With careful and precise questions, Class 11 English Birth Extra Questions and Answers provide you the chance to gain confidence in your skills and learn about a variety of topics.
Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus
Chapter- 7 English Language and Literature
Class 11 English Birth Extra Questions and Answers
By- A. J. Cronin
Introduction of the lesson- Birth
The story ‘Birth’ highlights the importance of practical experience in the medical field. It proves sometimes more effective in saving lives or in curing deadly diseases. Dr Andrew applied hot and cold water technique to restore life in a newborn baby. The baby appeared to be stillborn, lifeless, boneless and lax. The nurse put it beneath the patient’s bed as a lost case while the young doctor was making feverish efforts to save the mother who was sinking. Then he turned to the midwife and asked for the child. He pulled it out from under the bed and dipped it alternately in hot and icy cold water. Then he pressed the little chest gently and released it. He too had nearly accepted defeat. But his last effort did the miracle. The baby started breathing and getting oxygen. Its white skin turned pink and it gave out a cry. Everybody thanked God for the miracle. Overworked Andrew also had the greatest satisfaction of his medical career. He had done something real.
Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- Birth
excerpt–extract, उदधरण,अंश; surgery–hospital, clinic,औषधालय; burly–bulky, heavy,भारी भरकम; driller–miner,खनिक ; relief–comfort,राहत; missus–wife,Mrs,पत्नी; abruptly–suddenly,सहसा; contemplation–deep thinking,गहन विचार; usually– as a rule,आमतौर से ; perceptive–watchful,बोधक; listless–unattentive,बेखबर; premonition–foreknowledge,पूर्व ज्ञान; drew up–stopped,ठहर गया; strain–stress, tiredness,थकान ; stout–strong. healthy,स्थूल शरीर की ; faintly–mildly,हल्के से; fret–irritate, vex,परेशान होना; overwrought–exhausted, tired,थका हुआ ; snatch –get, ले सकेगा; queer–strange,अजीब;lethargy–drowsiness, laziness,शिथिलता; rustle–low sound,खड़खड़ की आवाज़ ;cinder–partly burnt coal,अधजले कोयले ; grate–fireplace,अँगीठी; probing–searching, curious,खोजी,उत्सुक ; muddled–confused,भ्रमित; episode–event,घटना ; obsessed–haunted, struck,परेशान किए थी; morbidly–gloomily,उदास कर रही थी ; sordidly–meanly,dishonestly,नीचतापूर्वक; bound to–married to, linked with,जुड़ा हुआ ; shrewish–sharp-tongued, ill-natured,कर्कश स्वभाव वाली; apart from–separately,अलग; dismal–sorrowful, sad,निराशापूर्ण; conclusion–feeling,निष्कर्ष; wince–start back with sudden pain; idyllic state–pleasant situation,सुखद स्थिति ; level–balanced,सुस्थिर,संतुलित; image–picture,चित्र; resentful–angry,रुष्ट; stretched out–spread forward,आगे फैलाया; broodingly–thoughtfully,ध्यानमग्न; pursued–followed, taken,ले लिया था ; meditation–state of deep thinking, गहन चिन्तन I
awful set upon–keen to have,केन्द्रित; anaesthetic–the fume or liquid that makes one insensitive to pain,बेहोशी लाने या सुन्न करने की दवा; perceived–noticed, realised,महसूस किया; elapsed–passed, बीत गया ; harsh–tough,कठिन कठोर; streaks–signs,चिहन; dawn–daybreak, भोर; edges-sides,किनारे; still form–dead newborn baby,मृत नवजात शिशु; shiver of horror –fear,भय ; exertions–hard work,परिश्रम; chilled–went cold and white,ठण्डा पड़ गया; resuscitate–to bring to life again,जीवन डालना; obligation–duty,दायित्व; desperate–critical, hopeless, sinking,नाजुक; dilemma– difficult situation,दुविधा; instinctively–guided by natural impulse,स्वभावतः ; ether–a liquid used to make patients unconscious before operation,आपरेशन से पूर्व सुन्न कर देने वाली दवा; frantic–mad, wild,उन्मत्त; ebbing–flowing away, diminishing,घटती हुई; smash–break open,तोड़ना; ampule–a small phial or container,इन्जेक्शन की दवा वाली शीश ी; flung down–threw away,नीचे गिरा दी; unsparingly–feverishly,वेग से; restore–bring back to life,पुनर्जीवित करना; flaccid-soft not firm,कोमल ; swing–turned,मुड़ा ; Sticking–clinging,चिपके हुए ; frightened–terrified,भयभीत; gesture–indication, movement of hand,हाव-भाव,संकेत; in a flash–at once,तुरन्त; sodden–soaked,गीले; limp–not stiff,लुंज-पुंज ; tallow–fat of animal,पशु की चर्बी; cord–the tube that passes from the foetus to the placenta. umbilical cord,नार,नाल; slashed–cut,काटी गई; hastily–quickly,शीघ्रता से; stein–the lower part of a tree,तना; texture–tissue, web, structure, जाल, बनावट,रचना; lolled–hung out or put lazily,सुस्ती से पड़ा हुआ ;
