This page is all about Essays in English. These days essay education is very necessary which includes learning essay format and essay structure with university essay topics. This page gives essay meaning with essay introduction including essays for UPSC. Read this essays competition and try to make essay download. We have filled this page with essay English, university essay examples and essay paragraph. This includes essay questions to make your essay reading simple with essay samples. Read these essay topics to learn essay vocabulary, and essay writing format. Go through and find university essay writing tips and how to write an essay. This economic crisis essay focuses on world financial crisis especially on financial crisis 2018 and financial crisis 2008 summary under the topic financial crisis 2008 causes and effects which is known as the 2008 financial crisis timeline. It also focuses on the financial crisis of 2019. Read and find out the causes of a financial crisis. This topic also covers the major financial crisis in the world including financial crisis 2008 explained and global financial crisis explained.
WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS
In Modern World, financial crisis at world Level can be traced back to the 1920s, when the economic depression of 1929 occurred. It is said that history repeats itself. Today’s world financial crisis which started with mortgage crisis is only one aspect of history. The crisis began with sub-prime lending crisis and the whole financial system was engulfed. Sub-prime crisis refers to the crisis faced by the mortgage companies that were in loaning business, that due to adverse situations ran in trouble. As a result, the number of defaulters increased resulting in huge bad debts for the mortgage companies. Several of the world’s best managed financial institutions went bankrupt and rest are dying for the bailout. The world demand cycle is heading south and its Impact is visible in world petroleum prices and auto manufacturers’ recent outcry for the bailout. The liquidity drought is engulfing the whole world and taking the shape of financial famine.
In the period of strong global growth growing capital flow and prolonged stability, market participants sought higher output without an adequate calculation of the risks and failed to exercise proper due diligence. Weak underwriting standards, unsound risk management practices increasingly complex and opaque financial products and consequent excessive leverage combined to create vulnerabilities in the system. At the same time what looked as brisk-effervescence is financial market ended up in becoming alarmed ringer for a greater catastrophe in the coming years. This was started with a small upheaval created by the subprime crisis in 2007 in the worlds largest and most significant financial markets U.S. Later in 2008 the whole of the investment and banking sector were plagued with losses and are now on the brink of falling apart. Apart from expansion, the deepening of financial markets occurred for most of the countries in recent times. The growths in financial capital asses for the countries have been much faster than the respective countries’ GDP growth. South Western European countries especially the UK and Japan have been pioneers of the financial times sector where the financial depths have increased to more than 400-500 times the GDP of these countries.
However, the financial capital assets have surged manifolds for the countries such as new emerging economies of Asia Russia, Eastern European countries and some of the Middle East countries thought are late entrants. Many factors have contributed to the countries success in reaching such a phenomenal increase. One of the major reasons for the expansion in financial markets is the efficiency brought about by the natured capital market growth. This rendered facilitated corporate borrowing. It increased the corporate borrowing through the issuance of shares public traded bonds the securities by these companies in the capital market. Apart from increased issuance of public traded bonds, shares and equities the increasing valuation of the companies and foreign investments has helped the countries in escalating the role and importance of the capital market. Rising equities values from stronger corporate earning, issuance of asset-backed securities rising asset price and government debts have helped in increasing eh countries’ financial depth.
Apart from the above-mentioned factors, globalization also helped in enhancing the role played by foreign investment in the spreading the financial sector growth to other peripheral nations that were outside the core hub of new financial capitalization. Whereas the role of foreign institutional investment (FI Is) that invests thorough capital market for short term gains directly impact the capital market deepening. The foreign direct investments (FD1s) directly invest in countries for long term financial prospects. These have increased the financial market deepening as well. The FD1 investment in developing countries brings in with greater financial habits. US and European markets are known to be the financial capital market hub and have greater exposure to eh secondary and derivative market operations. Besides increasing the financial growth through its operation in FDIs help in increasing the valuation of the companies in the emerging markets like China, India and other Asian countries as these FDIs are mainly from the US and Europe. To be more precise the investments from eh developed countries with their investment in the emerging or developing countries are from the big transnational corporations that have a stronger foothold in world capital markets. Thus any kind of investment either through the opening of wholly foreign investment venture or joint ventures with domestic companies of the developing nations help in the greater valuation of the companies world stock market increasing overall capitalization.
