If you are searching Example for Adjective Clause you are at a right place. Here you can get Adjective Exercise MCQ. Due to pandemic the CBSE Board changed the exam pattern to MCQ and even the writing section was converted to MCQ. So we are presenting MCQ of Complaint Letter Class 10.
Adjective /Relative Clause :
The Adjective /Relative Clause does the function of an adjective in a sentence. That is why it is also called an adjective clause. We put a relative clause immediately after the noun which refers to the person, thing, or group we are talking about.
- The boy who came into the house was my friend.
- The house which our neighbour bought is made of stone.
- God helps those who help themselves.
- Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
A relative clause is essential to the clear understanding of the noun it defines or qualifies. For example,
- ‘Who came into the house’ is a relative clause without which it will not be clear to which ‘boy’ we are referring
Example for Adjective Clause-
This is the home which my father built.
This is the place where my friend lives.
The reason why he resigned is not known.
I know the time when the match will begin.
Adjective Clause examples where you can omit the Relative Pronoun or the Relative Adverb. as,
This is the book (which or that) I lost long ago.
This is the boy (whom) I know well.
I am the monarch of all (that) I survey.
The reason (why) she has returned is that she left her purse behind.
Note: Sometimes, a Relative Pronoun introduces a Co-ordinate Clause; as,
He released the pigeon, which (= and it) flew away.
It might appear that the clause, which flew away, is an Adjective Clause and, therefore, is a Subordinate Clause. In reality, this is not the case, because this clause in no way identifies or describes the pigeon.
When a subordinate clause performs the function of an adjective, it is called an Adjective Clause. It qualifies a noun or pronoun in the Principal Clause which goes before it.
Study the following examples carefully
- The boy who is wearing a blue shirt is my brother.
(a) The boy is my brother = Principal Clause.
(b) Who is wearing a blue shirt = Adjective Clause qualifying the noun ‘boy’.
It can graphically be analysed as follows :
Principal Clause = The boy is my brother
Sub Clause = Who is wearing a blue shirt
- This is the book that I bought for fifty rupees.
(a) This is the book = Principal Cause
(b) I bought the book for fifty rupees = Adjective Clause qualifying the noun ‘book’.
- This is the place where the battle was fought.
(a) This is the place = Principal Clause
(b) Where the battle was fought = Adjective Clause qualifying the noun ‘place’.
- The scooter which I bought yesterday has been stolen.
(a) The scooter has been stolen = Principal Clause
(b) Which I bought yesterday = Adjective Clause qualifying the noun ‘scooter’.
- The tall gentleman who is wearing spectacles is my father.
(a) The tall gentleman is my father = Principal Clause.
(b) Who is wearing spectacles = Adjective Clause qualifying the noun ‘gentleman..
There are two kinds of relative clauses—defining and non-defining relative clauses.
Defining and Non-defining Relative Clauses:
Defining relative clauses limit the noun or pronoun to which they refer to a particular type or examples. They answer the questions which? what? whose? In the two example sentences above the relative clauses restrict ‘the boy’ and ‘the house’ to a particular ‘boy’ or a particular ‘house’.
Non-defining clauses simply give us additional information about the nouns, pronouns and clauses to which they refer. For example:
- Anwar, who returned yesterday, will come to meet us.
There are some general rules which should be noted about relative clauses and relative pronouns:
(i)A non-defining clause is separated by commas (see the above sentence).
(ii) A defining clause is not separated by commas.
(iii) In a non-defining clause, the relative pronoun cannot be omitted.
- Satish, who/whom you met yesterday, is a friend of mine.
- Here the relative pronoun ‘who/whom’ cannot be omitted.
(iv) In a defining clause, we can omit the relative pronoun except when it is the subject of a verb:
- The woman you met yesterday is my mother.
In this sentence, the relative pronoun is omitted. But we cannot omit it in the following sentence:
- The boy who gave you this book is my friend.
This is because here the relative pronoun ‘who’ is the subject of the verb ‘gave’.
(v) In a non-defining clause the preposition governing the relative is rarely placed at the end of the clause:
- This is Mohan, about whom I was talking.
(vi) In a defining clause the preposition governing the relative is generally placed at the end of the clause:
- This is the boy I was talking about.
(vii) The relative pronouns ‘which’, ‘who’, ‘whose’, ‘whom’ are found in both defining and non-defining clauses. But the pronoun ‘that’ is only found in defining clauses.
(viii) The relative pronouns differ according to whether they refer to persons or things and according to their case:
|Relative Pronoun||For Persons||For Things|
|Nominative Case||Who, that||Which, that|
|Objective Case||Whom, who, that||Which, that|
|Possessive Case||Whose||Whose, of which|
(ix) Relative clauses are introduced by relative adverbs ‘where’, ‘when’, `why’.
- This is the house where we lived.
- This is the time when the winter season sets in.
- This is the reason why I left this place.
Use of Pronouns for Persons: In Adjective Clause
(i) In the nominative case, we use ‘who’ or `that’. ‘That’ is used after superlatives and after all, nobody, no one, somebody, someone, anybody, etc. when we can use either who’ or ‘that:
- This is the best that I could have done in that situation.
- The girl who cheated you is called Romola.
- The policeman who arrested the thief has white hair.
- All who/ that listened to his speech praised him.
(ii) In the objective case, we use ‘whom’, ‘who’, ‘that’. ‘Who is considered more formal than ‘who’. However, in spoken English, we use ‘who’ or ‘that’. There is a tendency to omit the objective relative pronoun altogether:
The boy whom/who I met is called Ramesh.
