Understanding the Text
1. Give reasons for the following.
(i)king Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.
Ans. To find out the time of his death and its cause, Tut’s body was scanned and X-rayed repeatedly.
(ii) Howard Carter’s investigation was resented.
Ans. In order to separate Tut’s mummy from all its golden adornments and the golden Coffin, Carter had to cut its head and other joints of the body. The resins which Had been used to mummify Tut’s body, had solidified. This hurt the religious Feelings of the local people.
(iii) Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the king’s remains.
Ans. King Tut’s body had to be freed from the golden coffin part by part. The resins had To be removed with chisel and hammer as they had solidified with time.
(iv) Tut’s body was buried along with gilded treasures.
Ans. The kings of Egypt in those ancient times had an enormous treasure. They also Believed that they could take their wealth to the afterlife. So Tut’s body was also Buried along with a lot of gold and things of everyday need.
(v) The boy king changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun.
Ans. Before Tut, the boy king, came to the throne, his crazy previous ruler, Akhenaten. He had attacked Amun, a major god, broke his images and dosed his temples. When young Tut took the throne, he undid all the doings of Akhenaten. He was a Worshipper of Amun, so he took on the new name, Tutankhamun.
2.(i)List the deeds that led Ray Johnson to describe Akhenaten as ‘wacky’.
Ans. Akhenaten was a crazy and rash ruler. He attacked Amun, a major god of ancient Egypt, broke his statues and closed his temples. He even shifted the religious Capital from the old city of Thebes to the new city of Akhetaten.
(ii) What were the results of the CT scan?
Ans. The CT machine scanned Tut’s body from head to toe. It created X-ray images in detail. It showed the neck vertebrae, the rib cage and the skull clearly.
(iii) List the advances in technology that have improved forensic analysis.
Ans. CT technology is a major advancement in the field of forensic analysis. It takes Hundreds of X-rays like the slices of bread. These help to create a three-dimensional image of the body.
(iv) explain the statement, “King Tut is one of the first mummies to be scanned—in death, as in life…”.
Ans. The statement means that King Tut’s mummy was the first one ever to be Scanned. The purpose was to reveal the mysteries relating to his death, the cause of his death in mysterious circumstances. The death occurred only nine years after his taking the throne. So, he was a leader as a king and in death also he was a leader.
Talking about the Text
1. Scientific intervention is necessary to unearth buried mysteries.
Ans. Science has made great progress in resolving the mysteries of life and death. The death of Tut at an early age and unexpectedly has been a matter of speculation so far. But X-ray machines and CT scan have done a lot to know the truth. The same is true about other lost civilisation like Indus Valley civilisation. With scientific methods, we have learnt a lot about those people.
2. Advanced technology gives us the conclusive evidence of past events.
Ans. Technology in the past 100 years has been at work to solve many mysteries. In diagnosing diseases or solving the mysteries of accidental deaths, forensic technology and medical tests give foolproof information. The same is true about knowing exactly the mysteries of past civilisations like the Harappa and Lothal.
3. Traditions, rituals and funerary practices must be respected.
Ans. Although man has taken a giant leap in the field of science and Technology, he must show respect for the traditions and funerary practices of those people who still have faith in it. For instance, Carter should have shown some respect while digging Tut’s coffin.
4. Knowledge about the past is useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in.
Ans. Time is a continuous process. It cannot be divided into watertight compartments as past, present or future. Nevertheless, itis worthwhile to learn lessons from our follies and failures in the past. The past events act as a pointer or signpost to guide us. The past is stored either in history books or in the mind of each individual. Our present civilization is governed by our good or bad deeds. What we call present today will become a part of history tomorrow. By reading the history of a particular period we can understand the cause of many important events of that time.
Thinking about Language
1. Read the following piece of information from the Encyclopedia of Language by David Crystal.
Ans. Egyptian is now extinct: its history dates from before the third millennium BC, preserved in many hieroglyphic inscriptions and papyrus manuscripts. Around the second century, it developed into a language known as Coptic. Coptic may still have been used as late as the early nineteenth century and is still used as a religious language by MonophysiteChristiansin Egypt.
2. What do you think are the reasons for the extinction of languages?
Ans. Every language starts with a dialect. It is man’s necessity to convey his feelings and ideas. When a large community speaks and writes, using the same dialect, itis enriched. It is the standard script that makes a language. But even a language becomes extinct when the community disperses or is enslaved by foreigners. The ruling group imposes its own language on the people.
3. Do you think it is important to preserve languages?
Ans. Yes, a language is the treasure-house of the culture, knowledge and achievements or failures of a race or community. It must be preserved as a mark of identity of the people of a region. But too many languages give birth to conflicts and violence. The distance one group from another for want of a common means of communication.
4. In what ways do you think we could help prevent the extinction of languages and dialects?
Ans. The extinction of languages and dialects can be prevented by encouraging the younger generation to appreciate his or her own mother tongue. They should be taught not only to speak their language but also to learn the script.
Working with Words
1. Given below are some interesting combination of words. Explain why they have been used together.
(i) ghostly dust devils (vi) dark-bellied clouds
(ii) desert sky (vii) casket grey
(iii) stunning artefacts (viii) eternal brilliance
(iv) funerary treasures (ix) ritual resins
(v) scientific detachment (x) virtual body
Ans. Each of the above words carries an adjective so as to give a distinctive and wide meaning To the place, thing or situation.
II. Here are some commonly used medical terms. Find out their meanings.
Ans. CT scan: Computed Tomography is a computerised technique for displaying a cross section through the body using X-rays or ultrasounds.
MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
tomography: A part of CT scan.
autopsy: Process of post-mortem done on a dead body to know the cause of death.
dialysis: The process of the purification of a person’s blood by filtering it through a machine.
ECG: Electrocardiogram—a record of the electric currents produced by Heartbeats.
Postmortem: Postmortem refers to the dissection of a dead body to know the cause Of death.
angiography: Radiography of blood or lymph vessels carried out after introducing A chemical that is opaque to X-rays.
Biopsy: A tissue is taken from the diseased part of a living body for medical examination.