However, there is a significant difference between the composition of financial capital assets between the more natured economies and some of the nascent economies. While the increase in financial assets is more due to increases in banking deposits representing an immature financial system in emerging economies such as China. The largest contributor to increasing financial assets in natured economies especially like the UK and US is the increasing role of equities and securities and other corporate bonds. Nevertheless, the fact cannot be undermined that in more recent times, the issuances of bonds and securities in emerging markets have seen a surge in financial capital. The USA has played a major role in financial capital market deepening both within the country and outside the country i.e. the world financial capital assets were $56.1 trillion for the country that accounts for nearly one-third of the global total. Also, the US foreign investments in the overseas capital market have also played an important role in achieving greater financial integration. Until the end of 2006, everything looked rosy with burgeoning financial markets, increasing equities and shares market and increasing reality sector in the country. However, the crisis began in June 2007 with the advent of the subprime market crisis hitting the US market.
The subprime lending refers to the lending to house borrowers with weak credit. Investment bankers and lenders in happy spree gave a loan to the home from loan buyers at minimal or zero down payment without proper credit verification. In the process, demand rose to stress the prices, as a result, the house prices began to rise. The interest cost, in general, started making the borrowing costs. As a result, many borrowers started defaulting. Between 2004 and 2006 a sub-prime mortgage worth $ 1.5 trillion constituting 15 per cent of the total housing loan in the US were booked. These loans did not rise and the reality sector grew. Besides subprime lending by the mortgage finding agencies and banks, in order to raise more money the banks, packaged these loans into securities and sold them to the investment bank. This again amounted to voluminous percentage shares that added up to $3 trillion in 2005 of the total of $ 10 trillion.
When the recession started in financial markets, the house prices raised also the interest rate rose that increased the cost of borrowing. First few borrowers started, defaulting in categories that were exposed to higher interest rates and higher risk. This had a spillover effect on other risk borrowings thus adding to the number of defaulters. The mortgage banks and real estate agencies that were in lending business started making huge losses. This crisis became prominent in June 2007 when the two subprime mortgage hedge funds managed by Bear streams collapsed followed by three other funds managed by BNP Paribas. In March 2008 the Bear and Sterns declared huge losses on its mortgage lending. However, it was rescued by JP Morgan Chase that brought the company. This triggered a series of crisis and many other institutions followed eh suit. The central bank of America intervened and tried to improve the situating by lowering interest rates. With the announcement of a series of cuts in interest rates on lending, the situation was averted temporarily.
Again later in July and August 2008, the Famine Mae and Freddie Mac the mortgage giants faltered. Federal Reserve’s pumped in 200 billion to ease the credit situation. Even before the situation could improve the Lehman Brothers one of the oldest investment banking institution in the US filed for bankruptcy. However, the company could not sustain the market pressures. The other two mega giants MG and Merill Lynch were also on the brink of falling. However, these were rescued by the bank of America that bought the Merrill Lynch and Fed lends $ 85 billion loans to AIG thus averting the crisis for two companies. In addition, Wachovia group came under pressure.
The initial impact was fall in the economy. However, it was not only restricted to fall in total capital assets worth as the share market also tripped shedding more points than over. The valuation of the company also reduced. However, with increasing global integration the shake in the US market also had spillover effects on another market. The well known his tropically financial behemoth UK capital market also fell to the whims and fancies of the crisis, some of the well-known institutions in the UK and its currencies came under pressure.
The upheavals created by the crisis in the US credit market had implications for other markets too. The impact on Indian market can be analyzed through three different dimensions, firstly its impact on Indian stock market, secondly on-its impact on India currency and thirdly on Indian institutions that invested in other markets like OS and Europe.
The country’s major stock indices tumbled down by more than 6 percentage points after the announcement of the bankruptcy of Lehman brother. However the BSE Sensex and Nifty have been struggling ever since the advent of the subprime crisis last year. After reaching bourses of 21000 in January 2008 the market indices had fallen to 12514 on 16 July 2008.
Even before the shares could recuperate from the previous turmoil the news on three major investment banks sent fresh waves of shock in the stock markets. Firstly, Lehman brothers one of the top investment banks of US filed for bankruptcy on 16 September 2008. This was followed by another investment bank Merill Lynch fell almost on the brink on the same day. But before any mega-crisis hitting the company it was rescued by Bank of America which took over for $50 billion. Another financial giant American International Group (AIG) the world’s largest insurance bank collapsed The Federal Reserve saved the company from a bigger crisis by granting then the loan worth $ 85 billion for two years in exchange of 79.9 per cent stake in company stock.
