Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus
Chapter- 4 Gender, Religion and Caste
The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts.
GENDER AND POLITICS
Very Short Answers:-
1.What is the aim of a feminist movement?
Ans. A feminist movement aims at equality of men and women in personal and family life as well.
2.Name the countries in which the participation of women in public life is very high.
Ans. In Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high.
3.Write main provision of Equal Wages Act.
Ans. The Equal Wages Act provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work.
4.Give an example of sexual division of labor.
Ans. In most families, women do all work inside the home such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes, tailoring, looking after children, etc. and men do all the work outside the home.
5.Give an example of discrimination done against women in India.
Ans. Generally, parents prefer to spend their resources for their boy’s education rather than spending equally on their daughters.
6.Give two reasons for imbalance in Sex Ratio in India.
Ans. (1) Parents prefer to have sons and find ways to have the girl child aborted before she is born.
(2)Parents are reluctant to spend their resources for their daughters’ health and nutrition.
1.Who is a feminist? Explain reasons for the rise of feminist movement in India.
Ans. (1) Feminist refers to a woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men.
(2) The following are the reasons for the rise of Feminist Movement in India:
(i) Ours is a male-dominated, patriarchal society where the main responsibility of women is considered to be housework and bringing up children.
(ii) Although, women constitute half of the humanity, their role in public life, especially politics, is minimal in most societies.
(iii) Earlier, only men were allowed to participate in public affairs, vote and contest for public offices. So, the gender issue was raised in politics.
(iv) Feminist Movement aims at equality in personal and family life as well.
2.Define Feminist Movements. Write their objective?
Ans. (1) Feminist Movement is an agitation or a movement demanding enhancement in the political and legal status of the women and improvement in their education and career opportunities.
(2) (i) They believe in equal rights and opportunities for both men and women. Ail their objective is to attain equality between men and women.
1.What is sexual division of labor? Mention the political demand of the worldwide women’s agitations.
Ann. (1) Sexual division of labor is a system in which all work inside the home is either done by the women of the family, or organize LI by them through the domestic helpers.
(2)(i) Gradually the gender issue was rained in politics. Women in different parts of the world organized and agitated for equal right.
(ii) There were agitations in different ‘countries for the extension of voting rights to women.
(1)Sexual division of labor refers to the division of work between the men and the Some works especially the household works such as cooking, tailoring, washing, ;, etc. are exclusively meant for the women while the men have some other defined work.
le sexual division of labor does not mean that men can’t do household works. They think that it is for women to attend the household works. When these jobs are paid, ready to take up those jobs, for example, most tailors and cooks in the hotel are Chief sexual division of labor also does not mean that women do not work outside ‘me. In villages women fetch water, collect fuels and work in the fields. In urban he poor women work as domestic help while the middle class women work in office.
2.”How women in India still face discrimination and oppression in various ways.” Support the statement with five examples.
Explain any five aspects of our day-to-day life in which women are discriminated in India.
“Women are discriminated in India.” Justify the statement with three examples.
What are the problems faced by Indian women which affect their social status? Explain any five.
“Women in Indian society still suffer from discrimination and oppression.” Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. Women are discriminated because of the following reasons
(1) Ours is still male dominated society. It is believed that women should perform house works. Women do all works inside the house and men do all the works outside the house.
(2) In our society the work of women is not valued and does not get recognition. In fact, urban women do some works but their work is not given due importance in the society.
(3) Literacy Rate among women is only 54% compared to 76% among men. Similarly, a smaller proportion of girl students go for higher studies.
(4) Number of women in the highly paid and valued jobs is still very small.
(5) In almost all areas of work women are paid less than men, even both do exactly the same work.
(6) In India, the proportion of women in legislature has been very low.
3.Explain the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies.
Assess the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies.
Ans. (1) Central Legislature: Less than 10% of its total strength is women.
(2) State Legislature: Less than 5% of its total strength is women.
(3) Panektayati Raj: 1/3 of the seats are reserved for women.
(4) India is among the bottom group of nations in the world, in this respect.
(5) Women’s organizations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least 113 of seats in the Lok Sabah and State Assemblies. But, the bill to this effect, has not been passed.
(6) In many parts of India, parents prefer to have sons and find ways to have the girl child aborted before her birth.
(7) Decline in sex ratio : It is because, preference is given to male child. A girl is considered as a burden. The present sex ratio is 914 (as per 2011 census) females per thousand males.
RELIGION, COMMUNALISM AND POLITICS
Very Short Answers:-
Ans. A person who disbelieves or lacks belief in the existence of God or gods.