The boy that I met is called Ramesh.
The boy I met is called Ramesh.
(iii) We use ‘whom’ or ‘that’ with a preposition.
Generally, the preposition is placed before the relative pronoun:
The boy to whom I was speaking is my neighbour. In informal speech, the preposition is usually moved to the end of the clause and then ‘whom’ is often replaced by ‘that’ or it is omitted:
- The man to whom I gave it was a foreigner.
- The man who/whom I gave it to was a foreigner.
- The man that I gave it to was a foreigner.
(iv) In the possessive case, we use the relative pronoun ‘whose’:
Boys whose result has not been declared can meet the principal.
Use of Pronouns for Things: in Adjective Clause
(i) In the nominative case, the relative pronouns ‘which’ and ‘that’ are used. This is considered more formal:
- This is the pen which/that cost me £5.
- This is the house which/that has been sold.
(ii) In the objective case, we use ‘which’ or ‘that’ or omit the relative pronoun:
- The pen which/that I bought yesterday was beautiful.
- The pen I bought yesterday was beautiful.
We generally use ‘that’ after all, much, little, everything, none, no and compounds of no or after superlatives or we omit the relative pronoun altogether.
- All the mangoes that fall are eaten by children.
- This is the best place (that) I have ever seen.
(iii) When we use the objective case with a preposition, we place the preposition before `which’. But it is more usual to move it to the end of the clause, using ‘which’ or ‘that’ or we omit the relative pronoun altogether:
- The chair on which I was sitting was made of teak wood.
- The chair which/that I was sitting on was made of teak wood.
- The chair I was sitting on was made of teak wood.
(iv) In the possessive case, we use the relative pronoun ‘whose’:
- The house whose walls are made of mud bricks will not be durable.
Relative Pronouns used in Non-defining Clauses: in Adjective Clause
|Case||For Persons||For Things|
|Possessive||Whose||Of which, whose|
Use for Persons: in Adjective Clause
- In the nominative case, only ‘who’ is used:
- My father, who is a businessman, has an expensive car.
- Nitin, who is my friend, has gone to Dehradun.
- In the objective case, we use ‘whom ‘ and ‘who’. ‘Who’ is sometimes used in conversation:
- My manager, whom I dislike, is an ill-tempered man.
- He introduced me to her girlfriend, whom I had known before.
- Whom’ is used with a preposition in the objective case. We can also use ‘who’ if we move the preposition to the end of the clause:
- Sumitra, to whom I gave a present, is my sister.
- Sumitra, who I gave a present to, is my sister.
- We use ‘whose’ in the possessive case:
- Shakespeare, whose plays are world-famous, was a British dramatist.
Use for Things: in Adjective Clause
(i) We use ‘which’ in the nominative case:
- His car, which is so old, broke down on the way.
- His office, which is near our house, is painted green.
(ii) In the objective also, we use ‘which’:
- “The Merchant of Venice”, which you read yesterday, was written by William Shakespeare.
- The tree near my house, which I wanted to cut down, was uprooted in a storm.
(iii)The relative pronoun ‘which’ is also used with a preposition:
- My house, for which I paid rupees fifty lacs, is beautiful.
- My house, which I paid rupees fifty lacs for, is beautiful.
(iv)In the possessive case, ‘whose’ or ‘of which’ are used:
- My house, whose walls are made of stone, faces East.
- My chair, of which one leg is broken, is made of teak wood.
- ‘This’ can refer to a whole sentence:
- I bought this compass, which helped me a lot.
- Loud music was played near our house, which kept us awake throughout the night.
The relative adverbs ‘when’, ‘ where’, ‘ why’ are used to replace a preposition and the relative pronoun ‘which’.
- ‘When’ is used for time. It replaces ‘in/on which’.
- ‘Where’ is used for the place. It replaces ‘in/ at which‘.
- ‘Why’ is used for a reason. It replaces ‘for which’.
- That was the year in which this city was flooded.
- That was the year when this city was flooded.
- This is the house in which he lived.
- This is the house where he lived.
- This is the reason for which he was fined.
- This is the reason why he was fined.
Summing up :
(a) An Adjective Clause qualifies a noun or a pronoun in the Principal Clause which goes before it.
(b) An Adjective Clause is a Subordinate Clause.
(c) An Adjective Clause performs the function of an adjective.
Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses Examples-
Read the following sentence :
Honest servants are trusted.
The clause, who are honest, clearly identifies or describes the servants, and, therefore, it is an Adjective Clause. Such clauses introduced by Relative Pronouns are called Restrictive or Defining Relative Clauses.
Some Relative Clauses introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb do not describe or define the Noun or Pronoun (antecedent) to which it refers. Such clauses only give additional information about the antecedent. Such clauses are known as Non-defining Relative Clauses.
They are separated from the main clause by commas; as.
My uncle, who lives in Kolkata, will come today.
Finland. where I had my education, has many lakes.
Note the difference in meaning between the following two sentences :
My brother who is a professor has gone to England.
My brother, who is a professor, has gone to England.
The first sentence implies that the speaker has many brothers, one of them who is a professor has gone to England. The clause in the second sentence is non-defining and it implies that the speaker has only one brother who happens to be a professor and he has gone to England.
The Non-defining clauses are separated from the rest of the sentence by Commas. No Commas are used to separate the Defining Clauses.