Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus
Chapter- 2 The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China,
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EMERGING FROM THE SHADOW OF CHINA
Very Short Answers:
1.In which type of agriculture was indentured Vietnamese labor widely used?
Ans. Rubber plantations
2.Which European country colonized Vietnam?
1.Why did the French think the colonies to be necessary? Explain the reasons.
Ans. Following were the major reasons for which French thought colonies were necessary:
(1) Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.
(2) If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods.
(3) The market will consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
(4) French also thought it was the mission of the ‘advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilization to backward people.
(5) To obtain maximum benefit from colonial resources, French needed educated local force. So, French needed to educate local people.
2.How did France consolidate its position in Vietnam in the 18th century? Describe.
Ans.(1) French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by mid-1880 they had established a firm grip over the northern region.
(2) After the French-Chinese war, the French assumed the control of Tonkin and Annam. In 1887, French Indo-China was formed.
(3) In the following decades the French sought to consolidate their position by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
(4) Trans Indo-China rail network was constructed.
(5) Civilizing Mission was started to make Vietnamese modern.
(6) For this, French systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and started their own schools. With these measures French established and consolidated their rule in Vietnam.
3.How did Paul Bernard argue in favor of economic development of Vietnam? Explain.
State Paul Bernard’s views about the development of the colonies.
What according to Paul Bernard were the two ways to develop the economy of the colonies?
What were the ways to develop the economy of the colonies according to Paul Bernard?
Ans. (I) Paul Bernard was an influential writer and policy maker.
(2)He was of the opinion that Vietnam was highly populated country which would be a major hindrance for economic growth in the country.
(3) He strongly recommended that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed.
(4) According to him, the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits.
(5) If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved then they would buy more goods. The markets would consequently expand leading to better profits for French business.
(6) In order to reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity and to create more jobs, he stressed on land reforms and industrialization in the country.
4.What did France do to increase cultivation in Vietnam? How did it affect the rice cultivation by 1931?
Ans. (1) (i) The French began to increase cultivation by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta.
(ii) The vast system of irrigation works — canals and earthworks wore built mainly with forced labor.
(2) (i) This increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market.
(ii) The area under rice cultivation went up from 2, 74,000 hectares in 1873 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million hectares in 1930.
(iii) Vietnam exported two-third of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
5.State the importance of China in the early history of Indo-China.
Ans. (1) The early history of Indo-China shows many different groups of people living in this area under the shadow of the powerful empire of China.
(2) Even when an independent country (presently, northern and central Vietnam) was established, its rulers continued to maintain the Chinese system of governance.
(3) Also, the rulers of this independent country continued to follow Chinese culture.
(4) Vietnam was also linked to the maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas.
(5) Other networks of trade connected it to the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as Khmer Cambodians lived.
6.According to Paul Bernard what were the three main barriers to economic growth in Vietnam?
Who suggested that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed? State any two barriers to economic growth in Vietnam.
What were the obstacles in economic growth of Vietnam?
Ans. Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic growth in Vietnam:
(1)High population levels: According to Paul, as Vietnam was a highly populated country this would be a major hindrance for economic growth. High population levels would eat away the nominal economic growth of the country.
(2) Low agricultural productivity: This was also a major area of concern for Bernard. The was because, Vietnam was an agrarian economy. The economy was primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations.
(3) Rural poverty: He was also concerned with extensive indebtedness amongst the Peasants. In order to reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity and to create more lobe, he stressed on land reforms and industrialization in the country.
7.Describe the contribution made by the French for the development of agriculture in new.
Describe any five steps taken by the French for the development of the ‘Mekong delta region’.
Explain with examples the various efforts made by the French to develop ‘Mekong’ Delta Region.
What efforts were made by the French to colonize Vietnam? Explain.
Ans. Contributions made by the French for the development of agriculture in Vietnam were as follows:
(1) The French began by building canals and draining land in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
(2) It increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market.
(3) The area under rice cultivation went up from 2, 74,000 hectares in 1873 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million hectares in 1930.
(4) Vietnam exported two-third of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
(5) Infrastructure projects were developed to help the transport of goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region.
THE DILEMMA OF COLONIAL EDUCATION
Very Short Answers:
1.Which Political party was formed by the students of Vietnam in 1920?
