Class-10 Ch. – 1 Development Extra Questions and Notes

By | February 23, 2019

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   Development

WHAT DEVELOPMENT PROMISES —DIFFERENT PEOPLE, DIFFERENT GOALS

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Why do people look at a mix of goals for development?

Ans. This is because, the developmental goals that people have, are not only about better income but also about other important things in life.

2. Why do people have different development goals?

Ans. Development for one may not be developed for the others because people seek things that are most important for them i.e., that which can fulfil their aspirations or desires.

3. ‘Conflicting goals can also be developmental goals.’ Explain the statement with one example.

Ans. To get more electricity, industrialists may want more dams, but this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced such as tribals.

4. Why do some people oppose dams?

Ans. Dams may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced such as tribal’s.

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1.Mention any three developmental goals for an Adivasi from Narmada valley.

Ans. The developmental goals for an Adivasi from Narmada valley are as follows:

 (1) They may seek small check dams or tanks to irrigate their land.

(2) They may want rehabilitation, better job opportunities, more days of work and better wages.

(3) Local school should be able to provide quality education for their children. There should be quality health facilities in the area.

2. “People have conflicting developmental goals”. Support the statement with a suitable example.                               

 Ans. (1) People have conflicting development goals because life situations of persons are different. People seek things that are most important for them Le., the things that can fulfil their aspirations, desires or needs. Therefore sometimes, two persons or groups of persons may seek things which are conflicting.

 (2) Industrialists may consider the construction of dams as development. This is because it provides electricity that they need. In contrary, tribals, farmers and other groups may resent this as the construction of dams may lead to submergence of their land and loss of their livelihood.

(3) Similarly, a girl expects as much freedom and opportunity as her brother and that he also shares in the household work but her brother may not like this.

3. Describe any three possible development goals of landless rural labourers.

Ans. (1) There should be more days of work and better wages.

 (2) Local school should be able to provide quality education for their children.

(3) There should be no social discrimination and they too can become leaders in the village.

4. Why do different people have different goals for development? Explain.

Or

Development goals are different goals also. Explain with an example.                                  

Or                                                                                                          

Ans. (1) This is because the life situations of persons are different. People seek things that are most important for them i.e., the things that can fulfil their aspirations. desires or needs.

 (2) Sometimes, two persons or groups of persons may seek things which are even conflicting.

 (3) A girl may expect as much freedom and opportunity as her brother and that he also shares in the household work. But, her brother may not like this.

(4) Industrialists may want more dams. They may consider the construction of dams as development as it provides electricity that they need. While tribal’s, farmers and other groups may resent this as the construction of dam may lead to submergence of their land and thus, lead to displacement and loss of livelihood.

(5) They might resent this and may prefer small check dams or tanks to irrigate their land.

5. ‘Conflicting goals can also be developmental goals.’ Elaborate with examples.

Or

 “Development for one may not be developed for the others.” Support the statement with examples.                                                                                                         

Or

“Development for one may be the destruction for the other”. Support the statement with an example.

Or

 Why are developmental goals conflicting goals also?                        

 Ans. (1) It is absolutely true that at times, two persons or groups of persons may seek things which are conflicting.

(2) Industrialists may consider the construction of dams as development. This is because it provides electricity that they need. On the other hand, tribals, farmers and other groups may resent this as the construction of a dam may lead to submergence of their land and thus, lead to displacement and loss of their livelihood.

(3) Similarly, a girl expects as much freedom and opportunity as her brother and that he also shares in the household work. But, her brother may not like this.

6. Why don’t different categories of people (like landless labourers, rural women and a girl from a rich urban family) have the same notion of development? Explain.

 Ans. (1) Different categories of people don’t have the same notion of development because they have different aspirations, desires or needs.

(2) Each one of them seeks different things. They seek things that are most important for them and which can fulfil their aspirations or desires.

 (3) Two persons or groups of persons may seek things which may not only be different but maybe conflicting also.

7. Explain common, different and conflicting goals by giving suitable examples.

Ans. (1) Common goals: There are some needs which are common to all like income, freedom, equality, security, respect, friendship, etc.

(2) Different goals: Development or progress does not mean the same thing for every individual. Each individual has his own idea of development. For example, development for a farmer may be better irrigation facilities; for unemployed youth, it may mean better employment opportunities, etc.

(3) Conflicting goals: What may be developed for some, may become destructive for some others. For example, industrialists may want dams for electricity but such dams would displace the natives of the region.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Why do different individuals have different as well as conflicting notions of developmental goals?

 Ans. (1) Different individuals have different as well as conflicting notions of developmental goals because life situations of persons are different. People seek things that are most important for them. These things can fulfil their aspirations, desires or needs.

(2) Certainly, different persons can have different developmental goals. For example, landless agricultural labourers may expect more days of work and better wages. Prosperous farmers may want a high family income through higher support prices for their crops. People belonging to Scheduled Castes want higher income, social equality, increase in job opportunities, Quality education and better health facilities.

(3) It is also true that sometimes these goals may be conflicting. For example, industrialists may want more dams to get more electricity. While tribals and farmers may resent this as it may submerge their land and disrupt their lives. They may prefer small check dams or tanks to irrigate their land.

INCOME AND OTHER GOALS

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1.State one limitation of measuring development through Average Income.

 Ans. Average income hides disparities as it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people.

2. Besides income mention two goals of development.                 

 Ans. Besides income, two goals of development are equal treatment and freedom.

3. Different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development. A fair path for all should be achieved. Interpret the concept being discussed here.

Ans. National development

4. If the average income of a country has increased over a period of time, what does it mean?

Ans. It means an increase in income is more than the increase in population.

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1.Apart from income, which other six things people look for growth and development?

Or

The development goal that people have is not only about better income but also about other important things in life. Explain.