haggard–tired, worried,थका हुआ,चिंतित; frown–anger,नाराज़गी; asphyxia, pallida–suffocation or unconsciousness caused by lack of oxygen,रक्त में ऑक्सीजन की कमी; basins–tubs,तसले; pallid–pale,पीले ; respiration—giving oxygen through artificial breathing,श्वास क्रिया को सही करना ; ewer–a water jug,लोटा,बनावट,रचना; frantically–madly, swiftly,वेग से ; splashed–poured,उड़ेला crazy–whimsical,सनकी ; plunging–dipping, putting,रखना ; pantingly–gasping for breath,हाँफते हुए ; lax–limp, not stiff,ढीला-ढाला; desperate–hopeless,निराश; raging–violent,उग्र,तीव्र ; stark—strong,तीखा ; consternation–alarm, anger,दशहत; dashed–failed,broken,चकनाचूर हो गए; futile–wasted, in vain,व्यर्थ; draggled–made wet and dirty,मैला,कीचड़ भरा; stumbling–tripping,ठोकर खाना ; sopping–wet,तरबतर,भीगा हुआ; despairing–feeling sad and disappointed,हताश; crushing–pressing down,दबातें हुए ; releasing–freeing it to rise again,छोड़ते हुए I
miracle–supernatural event, a wonder,चमत्कार; pigmy–very small,बहुत छोटा ; convulsive–contraction of muscles,प्रकंपनकारी; giddy–dizzy, inconstant,चक्कर आने लगा ; unavailing striving–wasted efforts,निष्फल चेष्टा ; exquisite–lovely, pleasant,सुखद; mucus–slippered liquid, cough,कफ ; iridescent–shiny-bright changing colours,रंग बदलने वाला ; bubble–air-filled cavity in water,बुलबुला ; spineless–limp or lax, lifeless,ढीला; blanched–pale,हल्का पीला; litter–broken, disorderly condition, चीज़ें बिखरी हुई ; hysterically–attack of hysteria,भावविभोर ; ewer–water jug,लोटा; puddle–small muddy pool,छोटा-सा तालाब; huddled–in a haphazard state,अस्त-व्यस्त; wrung out–squeezed out water,पानी निचोड़ दिया ; scullery–a room for washing dishes,प्लेटें आदि धोने का कक्ष; spent–tired,थका-माँदा; oblivious–unmindful, forgetful,भुलाए हुए I
Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English- (Birth)/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – (Birth)
Andrew Manson, newly out of medical school, has just begun his medical practice. He is an assistant to Dr Edward Page in the small mining town of Blaenelly. He loves a girl named Christine. But he has had a disappointing date with her. Sadly, he reaches Bryngower. It is nearly midnight. The hospital is closed.
Andrew finds Joe Morgan waiting for him anxiously. He is there to take the doctor to his house to attend on his wife. He has been married for twenty years. His wife was in labour for the first time. Naturally, he is keen to become a father.
Andrew and Joe set out for the latter’s house Number 12, Blaina Terrace. Andrew is feeling dull. Joe doesn’t go in. Mrs Joe is there in a small bedroom upstairs. Here her mother of nearly seventy, and a strong elderly midwife are waiting beside the patient. The old woman is wise in experience. She realises that the delivery will take some time, and the doctor may not wait. But Andrew assures her that he is not going to run away. He goes downstairs to drink tea in the kitchen. He is tired and sleepy. But he decided to stay until everything is over. He is much confused. The thought of Bramwell is haunting him. He has been foolishly devoted to a woman who deceived him. Another colleague Denny was living unhappily alone, separated from his wife. All these marriages are dismal failures. But Andrew has a rosy dream about his marriage with Christine.