Ans. Party of Young Annan
2.In which School of Vietnam did major protests erupt in 1926?
Ans. The Saigon Native Girls School
3.Which western hair style was encouraged in the schools in Vietnam?
Ans. Short hair
4.What did the term ‘Colon’ mean in Indo-China?
Ans. A French citizen living in Vietnam.
1.What was the ‘Civilizing Mission’ of the colonizers in Vietnam? Explain.
Ans. (1) Civilizing mission was meant to establish Western/European language and culture over the Vietnamese in the name of their backwardness in every sense.
(2) The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilization to Vietnam.
(3) They took for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilization.
(4) So, it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony.
(5) This meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these we seen as outdated and prevented modern development.
2.”The Vietnamese made the battle against French colonial education a part of the larger battle against colonialism and for independence”. Explain the statement.
Ans. (1) The curriculum introduced by the French, on the one hand, glorified the French and on the other, it tried to prove Vietnamese as primitive and backward who can do only manual labor and had no intellectual reflection.
(2) The Saigon Native Girls School expelled a student from the school on the basis of racial biasness. This was strongly protested by the students and the school had to readmit the student.
(3) The colonial government made a policy thereby only a few Vietnamese could pass the qualifying examination so as to stop them from giving stiff competition for white collar jobs to their French counterparts. This was strongly protested.
(4) The Vietnamese students formed association and even political parties. The party of the Young Annan is one such example. Students also published nationalist journals. One such journal was “The Anamneses Student”.
(5) Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. Vietnamese intellectuals feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory, but it’s very identity. So, the battle against French colonial education became part of the larger battle against colonialism and for independence.
3.Describe about the education of Vietnamese elite during French domination.
Ans. (1) During French domination the elite of Vietnam had special privileges.
(2) Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a western style education to the elite Vietnamese.
(3) It provided education to rich classes in science, hygiene and French culture. These classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately.
(4) The school’s approach towards modernization was that Vietnamese elite should be modern.
(5) The school encouraged the adoption of western styles such as having a short haircut.
(6) French promoted the youths to study western customs.
(7) They suggested French to be taught in higher classes and Vietnamese in lower classes.
4.”During French colonial rule schools in Indo-China became important place for political and cultural battles.” Justify the statement.
Ans. (1) French systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
(2) However, only the Vietnamese elite could enroll in the schools and only a few among them passed the school leaving examination.
(3) But, the Vietnamese did not take this policy silently. Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum prescribed by the French.
(4) A major protest erupted in Saigon Native Girls School in 1926.
(5) Students published nationalist journals such as Anamneses Student.
(6) Many political parties such as ‘Young Annan’ were formed by the students. Schools became an important place for political and cultural battle.
(7) Students fought against the colonial Government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society.
5.”Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum during French colonization.” Explain the statement.
Did the Vietnamese teachers blindly follow the curriculum set for them? Explain.
Ans. (1) In Vietnam, the French introduced the most advanced modern education system. French were of the opinion that Europe had developed the most advanced civilization.
(2) For this they established French schools for the Vietnamese such as “Igniting Free School’.
(3) But, the Vietnamese students and teachers did not blindly follow the curriculum.
(4) Sometimes there was open opposition at other times, there was silent resistance. As the number of the Vietnamese teachers increased in lower classes, it became difficult to control What was actually taught.
(5) While teaching, the Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticized what was stated.
(6) In 1926, a major protest erupted in Saigon Native Girls School.
(7) Elsewhere students fought against the biased policies of the French education system.
6.How did students in Vietnam fight against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for ‘white collar jobs’? Explain.
Explain the role of students against the colonial government in Vietnam.
Ans. (1) Students were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society.
(2) This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite, because both saw their positions threatened.
(3) By the 1920s, students were forming various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan, and publishing nationalist journals such as the Anamneses Student. School thus became an important place for political and cultural battles.
7.Why did a major protest erupt in 1926 in the Saigon Native Girls School in Vietnam? Explain.
Describe the major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School in 1926, in Vietnam.
What protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School?
Describe the incident that took place in 1926 in the Saigon Native Girls School.
Explain one important incident that took place in Saigon Native Girls School during the period of French colonization.
Ans. (1) In 1926, a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School.
