life while cooking or in vehicles.

4. Explain any three causes of air pollution in Calcutta in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. What efforts were made to control air pollution?

Or

Explain any three problems concerning with air pollution in Calcutta.                         

Or

Explain any three causes of air pollution in Calcutta in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Which body controlled industrial pollution?                        

Or

 Write about the pollution problems of Calcutta (Kolkata) in the 19th century.                                                           

Ans. (i) Pollution was due to a large number of people being dependent on dung and wood as fuel.

(ii) Industries and other establishment used steam engines that run on coal and caused air pollution.

(iii) Due to marshy land, the resulting fog combined with smoke to generate thick smog.

(iv) Calcutta had a history of air pollution. Its inhabitants inhaled grey smoke.

(2) The inspectors of the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Commission finally managed to control industrial smoke.

VALUE-BASED QUESTION

1. What do you think are the reasons for migration and its impact on the migrating people? Name any two metropolitan cities facing this problem.

 Ans. (1) Reasons for migration: Landlessness

(ii) Lack of employment opportunity

(iii) Lack of educational and health facilities.

(2)Impacts: (i) Homelessness/Growth of slum areas

 (ii) Poor sanitation

(iii) Unemployment

  • The problem of electricity and water supply.

 (3) Delhi and Mumbai.

QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE

1. Who was a philanthropist? How did they want to discipline the population of London during the mid-nineteenth century?

2.Analyze the role of underground railways of London during the 19th century

3. Why was Bombay considered the prime city of India during the rule of East India Company? Write any five reasons.

4. Explain any three measures taken in order to resolve the environmental problems in London.                                                                                                           

5. Why did the population of London expand from the middle of the eighteenth century ? Give any three reasons.                                                                                          

Or

Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.

6. Give five reasons for the expansion of Bombay’s population in the 19th century

Or

 Describe any five causes of the expansion of Bombay in the 19th century.               

7. Describe the social changes which led to the need for the underground railway in London. Why was the development of the underground railway criticized?

8. How did the British government solve the housing problem of London workers between the two World Wars? Explain.

9. How did Bombay emerge as a metropolitan city from a group of seven islands in the 20th century? Explain.

10. Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants? Explain three reasons.

 

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