Susan says to her mother not to give her the chloroform if it would harm the baby. She is so much set upon having this child. But Andrew sees no harm in administering the anaesthetic. An hour passes. It is past 4 a.m.. And then the long struggle comes to an end. The child is born, but it is stillborn. Andrew now is in a dilemma—whether to save the mother or the child. Instinctively, he gives the baby to the nurse and gives his attention to Susan who is almost collapsing. He gives her an injection, and her heart is strengthened.
Andrew now turns round to handle the baby. But the midwife has already placed it under the bed. In a flash, Andrew kneels down and pulls out the child. It is perfectly formed. But its warm body is white and seems boneless. It is because of the lack of oxygen. He is suddenly reminded of a case he had once seen at the medical school. He asks the nurse to bring hot water and cold water. He puts the child on a blanket. He puts cold water in one tub and lukewarm water in another. He dips the child in the icy water and in the lukewarm water by turn.
The midwife watches crazy Andrew with astonishment. She remarks that the child is born dead. But Andrew goes on with his treatment. He puts pressure on the little chest, trying to get some oxygen in it. And then as if by a miracle, the baby’s chest begins to rise and fall. Some mucus comes from one of his nostrils. The white skin slowly turns pink. And then comes the child’s cry. The nurse begins to sob. She exclaims with joy and surprise that the child has come alive. He hands over the child to the nurse. Feeling weak and confused, he pulls on his jacket and goes downstairs. He takes a long drink of water. He finds Joe standing outside with a tense face. Andrew assures him that both the mother and the baby are all right. It is nearly 5 o’clock in the morning. He is elated with his achievement. He thanks God for having done something real at last. It influences his whole future in Blaenelly.
Summary in Hindi of the lesson- Birth
Andrew Manson हाल में ही डॉक्टरी पढ़ाई पूरी करके आया था, तथा उसने अपनी मेडिकल प्रैक्टिस Dr.Edward Page के सहायक के रूप में शुरू की थी I वह Blaenelly नामक छोटे से खनिकों के कस्बे में रह रहा है उसे एक लड़की Christine से प्यार है I पर वह शाम उसकी अपनी प्रेयसी के साथ बहुत बुरी गुजरी है I वह उदास Bryngower पहुँचता है I लगभग आधी रात हो चुकी है I अस्पताल बंद हो चुका है I
Andrew, Joe Morgan को बेसब्री से प्रतीक्षा करते पाता है I वह डॉक्टर को अपने घर ले जाने आया है I उसके विवाह को 20 वर्ष हो चुके हैं I उसकी पत्नी अब पहली बार बच्चे को जन्म देने वाली है I स्वाभाविक रूप से वह पिता बनने के लिए आतुर है I
Andrew और Joe ,Blaina Terrace नं.12 मकान के लिए साथ- साथ चल दिए I डॉक्टर बहुत उदास है I Joe घर के अंदर नहीं जाता I अंदर Mrs.Joe सीढ़ियों से ऊपर बने छोटे से शयनकक्ष में पड़ी है I यहाँ उसकी माँ जो 70 वर्षीय है, तथा एक मजबूत अधेड़ आयु की नर्स जच्चा के बेड के पास बैठी है I वृद्ध महिला को लंबे अनुभव का लाभ है I उसे लगता है कि प्रसव में कुछ समय लगेगा और कहीं डॉक्टर वापस न लौट जाए I पर डॉक्टर उसे आश्वासन देते हैं कि वह भागने वाले नहीं हैं I वह नीचे रसोईघर में जाकर चाय पीते हैं I वे थके है और नींद से त्रस्त हैं I वे निश्चय मनुष्य कर लेते हैं कि जब तक सारा काम संपन्न नहीं हो जाता I वे यही ठहरी रहेंगे I वे उलझन में हैं I Bramwell की घटना उन्हें सता रही है I Bramwell एक महिला से बहुत प्यार करता था पर महिला ने उसे धोखा दे दिया I दूसरा सहकर्मी Denny अपनी पत्नी से अलग अकेला रह रहा था I ये सभी विवाह असफल थे I पर डॉक्टर के मन में तो अपनी Christine से विवाह के बारे में अच्छे सपने हैं I