(2) A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench. She refused.
(3) The Principal, also a colon, expelled her.
(4) When angry students protested, they too were expelled, leading to a further spread of open protests.
(5) Seeing the situation getting out of control, the government forced the school to take the students back. The Principal reluctantly agreed. Such incidents went a long way in instilling patriotic feelings among the Vietnamese people.
8.How did the French seek to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education?
Explain the ways adopted by the French to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education.
Ans. (1) Education was seen as one of ways to civilize the native.
(2) French systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
(3) They emphasized the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction.
(4) urns the Vietnamese elite could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those knitted ultimately passed the school-leaving examination.
(5) School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. While Vietnamese were, resented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labor but not of intellectual Lection. They were skilled copyists but not creative.
9.How did the textbooks represent the Vietnamese during the period of French mutation? Explain. Or
Describe the content of the school textbooks meant for the Vietnamese during the period French colonization.
State any three ways in which the French were glorified in school textbooks Vietnam.
How did the French provide a western style of education to the Vietnamese?
Ans. (1) School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule while the tames were represented as primitive and backward.
(2) They were capable of manual labor but not of intellectual reflection.
(3) They could work in the fields but not rule themselves.
(4) They were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative.
(5) School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam. Since establishment of French rule, the Vietnamese peasants no longer lives in constant terror Aerates.
10.What was the French dilemma in educating the Vietnamese? Explain.
Highlight the dilemma hat French had to resolve to educate the Vietnamese.
What was the dilemma behind introducing modern education in Vietnam?
Ans. Dilemma faced by the French:
(1) In pursuance of the policy of civilizing mission, French wanted to introduce modern ideas through western education. But in this area,;y were faced with a dilemma.
(2) The French required an educated labor force but feared that education might create Emblems for them in future. Once educated, the Vietnamese might begin to question colonial negation.
(3) Moreover, the `colons’ or the French who lived in Vietnam began to fear that, once Jested, the Vietnamese might replace them in job and they would lose their jobs as teachers, icemen, etc.
(4) So, they did not know how far they should educate the natives.
(5) Many opposed to give the Vietnamese full access to French education.
11.Explain any three main features of Tonkin Free School.
Explain any three features of education provided in Makin Free School in Vietnam.
Describe the features of the Tonkin Free School’ started in 1907 to provide a Western style education.
Ans. Following were the main features of Tonkin Free School:
(1) Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a western style education to the Vietnamese.
(2) It provided education to rich classes in science, hygiene and French culture.
(3) These classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately.
(4) The school’s approach towards modernization was that to be modern, the Vietnamese also had to look modern.
(5) The school encouraged the adoption of western styles such as having a short haircut.
12. Describe the various steps taken by the French to dismantle Chinese influence on Vietnam.
How was the Chinese influence removed from Vietnamese education system by the French?
Ans. The French adopted various measures to dismantle the Chinese influence on Vietnamese culture.
(1) They established French schools for the Vietnamese. They wanted to replace Chinese language in schools by French.
(2) Some policy makers emphasized the use of French language as the medium of instruction.
(3) In 1907, Tonkin Free School was set up to provide western style education to spread French culture.
(4) In religion, the French introduced Christianity in Vietnam and gave a challenge to Confucianism.
(5) They propagated French culture among the youths. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
HYGIENE, DISEASE AND EVERYDAY RESISTANCE
Very Short Answers:-
1.In 1902, why did the rat hunt begin in Vietnam?
Ans. The rats carried the germs of bubonic plague
2.Which epidemic struck modern Hanoi in 1903?
Ans. Bubonic plague
1.”Rats were most common in the modern newly built areas of Hanoi.” How was the rat hunt started in Hanoi?
Ans. (1) The French part of Hanoi was built as a beautiful and clean city with Wide Avenue and well-laid-out sewer system, while the native quarter was not provided with any modern facilities.
(2) The refuse from old city drained straight out into the river or, during heavy rains or floods overflowed into the streets.
(3) Thus, what was installed to create a hygienic environment in the French city became the cause of bubonic plague.
(4) The large sewers in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ide: and protected breeding grounds of rats.
(5) The sewers also served as great transport system, allowing the rats to move around the city without any problem.