Ans. The development goal that people have not only about better income but also other important things in life which are as under :

(1) Apart from income, people look for equal treatment.

(2) People want freedom for growth and development.

(3) People also want security.

(4) People want the respect of others.

(5) They may want friendship.

 (6) They may require environmental sustainability.

2. Why is ‘mix’ of goals for development important for people? Explain.

Or

Why do people look at a mix of goals for development? Explain.                                 

 Ans. This has the following reasons:

(1) Income is the most important goal for development. People want more income.

(2) Besides seeking more income, people also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security and respect of others. They resent discrimination. All of these are important goals.

 (3) In some cases, there may be more important than more income or more consumption. In fact, money (material things) is one factor on which our life depends. But, the quality of our life also depends on these non-material things. So, for development, people look at a mix of goals.

(4) For example, no doubt if women are engaged in paid work, their dignity in the household and society increases. Most importantly, if there is respect for women, there would be more sharing of housework and a greater acceptance of women working outside.

(5) Similarly, a safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.

3. “Women, who are engaged in paid jobs are an example of persons who fulfil mix of goals.” Analyse the statement.  

Or

How do the women engage in paid jobs fulfil mix of goals? Explain.

Ans. (1) If women are engaged in paid work, their dignity in the household and society increases.

(2) It is also the case if there is respect for women, there would be more sharing of housework and a greater acceptance of women working outside.

 (3) A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.

4. Apart from salary, what other goals can you have in mind while taking up a new job? Explain.                                                                                  

Or

Describe any five conditions or aspects that you would consider before accepting a job?

Ans. (1) While taking up a new job, I may have the following goals in my mind, apart from a from salary :

(i)Facilities for my family (ii) Opportunity to learn

(iii) Working atmosphere(iv) Job security

(2) A job may give us less pay but may offer regular employment that enhances our sense of security.

(3) We may require a sense

 The development goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life.

5. What are common developmental goals? Mention any four common developmental goals.

Or

Besides money, explain any five other factors on which our life depends.

Or

Apart from income, which other six things people look for growth and development?

Ans. (1) Common developmental goals: There are certain goals that are common or the same for all. They are more important even than income because material goods are not all that we need to live.

 (2) Examples: (i) respect, (ii) equality, (iii) dignity, (iv) pollution free environment,

(v) security, (vi) health.

HOW TO COMPARE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OR STATES

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1.According to the World Bank which country would be classified as a low-income country?

Ans. According to the World Bank, the countries 1045 or less in 2013 are called low-income countries.

2. Mention the importance of average income.

Ans. Average income is an important indicator of development.

3. What is the most appropriate base of measuring the development of a country?

Ans. Average Income is the most appropriate base for measuring the development of a country.

4. What is meant by the Average Income of a country?                               

Ans. Average Income or Per Capita Income is the total income of the country divided by its total Population i.e., it is income per head of the population per year.

5. Mention any one limitation of Per Capita Income as an indicator of development.

Ans. Per Capita Income hides disparities.

6. Why is total income not a useful measure of development?

 Ans. Total income is not a useful measure of development because countries have different Populations comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.

7. Why is Per Capita Income always considered as an important parameter of measuring development?

Ans. This is because it tells us what an average person is likely to earn.

8. Which organization classifies countries as rich countries and low-income countries?

Ans. The World Bank classifies countries as rich countries and low-income countries.

9. If there are four members in a family and their total income of Z 20,000/- what would be the average income of each person?

 Ans. The average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population, The average income of each person is Z 20,000/4 (members in the family).

10. State one limitation of the criterion, used by the World Bank in classifying different countries as rich and poor countries.

Or

State one limitation of measuring development through Average Income.

Ans. Per Capita Income/Average Income hides disparities.

11. What was India’s Per Capita Income in 2004?  

Ans. India’s Per Capita Income in 2004 was Z 28,000 per annum.

12. Why is Per Capita Income calculated in US dollars?

 Ans. Per Capita Income is calculated in dollars for all countries could be compared. It is also done in a way so that every dollar would buy the same amount of goods and services in any country.

13. Which indicator is considered to be the most important measure of development?

Ans. Per Capita Income

14. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying countries?

Ans. Per Capita Income

15. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying countries?

Or

Mention one criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries as rich and poor countries.

Ans. Per Capita Income

16. What is meant by the Average Income of a country?

Or

 What is Per Capita Income?

Ans. It is the total income of a country divided by total population

17. What is the Per Capita Income in the high-income countries according to the World Development Report of 2006?

Ans. Per Capita Income of Z 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004.

18. What is meant by national income?

Ans. National income of a country is the income of all the residents of a country.

19. Which report is the basis for the classification of countries as rich (developed) and poor (developing)?

Ans. The World Development Report, 2006.

20. Write the formula to find average income. Total income

Ans. Total population

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Calculate the Average Income of Country A and B :

Citizen Country A (Income) Country B (Income)
P 9500 500
Q 10500 500
R 9800 500
S 10000 500
T 10200 48000

 

Ans. (i) The Average Income of country A = Z 10,000.

(ii) The average income of country B = Z 10,000.

[Hint : (i) The income or total income of the country = The income of all the residents of the country

 :.                    Total income of the country A = Z 9,500 + 10,500 + 9,800 + 10,000 + 10,200

                                                                               = 50,000

An average income of country A                        =  Total income of country A

                                                                             ——————————————

                                                                                        Its population

                                                                                        50,000 

                                                                                =—————————-=10,000

                                                                                     5 (Five citizens—P, Q, R, S and T)

                                                                  Total income of country B  

 (ii) The average income of country B =—————————————

                                                                            It’s population

                                                                                    500 + 500 + 500 + 500+ 48,000

                                                                                 =———————————                                                                                                                   

                                                                                           5 (Five citizens)

                                                                                             = 50,000

                                                                                             —————-=10,000

                                                                                                        5

 2. If there are 4 families in a country with Per Capita Income of $ 15000. The income of 3 fees $ 10000, $ 20000 and $ 12000. What is the income of the 4th amity?  