2.Which term is used for a country which allows its people to follow any religion?
Ans. Secular state
3.By what term is the person known that does not discriminate others on the basis of religious beliefs?
4.What was the opinion of Mahatma Gandhi on relation between religion and politics?
Ans. The religion can never be separated from politics.
5.Who is called secular?
Ans. A person who does not discriminate others on the basis of religious beliefs.
1.Suggest any two measures to check communalism in India.
Ans. (1) We should respect the secular provision of our Constitution. A nation or state which keeps itself equip-distant from different religious issues, and does not give protection to a particular religion and gives all religions equal chance to flourish is called a secular state. Our Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to prefer, practice and propagate any religion or not to follow any.
(2) We may have firm faith in our religion, but should respect other religions also. India is a country of diverse religions. Our Constitution-makers never believed that religion can be the basis of a nation. That is why; India has chosen to become a secular state.
1.How can the relationship between politics and religion be beneficial and problematic at the same time? Explain.
Ans. (1) Unlike gender differences, the religious differences are often expressed in the field of politics. Ideas, ideals and values drawn from different religions can and perhaps should play a role in politics. (i) Politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion.
(ii) People should be able to express in politics their needs, interests and demands as a member of a religious community. Political power should sometimes be able to regulate the practice of religion so as to prevent discrimination and oppression. These political acts are not wrong as long as they treat every religion equally.
(3)Religion is a source of danger to democratic politics and problematic in the following ways:
(i) The most common expression of conurunrnlism is in everyday beliefs involving religious Povrejudiet is, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion err other religions.
(ii) A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community. This takes the form of majoritarian dominance and people belonging to the minority community, can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.
(iii) Political mobilization on religious lines involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena involving special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of one religion in preference to others.
2.How religion can be used in politics in a positive manner? Express your viewpoint.
Can religion be used positively in politics? Support your answer with arguments.
Ans. (1) Unlike gender differences, the religious differences are often expressed in the field of politics.
(2) Politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion. Gandhi used to say that religion can never be separated from politics and he meant by religion was moral values that inform all religions.
(3) Ideas, ideals and values drawn from different religions can and perhaps should play role in politics. People should be able to express in politics their needs, interests and dense as a member of a religious community.
(4) Political power should, sometimes, be able to regulate the practice of religion so as prevent discrimination and oppression.
(5) The political acts are not wrong as long as they treat every religion equally.
3.How dots communalisms threaten the Indian Denmeraey? Enplane.
Communalism will weaken India’s unity. Explain.
Ans. Communalism involves religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious comm. and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions.
(2) A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious a unity.
(3) Political mobilization on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism. In electoral politics, this often involves special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of one religion in preference to others.
(4) Sometimes communalism in India takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre.
(5) Communal prejudices and propaganda need to be countered in everyday life and religion based mobilization needs to be countered in the arena of politics.
4.What is communal politics? Explain the idea behind the communal politics.
Define communal politics. What are the ideas behind the communal politics?
Ans. (1) The politics based on the power and domination of one religious group and ignoring others, is called communal politics.
(2)(i) The main ideological principle of communalism is based on religious values and norms. Communalism involves the thinking that the followers of a particular religion must belong to one community.
(ii) Communalism follows the idea that people who follow different religions, cannot belong to the same social group. if the followers of different religions have some commonalities, these are superficial and immaterial.
(iii) Communal ideology rests on the belief that the people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. It believes that people of one religion do not have the same interest and inspiration in every context.
5.Explain the main features of communalism. What form does it take in politics?
Ans. (1) Following are the features of communalism:
(i) The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests are the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life.
(ii) The people who follow different religions can’t belong to the same social community.
(iii) If the followers of different religions have some commonalities, these are superficial and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict.
(iv) Communalism believes that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either, one of them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nations.
(2)Following are the various forms of communalism in politics:
(i) A communal mind often leads to a quest for political domination of one’s own religious community.
(ii) Political mobilization on communal lines is another form of communalism. This involves the use of sacred symbols, religions, ideas, emotional appeals and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena.
6.Explain any three forms of communalism in the Indian Polities.
Define communalism? Explain any three forms of communalism in the Indian Polities:
How is communalism being expressed in the politics of India? Explain.
How does communalism take various forms in politics? Explain any five.
Ans. (1) Communalism is a situation in the society in which the different religious groups try to establish its superiority over the others.