Susan माँ को बोलती है मुझे क्लोरोफार्म मत सूँघाना कहीं वह बच्चे को नुकसान न पहुँचा दे I उसे बच्चा पाने की बहुत चाहत है I पर डॉक्टर कहता है कि बेहोशी की दवा से कोई नुकसान नहीं होगा I एक घंटा बीत जाता है I अब प्रातः के चार बज रहे हैं और तभी यह लम्बा संघर्ष खत्म हो जाता है I बच्चा जन्म ले लेता है पर वह तो निर्जीव दिखाई देता है I डॉक्टर दुविधा में पड़ जाता है कि जच्चा को बचाये या बच्चा को I वह अनायास ही बच्चे को तो नर्स के हवाले कर देता है तथा स्वयं Susan पर ध्यान देने लगता है जो मरणासन्न हो रही है I वह उसे एक इंजेक्शन देता है जिससे महिला के दिल को मजबूती मिल जाती है I
अब Andrew बच्चों को संभालने के लिए मुड़ता है I पर नर्स ने तो बच्चे को पलंग के नीचे रख दिया है I क्षण मात्र के लिए डॉक्टर झुकता है तथा बच्चे को बाहर निकाल लेता है I बच्चे की शारीरिक बनावट पूरी है I पर उसका उसका शरीर सफेद है और लुंज-पुंज है I कारण है ऑक्सीजन की कमी I उसे सहसा एक केस की याद आ जाती है जो उसने मेडिकल स्कूल में देखा था I वह नर्स को बोलता है कि शीघ्र ही गुनगुना और गर्म पानी ले आओ I वह बच्चे को कम्बल पर लिटा देता है I ठण्डा पानी वह एक टब में डालता है और हल्का गर्म पानी दूसरे में I वह बच्चे को बर्फीले पानी में तथा गुनगुने पानी में बारी-बारी से डुबोता है I
नर्स डॉक्टर की हरकत को देखकर चिढ़ती है I वह कहती है कि बच्चा तो बेजान है I पर डॉक्टर अपना इलाज चालू रखता है I वह बच्चे की छाती को दबाता है तथा उसमें ऑक्सीजन देने का प्रयास करता है I और तभी चमत्कार हो जाता है; बच्चे की छाती में धड़कन होने लग जाती है I उसके एक नथुने से कुछ कफ बाहर आ जाता है I उसकी सफेद पड़ी त्वचा गुलाबी होने लगती है और फिर बच्चा चीख मारने लगता है I नर्स सिसकियाँ भरने लगती है I वह खुशी और विस्मय से कह उठती है बच्चे में तो जान आ गई है I डॉक्टर बच्चे को नर्स के हवाले कर देता है I कमजोरी महसूस करता हुआ वह अपनी जैकेट पहनता है तथा नीचे चला जाता है I वह छककर पानी पीता है I वह Joe को बाहर सड़क पर तनावग्रस्त चेहरा लिए टहलता पाता है I डॉक्टर उसे आश्वासन देता है कि माँ और बच्चा दोनों ही ठीक हैं I प्रातः के 5 बज रहे हैं I उसे बहुत संतोष महसूस हो रहा है I वह परमात्मा को धन्यवाद देता है कि वह अंततः एक सचमुच महान काम कर पाया है I यह कहानी उसके Blaenelly प्रवास काल को अप्रत्याशित रूप से अत्यधिक प्रभावित कर देती है I
Following is the complete question bank for Birth
Short Answer Questions of the lesson- Birth
1.Why was Andrew so serious and overwrought that particular evening?
Ans. That evening Andrew was tense and serious. He had a disappointing evening with his girlfriend Christine. Moreover, he had seen some painful incidents of husbands’ suffering at the hands of their wives. He was short of sleep as well.
2. Who was Joe Morgan? Why was he so tense, and waiting anxiously for Dr Andrew that night?
Ans. Joe Morgan was in dire need of Dr Andrew’s help. His wife Susan was in labour. She was going to deliver their first child after 20 years of marriage. Joe and Susan were keen to have the child delivered safely. So he stood waiting anxiously for the doctor.