Ans. $ 18,000

 [Hint: Suppose that the income of the fourth family = x.

                    Per Capita Income = Total income of a country

                                                       —————————————

                                                                  Its population

                              $ 15,000 =$10,000 + $20,000 + $12,000+ x

                                              ————————————————-

                                                              4 (Four families)

                              $ 15,000  =$42,000+ x

                                               ———————

                                                          4

                     $ 42,000                    = $ 60.000 

                                                       = $ 60,000 – $ 42,000

                                                       = $ 18,000]

3. Explain any five bases of comparison of economic development of different countries or states.

Or

Explain any three determinants of economic development.                                        

 Ans. (1) Per Capita Income: This means average income generated by each person in a given group of people. That is, Per Capita Income or Average Income is the total income of the wintry (or state) divided by its total population.

(2) Literacy Rate: It is also the basis of comparison of economic development of different countries or states. Literacy Rate measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.

 (3) Net Attendance Ratio: It is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.

(4) Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): This health indicator indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1,000 live children born in that particular year. Lower the amount of IMR, higher is the rate of people being healthy.

 (5) Life Expectancy at birth: It denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. Higher the life expectancy at birth, higher is considered the development of a nation.

4. The table below shows the monthly income of the citizens of the two countries. Read the table carefully and answer the following question:

Comparison of two countries

Monthly income of the citizens
Country I II III IV V
Country X 5200 5800 6300 6700 6000
Country Y 2500 2500 2500 2500 20000

 

 

(a) Calculate the average income of country X and Y.

(b) Which country is better and why?

(c) Why total income is not a useful measure for making comparisons between countries.

Ans. (a) Average Income of a country = Total Income of a country

                                                                         ———————————–

                                                                                     It’s population

Average of country Income X  =5200 + 5800 + 6300 + 6700 + 6000                   30000

                                                          ————————————————-   =——————

                                                                                     5                                                       5

                                                                  = 6,000                                                                       

Average of country Income Y = 2500 + 2500 – 2500 + 20000              30000

                                                         —————————————  =    —————-

                                                                                   5                                          5

                                                     = 6,000

(b) (i) Country X is better.

(ii) This is because country X has a more equitable distribution of income.

(c) Since, countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.

5. on what basis the rich and low-income countries have been categorized in the world 9 according to the World Development Report, India comes in which category? Give a reason for the same.

 Ans. (1)(i) Total income of a country is the summation of incomes of all the residents of the country

(ii) While Per Capita Income is the Italy Income of the country divided by its total population.

(2) According to the World Development Report, the countries are classified on the basis of Per Capita Income :

(i) Countries with Per Capita Income of US $ 12.736 per annum and above in 2013, are called rich countries.

 (ii) Countries with Per Capita Income of between $ 1045 and the US $ 12,736 are called middle-income countries.

(iii) The countries with Per Capita Income of US $ 1045 or less are called low-income, countries.

6. What is meant by Per Capita Income? Mention any two limitations of Per Cape Income as an indicator of development.

Or

 Evaluate the significance and limitations of Average Income as a measure for development.

Or

Although averages are useful for comparing countries, they also hide disparities. Explain the meaning of this statement.                                                                                  

 Ans. (1) Average Income or Per Capita Income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. It is an important indicator of economic development of the country. It is an income per head of the population per year.

(2) (i) Per Capita Income is an important indicator of development.

(ii) It is used to compare similarities and differences between the various parameters of development of different countries.

(iii) Comparing countries by national income are not useful to measure as countries have different population. Thus, Per Capita Income is an important measure.

(3) Per Capita Income has its limitations also.

(i) It does not tell us how the income is distributed among the people. Some may be very rich but the masses may be poor. That is, it hides disparities.

 (ii) Per Capita Income cannot be regarded as the sole indicator of development. Other areas are also important like Literacy Rate, Life Expectancy, Infant Mortality Rate, etc.

7. What is the main norm used by the World Bank in classifying different countries .as rich and poor countries? What are the restrictions of such a norm?

Or

 How has the World Development Report classified countries? Explain the limitations of this report.                                                                              

Or

What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? Describe its limitations.                                                                                                                           

Ans. (1) (i) The main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries is Per Capita Income.

(ii) According to the World Development Report, the countries with Per Capita Income of US $ 12,736 per annum and above in 2013, are called rich countries.

(iii) The countries with Per Capita Income of US $ 1045 or less are called low-income countries.

(2) (i) Per Capita Income or Average Income is an important indicator of economic development of the country.

(ii) Comparing countries by national income are not useful to measure as countries have different population. Thus, Average Income is an important measure.

(3) (i) While Per Capita Income is useful for comparison, it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people.

(ii) Some may be very rich but the masses may be poor. In this way, it hides disparities.

8. Why do we use averages?

 Ans. (1) Average Income is the total income of the country divided by its population.

 (2) The average is a single value which summarizes the characteristics of the mass of data.

 (3) Since countries have different populations, total income does not tell us what an average person is likely to earn. This is known by Average Income. That is why we use averages or average income for measuring development.

(4) Averages are used for better understanding.

9. What is meant by development? What is the most common indicator used to compare the levels of development of different countries? Explain three demerits of using this indicator solely as a measure of development                

 Ans. (1) Development refers to progress or improvement in lifestyle. It is a set of goals that includes income, equality, security, education, health, etc.

(2) Per Capita Income is the most common indicator used to compare the levels of development of different countries.

(3) Following are the three demerits of using this indicator solely as a measure of development :

 (i) Per Capita Income does not tell us how the income is distributed among the people.