(2)(i) In politics, communalism leads to a tendency of dominance of one community over the other. For those belonging to the majority community, this takes the form of majoritarian dominance. For those belonging to the minority, it can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.
(ii) There is use of religious ideas and emotional appeals and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in political arena. In electoral politics, this often involves special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of one religion in preference to another.
(iii) The most common expression of communalism is in everyday beliefs. These routinely involve religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in superiority of one’s religion over other religions.
(iv) Communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. India and Pakistan suffered some of the worst communal riots at the time of partition.
7.What is a secular state? How does the Constitution of India ensure that India remains a Secular State?
What is meant by communalism? What provisions have been made in our Constitution to make India a Secular State?
Why did our Constitution framers choose the model of a Secular State for India? How is this choice reflected in the constitutional provisions Explain?
Describe any five constitutional provisions that make India a Secular State.
Ans. (1) A State that has no official religion and grants equal status to all religions is called as Secular State.
(2)The Constitution of India ensures secularism through following ways :
(i) There is no official religion for the Indian State.
(ii) Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, that of Islam in Pakistan and Christianity in England, our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.
(iii) The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to proffer’s practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.
(iv) The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
(v) The Constitution allows the State to intervene into the matters of religion in order w ensure equality within religious communities.
Very Short Answers:-
1.What is castes ?
Ans:-Castes or caste hierarchy refers to a ladder like formation in which all the caste groups are placed from the ‘highest’ to the ‘lowest’ caste.
2.What did political leaders and reformers like Motiva Phyla, Gandhi B.R. Ambedkar and Perilya Ramaswamy oppose?
Ans. Caste system based on exclusion and discrimination against the `outcaste’ groups.
1.Explain any three factors that brought about a change in the Indian Caste System in modern India.
Ans. (1) Role of Social Reformers : Many reformers like Mahatma Phyla, Naiad, Ambedkar, Mahatma Gandhi, etc. fought to establish a society in which caste inequalities have no place.
(2) Role of Socio-economic changes: Development of new cities, industrialization, creation of job opportunities in new urban areas, etc. compelled people from all castes to live and work together. This has developed a liberal view relating to the notions of caste practices.
(3) Role of the Constitution: The Constitution prohibited any caste based discrimination and laid the foundation of policies to reverse the injustices of caste system. Untouchability has been made a penal offence.
2.”Caste has not still disappeared from contemporary India.” Cite any three examples to justify the statement.
“Caste has not still disappeared from contemporary India.” Do you agree with the ‘statement? Justify your answer with suitable arguments.
Ans. Arguments: (1) Most people marry within their own caste or tribe.
(2) Untouchability has not ended completely despite constitutional provision.
(3) Effects of centuries of advantages and disadvantages continue to be felt today.
(4) A large mass of low caste people still do not have access to education.
(5) Caste continues to be linked to economic status.
3.Describe any five features of the caste system prevailing in India.
Ans. The basic features of the caste system in India are as follows:
(1) It was a hierarchical occupational division of the society.
(2) It had four main divisions — Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaasa and Shard.
(3) It was hereditary.
(4) The members of the same caste group formed a social community that followed similar occupation, married within the caste and did not mingle with the other castes.
(5) The caste system was based on exclusion of and discrimination against the ‘out caste’ groups that were subjected to the inhuman practice of untouchability.
4.Assess the influences of politics on caste system.
Flow does politics play a role in caste system?
Ans. Politics influences caste system in following ways :
(1) Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within its sub-castes.
(2) Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other castes or communities.
(3) New kinds of caste groups have entered politics like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ castes.
(4) Politics in caste has allowed many disadvantaged caste groups to demand their share et Power.
(5) Caste politics has helped the davits and OBCs to gain better access to decision- making view point.
5.”Politics must be guided by ethics.” Explain the statement with incorporating three values.
Ans. Politics must be guided by ethics for which following values should be incorporated in our political system :
(1) Equality : The basis of democracy is equality. All are equal before the law. Every citizen will be provided with the equality of status and opportunity. The traditional social inequalities should be ended.
(2) Fraternity : Our politics must be accommodated the value of fraternity. All the citizens of India have been assured about the dignity of individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. All of us should behave like the members of the family. No one should be treated as inferior.
(3) Justice : Every citizen should have social, political and economic justice. Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. The government should work for the reduction of social inequalities and welfare of all.
6.”In India, right before the birth women are discriminated against.” In the light of the above statement, mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated.
Ans. (1) Female feticide
(2) Job opportunity
(3) Salary paid
(4) Higher education
(5) Decision-making in the family
(6) Representation in the central and state legislature.