3. That night proved unusual and it influenced Dr Andrew’s whole future in Blaenelly. What miraculous thing happened that night?
Ans. Dr Andrew had first begun his medical practice in the mining town of Blaenelly. The successful handling of Mrs Joe’s ease proved a turning point in his life. It was no less than a miracle that he had restored lilt in a stillborn child by dipping it in cold and warm water alternately. Besides satisfaction, he earned name and fame.
4. Why were Susan and her Old mother so tense that night?
Ans. Susan was about to deliver a baby after 20 years of marriage. It was natural for her and her husband Joe to be tense. Susan’s old mother also stood beside her tense and hopeful.
5. Susan’s mother was wise in experience. What hints did she give of her wisdom?
Ans. Susan’s mother was a tall, grey-haired woman of nearly seventy. From her personal experience, she knew that the childbirth would take some time. She was wise enough to fear that Dr Andrew might not wait for long. So she tried to make him stay on by offering him tea and sitting beside him.
6. Name the five central characters in the story Birth who played the key role?
Ans. The five central characters in the story ‘Birth’ are Joe Morgan, his wife Susan, his old mother-in-law, a stout midwife and of course, Dr Andrew. The doctor played the key role in saving two lives—that of Susan and her seemingly stillborn baby.
7. Why and when did a shiver of horror pass over Dr Andrew?
Ans. Dr Andrew was shocked and horrified as he looked at the lifeless newly born baby. He also noticed that Susan was sinking. He was in a dilemma, whom to save first.
8. Dr Andrew faced the biggest dilemma of his life that night. How did he act and save two lives?
Ans. Dr Andrew was called to supervise the first and crucial delivery of Susan Morgan. He was tense and short of sleep. Still, he decided to wait. He gave a promise to Joe and his wife that all would be well. But he became nervous to find both the mother and her baby in trouble. He first gave an injection to Susan to stabilise her. Next, he lifted the stillborn baby. put him in hot and cold water alternately and pressed the child’s chest. Luckily, he saved both of them.
9. Comment on the behaviour and role of the midwife attending on Susan Morgan.
Ans. The midwife attending on Susan showed lack of experience and professional attitude. She declared at once that the baby was stillborn. She pushed it under the bed. Even when Andrew was trying to bring back life into the baby, she showed disbelief and even discouraged Andrew from making such feverish efforts. The cry of the baby made her exclaim with joy.
10. What did the stillborn child look like when Andrew turned his attention to it?
Ans. The baby’s body was fully formed and warm but it was lifeless. The nurse had placed it beneath the bed. But Andrew pulled out the child. Its limp warm body was white and soft as animal fat. The skin was smooth but the limbs seemed boneless. It was short of oxygen.
11. What did Andrew do to restore life in the stillborn child?
Ans. Andrew recalled a similar case in the past. He gave the same treatment to the stillborn baby. He asked for hot and icy cold water. He placed the baby into cold and warm water alternately. He rubbed the child with a rough towel and pressed and released the little chest with his hands. The miracle happened. Its skin turned pink and it cried.
12. How did Andrew turn his sense of defeat and hopelessness into one of joy and victory? Describe the last effort he made.
Ans. When Susan seemed to be out of danger, Andrew picked up the lax little lifeless baby. He applied to water treatment on it. But even after half an hour of feverish effort, there was no ray of hope. He finally made the last effort. He pressed and released the little chest with both hands. This treatment worked and the little heart began to beat.
13. Describe the moments when the stillborn child gave a short heave and slowly revived.
Ans. Andrew for a while felt beaten and disappointed. But he made one last effort. He pressed the baby’s chest gently and then released. The technique was successful. He felt the little heart beating. A bubble of mucus came from one nostril. The child was gasping and then gave a cry. The nurse cried hysterically and Dr Andrew felt relieved and dazed.
14. What was Andrew’s greatest achievement and satisfaction as he walked out of House Number 12 Blame Terrace?
Ans. Dr Andrew was called to handle a critical case of delivery. He was tired. He felt defeated. He was in a dilemma because of the sinking condition of Susan and the lifeless form of her baby. But he saved both the lives. He called it his greatest reward and success.