 (ii) It hides disparities. Some may be very rich but the masses may be poor.

 (iii) Per Capita Income cannot be regarded as the sole indicator of development but other areas are also important like Life Expectancy, Infant Mortality Rate, Literacy Rate, pollution free environment, less corruption, gender equality, etc.

10. Describe any three features of a developed country.

 Ans. (1) According to the World Development Report, countries with Per Capita Income of US $ 12,736 per annum and above in 2013 are called rich or developed countries.

 (2) A developed country has less Infant Mortality Rate. Infant Mortality Rate indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1,000 live children born in that particular year.

(3) Such a country has high Literacy Rate. Literacy Rate measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.

11. Explain the term PCI and where it is used?

Ans. (1) Per Capita Income (PCI) is the total income of the country divided by its total population. It is also called the Average Income. It is a single value which summarizes the characteristics of the mass of data.

(2) Since countries have different populations, total income does not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.

 (3) This is known by Average or Per Capita Income. That is why we use Per Capita Income for measuring development. It is used to compare different countries or states.

12. What is Average Income? What is its importance? How is it calculated? Mention its limitations related to development.

Or

Why is Per Capita Income not a reliable indicator of economic development? Explain.

Or

Although averages are useful for comparing countries, they also hide disparities. Explain the meaning of this statement.                                    

Or

What is Per Capita Income? How is it calculated? Why is ‘Per Capita Income’ not an adequate indicator of economic development of a country? Explain.                                                        

Or

 What is Average Income? What is its importance? Describe its limitations related to development.                                                                                       

 Ans. (1) Average Income or Per Capita Income is an important indicator of economic development of the country.

 (2) It is used to compare similarities and differences between the various parameters of development of different countries.

(3) Comparing countries by national income is not a useful measure as countries have different populations. Thus, Average Income is an important measure.

(4) Average Income is the total income of the country divided by the total population.

(5) Average Income has its limitation because it tells us about the averages but not about the actual figures.

13. Why the total income of countries is not used to make comparisons between them. Which criteria are used? Explain.

Or

Why is ‘total income’ not a useful measure to compare two countries? Explain.         

Or

Why is total income not a useful measure for comparison between two countries? Explain the reason.                                                                     

 Ans. (1) (i) The income of the country is the income of all the residents of the country. This gives us the total income of the country

 (ii) This is not used to make comparisons between countries because countries have different populations.

 (iii) Comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.

 (2) (i) We use Average Income or Per Capita Income to make comparisons between them.

(ii) Average Income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. This is also called the Per Capita Income.

INCOME AND OTHER CRITERIA

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Which state of India has the lowest Infant Mortality Rate?

Ans. Kerala has the lowest Infant Mortality Rate in India.

2. Comparative data :

State 1MR (per 1,000)

2003

Literacy Rate (%)

2001  

Net Attendance Ratio — 1995-96
Punjab 49 70 81
Kerala 11 91 91
Bihar 60 47 41

Which state is lacking in health facilities?

Ans. Bihar

 [Hint: Literacy Rate and Net Attendance Ratio are related to education. While Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is associated with health. Higher Infant Mortality Rate denotes lacking in health facilities.]

3. The Infant Mortality Rate of which state is higher than that of the poorest regions of the world?           

Ans. Bihar

4. Which State of India had the highest Per Capita Income in 2002-2003?

Ans. Punjab

5. Define ‘Literacy Rate’.

Or

Literacy Rate measures the proportion of the literate population in which age group.

Ans. Literacy Rate measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.

6. Comparative data:

State IMR (Per 1,000) 2012 Literacy Rate (%) 2011 Net Attendance Ratio 2009-10
Maharashtra 25 82 64
Kerala 12 94 78
Bihar 43 62 35

 

 Which state appears the most developed?

Ans. Kerala

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Among Maharashtra, Kerala and Bihar, which state has the lowest Infant Mortality Rate? Give two reasons.

Ans. (1) Kerala has the lowest Infant Mortality Rate that is 12 out of 1000 live births.

(2) (i) Kerala has adequate provisions of basic health and educational facilities.

(ii) Public Distribution System (PDS) functions well.

2. Write the full form of IMR. Explain why this index is low in Kerala.

Ans. (1) Infant Mortality Rate is the full form of IMR.

(2) IMR indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1,000 live children born in that particular year.

 (3) This index is low in Kerala because of the adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. How is it that the average person in Maharashtra has more income than the average person in Kerala but it lags behind in many other crucial areas?

Ans. (1) The average person in Maharashtra has more income i.e., 1,04,000 in 2012-13 than the average person in Kerala that is 88,500 in the same year.

(2) Maharashtra has higher Infant Mortality Rate i.e., 25 than that of Kerala i.e., 12.

(3) Maharashtra has lower Literacy Rate i.e., 82 than that of Kerala i.e., 94.

(4) Maharashtra has a lower Net Attendance Ratio (64) than that of Kerala (78).

(5) All the above data indicate that Kerala has better and adequate provisions of basic health and education facilities.

2. Why has Kerala a low ‘Infant Mortality Rate’? Explain any three reasons.

Ans. Infant Mortality Rate or IMR indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1,000 live children born in that particular year. In Kerala, out of 1,000 children born alive, 12 died before completing one year of age but in Maharashtra, the proportion of children dying within one year of birth is 25 which is more than double. Kerala has a low Infant Mortality Rate for the following reasons :

(1) Kerala has high Literacy Rate that is 94%.

 (2) The state has better health facilities. It is famous for medical tourism also.

 (3) Kerala has also higher Per Capita Income. It was Z 88,500 in 2012-13.

 In this way, Kerala has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.

3. What is the significance of the Human Development Index?

 Ans. (1) Human Development Index (HDI) is a measure to evaluate the level of development of a country.