Apart from the spillover of the events on derivative and equity markets the vent also had connotation related to regulatory issues with respect to its banking business deals in India and its business outsourcing operations in, India, Fate for the business outsourcing branches for Lehman Brothers and Merill Lynch in India remained undecided. Though, the investment bank Nomura of Japan agreed to take over Asian-Pacific unit of Lehman Brothers, some of its banking operations in European and Middle Eastern region it is still not clear whether the new company would be interested in carrying the outsourcing business in India. Reserve Bank of India governing bodies et to sort out their swap deals with the Lehman. The bank investment in the derivative market was estimated were estimated at Rs. 500-600 crores.
On the other hand, the crisis in AIG would have limited impact on it’s the operations in India with the Tata Group as the latter pledged to pump additional funds in case of any crisis. The Tata group reaffirmed its insurers. Thus the AIG group holding.
The Central Bank of India, (RBI) in its policy measures is sties in wake of crisis hoped for recoveries soon, it considered the overall economy to be more or less insulated from the turmoil. Indian financial system particularly the banking system would be affected in cases where it was holding a swap account or debit account for the mega-giants that were affected by the crisis. However, the impact on Indian banking sector could be analyzed in terms of those banking institutions that are holding bonds, mutual funds or other funds in other countries like Europe and U.S. According to a brokerage house Edelweiss Capital Ltd. estimates India’s leading commercial banks ICICI’s losses on account of its investment in bonds and debt by Lehman amounted to $ 200 million.
The flow of foreign institutional investors’ investment en route capital market participation has been immense in the past few years. The investments in the past have helped the companies in managing the required fund needed for its growth. The major investors have been mostly from countries like US, Europe, Australia, Japan and some other Asian countries. However, since last year, the investment flows from the US and Europe have slowed down because of turbulence in the domestic markets of these investing funds. From the net investors, the Fl Is inflows turned into a net seller for the first half of the financial year 2008-09.
However, the Indian markets were subjected to fall outs in US capital markets in July-September 2008 after the mega insurance and banking giants confirmed its financial ill health. The BSE Sensex tumbled by more than 200 points on account of the recent bankruptcy by world’s topmost banks. The Sensex index fell from 13518.8 to 13262.9 between 16th September and me 7th September. As a result of which the Fl is trading fell as investor shed its stake in all major markets. In India, Fl IS sold to the volume of Rs. 3802 crore in BSE stock markets alone within three days of the news of international investment giants falling. These variabilities are certainly going to deteriorate the current balance of payment for the country adding up to an overall deterioration in the country’s balance of payment position.
The movements of India currency have been more variables compared to its values prior to 2007. This year the currency initially appreciated due to a variety of domestic factors playing a role. The recent turmoil in the financial markets weakened the dollar in terms of major currencies. However, after the spread of the crisis in other major capital markets, the dollar value strengthened again. The rupees have depreciated after the crisis hit the market. The selling pressures due to foreign institutional investment repatriating their capital by offloading their stakes in India in anticipation of major financial turbulence had further added pressure on the values of domestic currency that is rupee. This would have an impact on the balance of payment accounts and the country’s investment strategies for the country.
The new emerging Asian Tiger that is India have undergone a sea change in its role form the one that was primarily known for 1:1)1 inflow, are now proactively been involved in investing abroad. Historically well-known India business houses like Tata, Ambani, Birla and many others have inked a deal with the European companies. It is to be noted that these investments are not affected by the recent crisis as these are mainly into infrastructural companies. But some of the leading banks of India have also invested abroad in debt and security markets that are most likely to be hit by the crisis. These are mainly dominated by the large private sector banks like ICICI, HDFC etc. Apart from these investors, the others that are likely to be hit = eh crisis are the companies whose Shares are listed in NASDAQ and New York Stock Exchange. The market indices after the recent crisis have plunged and have been shedding points. Thus the Indian companies shares are also burning its fingers from the crisis.
Short term implications of this financial turbulence can be seen more in terms of increasing pressures on short terms investments en route capital market. Long term implication would be reducing the growth of capital and other assets, decrease in valuation of total financial assets, decrease in long term investment both inflows as well as outflows.