15. Comment on the title of the story Birth. Why did it become so significant?
Ans. The title of the story Birth is apt and significant. The entire story revolves around the case of Susan’s first delivery and her stillborn child. It is a very tense drama of defeat, feverish effort, longing, hope and finally success. The handling of the case gave Dr Andrew a feeling that he had done something real at last.
Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value-based questions of the lesson- Birth
1. Give a brief life-sketch and achievement of Dr Andrew Manson.
Ans. Dr Andrew Manson was fresh from medical school. He was working as an assistant to Dr Edward Page in a small mining town. He loved a girl Christine, but he had spent a disappointing evening with her when he met Joe. He was tired and tense. It was past midnight. But true to his calling, he accompanied Joe to attend on Susan Morgan, who was in labour. He did not mind waiting. He did not settle his fees. He waited till daybreak without a wink of sleep. He proved his worth when he faced a dilemma. The mother was sinking, and the baby had no heartbeat. He made feverish efforts to save both. Going by instinct he saved the mother first by administering a life-saving injection to her. When he took the lifeless yet warm baby in his arms he suddenly remembered a similar case in his medical college. He gave the same treatment to the baby and saved him. He brought them both back to life.
2. Why was Andrew feeling so dull and listless that evening? How did that evening influence his whole life and career?
Ans. Andrew returned to his house after midnight. His experience with Christine that evening was not a happy one. Moreover, several episodes of unhappily married couples also saddened him. Outside his house was Joe Morgan waiting anxiously for the doctor. He led Andrew to his house where his wife Susan was in labour. Both were set upon having this child. Andrew decided to wait and give medical aid. He had no idea that the incident of that night would give him not only supreme satisfaction but also name and fame. He worked hard and very intelligently to save the life of the mother as well as her stillborn child.
3. What was Andrew’S dilemma after the delivery? How did he solve the problem so successfully?
Ans. The child was born at daybreak. Dr Andrew was filled with horror as he looked at the lifeless baby. He had now two patients on his hand. Susan was fast losing her pulse. The baby was white, lax and lifeless. Andrew was in a dilemma as to whom to give his attention first. Going by instinct, he gave an injection to Susan and pulled her out of danger. Then he pulled out the child, with a warm body but no breathing. He gave it an unusual treatment using cold and hot water and the pressure of his hands. And there was a miracle. He thanked God when the child gave out a cry.
4. Narrate the story Birth in about 100 words of your own. What message does it convey?
Ans. The ‘Birth’ is a story of gripping interest. It narrates an incident in which a young doctor saves two lives. Both the mother and her newborn baby were in a critical condition. It highlights the miracle that a physician can perform.
Andrew was a young doctor. He was called upon to supervise a case of childbirth. Joe and his wife Susan had been married for nearly twenty years. They were expecting their first child. Two women were already at Susan’s bedside—Susan’s old mother and a midwife. Andrew decided to wait until the work was completed. When Susan gave birth to the baby, her own condition became critical. The baby was stillborn, limp and boneless. Andrew first attended to the mother and gave her a life-saving injection. Then he picked up the child. He dipped it into hot and ice cold water alternately. He applied mild pressure on the little chest. He continued this treatment for nearly thirty minutes until the baby started breathing and gave a cry.
5. Bookish knowledge is theoretical. It is practice and observation which makes a man with theoretical knowledge a man perfect in his field. Discuss.
Ans. Bookish knowledge is very important as it imparts theoretical knowledge. It teaches a man intricacies of a problem and its probable solutions. If a man having theoretical knowledge has no practical experience he may fail in his job. On the other hand, a man with practical knowledge and experience has more chance of achieving the desired results. In our day to day life, we meet compounders surpassing the doctors and the physicians. A physician who has read the process of administering an injection but has not done it with his own hands will fail in his attempt to administer the injection. On the contrary, a compounder can surpass the physician because he has practical experience. Similarly, if you have minutely observed a man doing his job to perfection you can apply that very practical experience based on your keen observation and achieve success Dr Andrew could save the child because he had observed somebody saving an almost lifeless child. He applied that practical experience and knowledge and did his job efficiently. So for success especially in the medical field especially, both bookish knowledge and practical experience are indispensable. So bookish knowledge or oral knowledge, if not seasoned with practical experience, may prove futile and worthless.