 (2)HDI is the average of education level index, health status index and Per Capita Income index. According to the UNDP Report of 1990, four main aspects of measuring Human Development Index are: Per Capita Income, Life Expectancy at birth, Literacy Rate and Gross Enrolment Ratio of the country.

 (3)Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and Per Capita Income.

4. Define the following terms:

 (i) Infant Mortality Rate (ii) Literacy Rate (iii) Net Attendance Ratio               

Or

 Explain the terms ‘Infant Mortality Rate’, ‘Literacy Rate’ and the ‘Net Attendance Ratio’.

Or

Explain the term Net Attendance Ratio.                 

Ans. (1) Of course, for comparing the economic development of countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes. This is based on the understanding that more income means more of all things that human beings need. That is why the World Bank uses Per Capita Income to compare economic development.

 (2) Apart from income, educational levels of the people and their health status are considered as measures to compare the economic development of a nation.

 (i) Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): This indicates the number of children that die before ‘the age of one year as a proportion of 1,000 live children born in that particular year.

 (ii) Literacy Rate: This measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.

(iii) Net Attendance Ratio: This is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.

(iv) Life Expectancy at birth: It denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.

5. Describe any five conditions or aspects that you would consider before accepting.

 Ans. I would like to consider the following aspects before accepting a job :         

 (I) Better wages: Money or material things that one can buy with it, is the main factor on which our life depends. So, I would like to have better wages.

 (2) Facilities for my family: There should be the provision of Provident Fund, Gratuity, Paid 3Leave, Leave Travel Allowance, Pension, etc.

(3) Better working atmosphere or opportunity: A safe and secure environment a Y allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.

 (4) Job security: There should be the security of employment and regular job.

(5) Government rules and regulations: The organization should follow government rules and regulations like the Factories Act, Industrial Dispute Act, Minimum Wages Act, etc.

6. What is the Infant Mortality Rate? Suggest two measures to keep the Infant Mortality Rate low.     

Or

 Elaborate on the term Infant Mortality Rate. Suggest two measures to keep the Infant Mortality Rate low.                                                                             

 Ans. (1) The number of children that die before the age of one year per 1,000 children born alive in a particular year is called Infant Mortality Rate.

(2) Measures to keep Infant Mortality Rate low : (i) Provision of basic health.

 (ii) Provision of a proper educational facility.

(iii) Proper functioning of the Public Distribution System.

7. Study the data given in the table carefully and answer the questions that follow:

State Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 (2012) Literacy Rate 2011 Net Attendance Ratio (2009-10) Per Capita Income (in Z)
Maharashtra

Kerala

Bihar

25

12

43

82

94

62

64

78

35

1,04,000

88,500

27,200

 

 

 (1) Which state has the highest Literacy Rate?

 (2) Which state has the highest Per Capita Income and why?

 (3) Which state has the highest Infant Mortality Rate and why?

Ans. (1) Kerala: 94%

 (2) (i) Maharashtra has the highest Per Capita Income.

 (ii) This is because of developed infrastructural facilities.

(3) (i) Bihar has the highest Infant Mortality Rate.

 (ii) This is because the state lacks in health facilities.

8. Why Kerala has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra, in spite of lower Per Capita Income?

Or

Why Kerala state has a better human development ranking in comparison to that of Maharashtra? Explain three reasons.

Ans. (1) Kerala ranks higher compared to Maharashtra even with a lower Per Capita Income.

(2) It has adequate provisions of basic health and educational facilities :

(i) Mortality Rate is lower.

 (ii) Literacy Rate is higher.

(iii) A total number of school attending children is higher.

(3) Public Distribution System (PDS) functions well.

(4) Per Capita Income is not a useful criterion to measure the human development ranking. Money cannot buy all the essential things required for a good life. e.g., pollution-free environment.

(5) It has limitations also. It covers only the economic aspects, ignoring the environment, education, the longevity of life, etc.

PUBLIC FACILITIES

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring the development of the countries, different from the one used by the World Bank?

 Ans. The UNDP uses educational levels of the people, their health status and Per Capita Income as the criteria for measuring the development of the countries whereas the World Bank takes into consideration only the Per Capita Income.

2. What is the full form of HDI?         

 Ans. The full form of BM is the Human Development Index.

3. What is the rank of India as per the HDI report of 2014?                      

 Ans. The rank of India as per the HDI report of 2014 is 135.

4. What was India’s Per Capita Income in 2011?

Ans. India’s per capita Income in 2011 was US$ 5,150.

5. State any one public facility needed for the people.

 Ans. Pollution-free environment

6. What does Life Expectancy denote?    

Ans. Life Expectancy at birth denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.

7. Write any one indicator of Human Development Index.

Ans. The indicator of the Human Development Index is the educational levels of the people.

8. What term is used for a report published by UNDP which compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and Per Capita Income?

Ans. Human Development Report

9. Which neighbouring country had a better performance in 2013 in terms of development than that of India?

Or

 Which neighbouring country has better performance in terms of human development than India?                                                                                                             

 Ans. Sri Lanka

10. Which organization publishes the Human Development Report?

Ans. United Nations Development Programmed.

11. Which country ranked First in HDI?

Ans. Norway

12. Name any two things that money cannot buy.

Or

 Cite any one example to prove that money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services you may need to live well.                             

Ans. (1) Pollution-free environment,

(2) Peace,

(3) Sanitation.

13. Which factors are considered while calculating HDI? Mention any two.  

Or

 Mention any two factors considered while calculating HDI.

Ans. Per Capita Income, Life Expectancy at birth and Literacy Rate.

SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. What is Human Development Report? Which organization measures HDR? Explain the three major indicators of HDR.

Or

 What do you understand by the Human Development Index? Name the world organization that has initiated it for the measurement of development.                          

Ans. (i) This is the report published by UNDP for comparing centuries based on the education levels of the people, their health status and Per Capita Income.

 (2) UNDP is responsible for measuring HDR.

(3) The three major indicators of HDR are as under:

(i) Educational levels, (ii) Health status, (iii) Per Capita Income.

2. Differentiate between UNDP report and the World Bank Report. Why is UNDP report more reliable of the two?

Ans. (1) UNDP publishes Human Development Report on the basis of educational levels of the people, their health status and Per Capita Income whereas, the World Bank takes into consideration only the Average Income or Per Capita Income.

(2) The report presented by the UNDP is most reliable since it takes into account all the indicators like health and education in addition to income.

(3) The productive efficiency of an individual increase if he/she is skilled and healthy. In that case, he/she can earn more income.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. What is development? Explain the indicators used by UNDP for measuring development.

Ans. (1) Development: Development refers to progress or improvement in lifestyle. It does not mean only income but it includes equality, security. education, health, environmental sustainability, etc.

 (2) Over the past decade or so, health and education indicators have come to be widely used along with income as a measure of development. Most importantly, the Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and Per Capita Income. In this way, besides money, our life depends on health and education.

(i) Per Capita Income: Per Capita Income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. Income is considered to be one of the most important indicators of development. This is based on the understanding that more income means more of all things that human beings need. Whatever people like and should have, they will be able to get with greater income.

(ii) Life Expectancy at Birth: This denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. Life Expectancy at birth has a direct and positive relationship with the health status of a country or region.

(iii) Literacy Rate: This measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group. Higher Literacy Rate of a country improves its Human Development Index.

2. Describe the efforts made by the government to improve the health of the people in India.

 Ans. The efforts made by the government to improve the health of the people in India are as follows :

(1) The improvement in the health status of the population has been the priority of the government of the country.

 (2) Our national health policy aimed at improving the accessibility of healthcare, family welfare and nutritional service with special focus on an underprivileged segment of the population.

 (3) Over the last five decades, India has built up a vast health infrastructure and manpower required at primary, secondary and tertiary care in Government as well as in the private sector.

(4) According to the National Health Profile, 2013, there were 725 Sub-centers, Primary Health Centers and Community Health Centers in 1951 which increased to 1,81,319 such centres in 2013.

(5) The measures adopted by the government have increased the Life Expectancy to over 66 years in 2013.

3. What is BMI, how is it calculated? Also, give two characteristics of renewable resources.

Ans. (1) One way to find out if adults are undernourished is to calculate what nutrition scientists call Body Mass Index (BMI)

 (2) For calculating BMI, we should take the weight of the person in kg. Then take the height in meters. Further, we divide the weight by the square of the height. If this figure is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered undernourished. However, if this BMI is more than 25, then a person is overweight. In this way, a person is considered a physical fit if the BMI falls between 18.5 and 25.

(3) Following are the characteristics of renewable resources :

 (i) These resources are replenished by nature.

 (ii) These are available continuously. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests, etc.

4. What does HDI stand for? Explain the main criteria of measuring HDI according to Report of 1990.

Or

On the basis of which three indicators of HDI 2004 Sri Lanka has a better rank than India?

Or

 Explain the concept of Human Development Index. Explain the three basic components of measuring Human Development Index.         

Or

 What is meant by HDI? Explain any four indicators of Human Development Index.

Ans. (1) HDI stands for the Human Development Index.

 (2) The main criteria of measuring HDI according to UNDP Report are educational levels of the people, their health status and Per Capita Income.

 (i) Literacy Rate for 15+ years population: According to the Human Development Report, it measures the proportion of the literate population in the 15 and above age group.

(ii) Gross Enrolment Ratio for three levels: This means enrolment ratio for primary school, secondary school and higher education beyond secondary school.

 (iii) Life Expectancy at Birth: It denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.

(iv) Per Capita Income: It is the total income of the country divided by its total population. Here, it is calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be compared. It is also done in a way so that every dollar would buy the same amount of goods and services in any country.

5. Describe any five public facilities needed for the development of a country.

Ans. Public facilities refer to the facilities which a person cannot purchase or arrange an individual level. These are provided by the government. The following public facilities are needed for the development of a country :

(1) Pollution-free environment

(2) Protection from infectious diseases

(3) Good infrastructure

(4) Good law and order situation.

(5) Provision for safe drinking water, sanitation and Public Distribution System.

6. Explain the components for calculating HDI and how is it a better indicator of the country’s economic development.                              

 Ans. According to the UNDP Report of 1990, the main components for calculating HDI are as follows :

(i) Per Capita Income: This is the total income of the country divided by its total Population. This is also called the average income.

(ii) Life Expectancy at birth: It denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.

(iii) Gross Enrolment Ratio for three levels: It means enrolment ratio for primary school, secondary school and higher education beyond the secondary level.

 (2) It is a better indicator of the country’s economic development because it includes% health and education indicators in addition to Per Capita Income. Human Development &pan published by the UN. DP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and Per Capita Income.

7. “Girls in India in the rural sector are sometimes not able to get secondary level education.” Give three reasons for this statement.

Ans. (1) Gender discrimination: Especially, illiterate parents are reluctant to provide education to their girl child. They discriminate the girl child in comparison to the male child.

(2) Poverty: There is widespread poverty in rural India. So, parents want from their girl children to add their family income. Particularly, girls are involved in the domestic chore,

 (3) Distance: Generally, schools are far away from home. So, they are unable to go to school. Besides, parents do not want to send their girl child to distant places because of her safety and security reasons.

8. Identify the different thrust areas of human development. Which one of them plays the most significant role?

 Ans. (1) Following are the different areas of human development:

(i)Income: Money or material things that one can buy with it, is one factor on which our life depends.

(ii) Education: It adds to the quality and productivity of labour. So, it is very significant to human development.

(iii) Health: The health of a person helps him to realize his potential and the ability to fight illness.

(2) Income or Per Capita Income plays the most significant role in human development.

9. Write the importance of the Human Development Index in three points.

Or

 `Human Development is the essence of social development’. Explain.                       

 Ans. (1) It indicates the level of development of a country.

 (2) It indicates how far a country has travelled and how far it has yet to travel to achieve high rank.

(3) One comes to know the important elements of welfare like Per Capita Income, Life Expectancy, Literacy Rate, etc.

10. Why is it said that money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well? Explain.                                                                                                                           

Or `

Money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well”. Support the statement with three suitable examples.                          

Or

Cite any three daily life examples to prove that money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services you may need to live well.                                                                                      

  Ans. It is rightly said because:                                                                                           

 (1) Money cannot buy peace and democracy.

 (2) Money cannot buy a pollution-free environment or good health.

 (3) Per Capita Income of Punjab is higher than Kerala, but still, Punjab lags behind in education and health facilities.

SUSTAINABILITY OF DEVELOPMENT

VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-

1. Which area of the world has the largest crude oil reserves?

Ans. The Middle East has the largest crude oil reserves in the world i.e., 808.5 thousand million barrels in 2013

2.’Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries” Why?

 Ans. This is because, this issue is no longer region or nation-specific, but our future is linked together.

3. Why is sustainable development essential? Give one reason.

Ans. Sustainable development is essential because the present type and levels of development should go up further or at least be maintained for future generations.

4. What is the main factor responsible for the overuse of groundwater in western UP?

Ans. The main factor responsible for overuse of groundwater in western UP is irrigation for farming,

5. Suggest any two ways in which resources can be used judiciously.

Ans. (1) We should use eco-friendly technology

(2) We should enforce environmental laws strictly.

6. What are renewable resources?  

Ans. This type of resources can be renewed by physical, chemical or mechanical processes. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests, etc.

7. State any one reason for the overuse of resources.

Ans. Rapid economic growth and industrialization have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources.

8. Give any two examples of non-renewable resources.

 Ans. Non-renewable resources are :

(1) fossil fuels; and

(2) minerals.

9.”The future generation may not have sufficient resources as compared to the present generation.” Why? Give one reason.       

 Ans. This is because, resources are being over-used by the present generation, which will make them exhausted.

10. What is the aim of sustainable development?

 Ans. The aim of sustainable development is the development of a country or world not only at present but the development which is to be continued and maintained for future generations.

LONG ANSWERS:-

1. Explain three main reasons for the need for environment-friendly economic growth and two ways to achieve it.

 Ans. (1)(i) In the process of economic growth, the damage is being caused to environment and ecology which ultimately will hurt human beings.

(ii) Rapid economic growth and industrialization have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources. There is fear of complete exhaustion of these natural resources.

(iii) To make development sustainable, environmental issues have to be merged in development.

(2) (i) We should use eco-friendly technology.

 (ii) The government should enforce environmental laws strictly.

2.”Sustainability of development is a new area of knowledge”. Do you agree? Justify your answer.                                                                                             

 Ans. (1) Yes, I do agree with the statement that the sustainability of development is a new area of knowledge.

 (2) This is since the second half of the twentieth century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type and levels of development are not sustainable.

(3) Sustainable development is the development of a country or the world not only at present but the development which is to be continued and maintained for future generations.

(4) Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries. Our future is linked together.

(5) So, scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists of the world are working together.

3. Show two ways in which industrial pollution degrades the environment? Suggest three measures to control environmental degradation.

Ans. (1) These are the ways in which industrial pollution degrades the environment:

(i)To industrialize rapidly, countries use fossil fuel, minerals and timber as sources of industrial energy. They are depleting these natural resources and degrading natural ecosystems.

(ii) The present production technology pollutes the atmosphere and water bodies with garbage. litter, smoke and other poisonous gases.

 (2) (i) We should do wise use of resources, without disturbing the environment.

(ii) We should use eco-friendly technology.

(iii) The government should enforce environmental laws strictly.

4. Find out present sources of energy used by people in India. What could be possibilities fifty years from now?

 Ans. (1) The present sources of energy used by people in India are Conventional sources of energy and Non-conventional sources of energy.

(i) Conventional sources of energy include coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity.

 (ii)Non-conventional sources of energy consist of solar energy, wind energy, biogas, °thermal energy, tidal energy and wave energy.

(2) The possibility is that India would have depended on electricity and non-conventional sources of energy. This is because the world stock of crude oil would last only 53 years more if people continue to extract it at the present rate. Even in these days; countries like India depend on importing oil from abroad because they do not have enough stocks of their own. If prices of oil increases, this becomes a burden for everyone. “

5. Sustainability of development is most desirable. Explain.

Or

How does sustainability of resources help in development? Explain.                       

Or

“Sustainability of development is very essential”. Support the statement with the argument.

Ans. Sustainability is significant for development for the following reasons :

(1) Rapid economic growth and industrialization have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources. There is fear of complete exhaustion of these natural resources.

(2) In the process of economic growth, the damage is being caused to environment and ecology which ultimately will hurt human beings.

(3) To achieve sustainable development, we should use eco-friendly technology and enforce environmental laws strictly.

6. Explain the classification of resources on the basis of exhaustibility with the help of examples.

Or

Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources with suitable examples.

Ans. The classification of resources on the basis of exhaustibility may be as renewable resources and non-renewable resources.

(1) Renewable resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are called renewable resources. For example, water, forests, wind energy, solar energy, etc. These resources are replenished by nature.

(2) Non-renewable resources: Non-renewable resources are those which will get exhausted after years of use. We have a fixed stock on the earth which cannot be replenished. These resources take millions of years in their formation. They cannot be renewed or reproduced once they are used up. For example, coal, petroleum, metals, etc. Some of these resources are recyclable like iron, copper, etc.

7. What is Sustainable Development? Suggest any two ways in which resources can be used judiciously.                

Ans. (1) Sustainable development is the development of a country or the world not only at present but the development which is to be continued and maintained for future generations.

(2) Following are the ways in which resources can be used judiciously :

(i) We should use eco-friendly technology.

(ii) The government should enforce environmental laws strictly.

8. What is meant by sustainable development? Why does this issue attract the attention of scientists, economists and social scientists?

Ans. (1) Sustainable development is the development of a country or the world not only at  Present but the development which is to be continued and maintained for future generations.

 (2) This issue attracts the attention of scientists, economists and social scientists for the following reasons.

 (i) They have been warning that the present type and levels of development are not sustainable. Resources are being overused, which will make them exhausted.

(ii) To make development sustainable environmental issues have to be merged in development. The technologies used have to be made eco-friendly.

(iii) Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries. This issue is no longer a regional or national issue.

 (iv) Since our future is linked together, the sustainability of development is essential for all mankind. It is our common responsibility to save the environment

9. Why is sustainable development essential? How does it help to prevent environmental degradation?

 Ans. (1) (i) Sustainable development is essential because rapid economic growth and industrialization have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources.

 (ii) There is fear of complete exhaustion of these natural resources.

(iii) In the process of economic growth, the damage is being caused to environment and ecology which ultimately will hurt human beings.

(2) It helps to prevent environmental degradation in the following ways :

(i) Sustainability of development means carrying out development works without causing damage to the environment and also without making a compromise on the ability of future generation to use the resources which are being used by the present generation.

(ii) To make development sustainable, environmental issues have to be merged in development. The technologies used have to be made eco-friendly.

(iii) Sustainable development is a matter of discussion among different countries of the world. Global warming, acid rain, etc. are not to be controlled by one nation. It is a global matter of thinking and finding solutions.

 (iv) In order to make development sustainable, people do not overuse and degrade the quality of water so that water is exhausted or if it remains, it is contaminated to such an extent that it becomes unusable for future generations.

10. “The future generation may not have sufficient resources as compared to the present generation”. Explain the statement by giving suitable examples.

Ans. It is quite true that the future generation may not have sufficient resources as compared to the present generation.

(1) The statement explains that overuse of resources by the present generation would lead to insufficiency of resources for the future generation.

(2) Development without adequate resources is impossible.

(3) For example,

(i) nearly 1/3 of the country is overusing groundwater resources.

(ii) They also overuse fossil fuels like petroleum, coal, etc.

11. What is meant by sustainable economic development? Write its main features.

Ans. (1) Sustainable development is a process as a result of which both income and economic, welfare tend to increase in a manner without overexploiting natural resources.

 (2) The features of sustainable development are as under :

(i) It leads to judicious use of resources.

(ii) It reduces our dependence on non-renewable resources.

(iii) It is helpful in inventing alternative resources. 

(iv) It promotes reuse and recycles resources.

12. Explain any three reasons for the issues of sustainability being important for development.

Or

What is the sustainability of development? Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain with example.                          

Ans. (1) Sustainable development may be defined as development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

(2) Sustainability is important for development because:

 (i) Overuse of resources alarms that reserves will last for only a few more years.

(ii) India depends on importing oil from abroad since it does not have enough stocks of its own.

(iii) There is a heavy burden on the balance of payment.

 (iv) Sustainability is important for economic development in future.

13. What is the meaning of sustainability of development? Explain any four reasons responsible for over-use of ground-water in recent times.                                      

Or

 What is meant by sustainable development? Explain it by taking the case study 01 water.

Or

Explain the importance of sustainable development by giving the example of groundwater.                                                                                                           

Ans. (1) Sustainable development is the development of a country or world not only at present but the development which is to be continued and maintained for future generations.

(2) For example, groundwater is a natural resource which is replenished by nature. People of a particular generation must use water in such a way that people of a future generation may also be able to use groundwater. People should not over-use and degrade the quality of water so that water is exhausted or if it remains, it is contaminated to such an extent that it becomes unusable for people of future generations.

14. “Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries.” Justify the statement.

Or

Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries Explain the meaning of this statement.                                                                       

 Ans. (1) Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries.

(2) This issue is no longer a regional or national issue.

(3) Our future is linked together. Sustainability of development is essential for all thy. mankind and it is our common responsibility to save the environment.

(4) These days it is a matter of discussion among different countries of the world.

(5) Global warming, acid rain, etc. are not to be controlled by one nation. It is a global mat tar of thinking and finding the solutions.

15. Explain the term ‘Development’. How is it linked with sustainability? Explain with example.

Ans. (1) Development is a process which has a notion of going further up and improving the quality of life.

(2) It is linked to sustainability since it has to be maintained for future generations.

(3) Resonance needs to be used wisely so that they can be replenished.

(4) Overuse of resources exhausts them. For example,  petroleum.

 (5) If development is not sustainable, it will give rise to environmental degradation and become a global problem.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1.”Growth in literacy is a must for economic development.” In light of the above statement, mention the values that literacy improves.

Ans. (1) Knowledge and skill

 (2) Ability to implement modern technology

 (3) Capability to establish new enterprises

(4) Health awareness

(5) Creation of opportunities

(6) Self-dependency

(7) Ability to research

(8) Creativity

2. “Effects of environmental degradation breaches the boundaries of nations.” In light of the above statement, mention a few such factors caused by environmental degradation that show global impact and can be controlled by efforts at the global level.

 Ans. (1) Global warming

 (2) Acid rain

(3) Ozone depletion

(4) Increase in the sea-level

(5) Ocean acidification

 (6) Greenhouse effect

(7) Ocean salinity

 (8) Desertification

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