(6) The rats began to enter the well-cared homes of French through the sewer pipes. ‘lb stein this invasion, a rat hunt was started in 1902. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed.
2.How was the French part of Hanoi built differently?
Ans. (1) When the French set about creating a modern Vietnam, they decided to rebuild Hanoi.
(2) The latest ideas about architecture and modern engineering skills were employed to build a new and ‘modern’ city.
(3) In 1903, the modern part of Hanoi was built as a beautiful and clean city.
(4) It had wide avenues and a well laid out sewer system.
(5) Many big and modern colonial buildings had come up in the French part of Hanoi.
3.The measures taken by the French to control the spread of bubonic plague in Hanoi created a serious problem.’ Explain the statement.
Ans. (1) The French used Vietnamese workers for this and paid them for each rat they killed.
(2) Rats began to be caught in thousands, but still there seemed to be no end.
(3) This dirty work was to be done only by the Vietnamese, they began collective bargaining.
(4) Another innovative way they took was that they clipped only the tail of the rat to show as a proof of killing and released rat, so that the process could be repeated. Some people began raising rats to earn a bounty.
(5) In this way, the rat menace marked the limit of French power and contradicted their `civilizing mission’. And the action of the rat-catchers tells us of the numerous small ways in which colonialism was fought in everyday life.
4.Explain the reasons for the French colonizers to scrap the bounty programmed for rat hunting in 1902-03. Or
What was the purpose to start ‘Rat Hunt’ programmed by the French in Vietnam in 1902? How the purpose got defeated?
What was ‘The Rat Hunt’? How was it conducted? Why were the French forced to stop the bounty programmed?
Ans. (1) (i) The modern part of Hanoi was struck by bubonic plague. To fight the plague, French started Rat Hunt programmed in 1902.
(ii) The people were paid for each rat they hunted.
(2) (i) The purpose of rat hunt was finally defeated.
(ii) The French hired Vietnamese workers to catch the rats and paid them for the same, proved a failed attempt.
(iii) Vietnamese befooled the government by just showing the tail and allowing the rat to go free.
(iv) They took it as a way to earn profit.
5.Why was the rat hunt policy scrapped?
Why was the bounty programmed of rat hunt scrapped? Explain.
Ans. The rat hunt of 1902, wherein the French paid the Vietnamese for each rat they caught, failed due to the following reasons:
(1) The Vietnamese learnt the art of ‘collective bargaining’ and found that if they come together they could negotiate a higher bounty.
(2) Vietnamese were following a deliberate policy of catching the rats, clipping their tails and showing them as proof of killing.
(3) They, however, did not kill the rats but release them instead so that they could get more money for the same rats by showing their tails again.
(4) Some people even began raising rats to earn a bounty.
(5) Defeated by the resistance of the weak, the French were forced to scrap the bounty programmed. None of this prevented the bubonic plague.
RELIGION AND ANTI-COLONIALISM
Very Short Answers:-
1.In which area did Hood-Ha Movement gain popularity?
Ans. Mekong delta area
2.Who was the founder of Hood-Ha Movement in Vietnam?
Who was the founder of the Hood-Ha movement?
Ans. Huynh Phi So
3.To which piece did French authorities exile Huynh Phi So?
4.Who was declared ‘Mad Bonze’ by the French?
Ans. Huynh Phi So
5.Name the two major religions of Vietnam?
Ans. (1) Buddhism, (2) Confucianism.
1.Describe about the religions followed by Vietnamese.
Ans. (1) Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practice.
(2) Christianity was introduced by the French missions. is, who were intolerant of this easy going attitude and viewed the Vietnamese tendency to revere the supernatural as something to be corrected.
2.Explain the contribution of Hood-Ha movement against religious and social evils in Vietnam.
Ans. Contributions of Hood-Ha Movement against religious and social evils in Vietnam were as follows:
(1) This movement used miracles to win .the faith of the people and helped the poor.
(2) It criticized useless expenditure which had a wide appeal.
(3) The movement opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium.
3.Who was the founder of Hood-Ha Movement? Explain any three points to highlight his Contribution. Or
Who was the founder of Hood-Ha Movement? Explain his contributions for his country
Ans. (1) Hood-Ha Movement was founded by Huynh Phi So in 1939.
(2) His contributions were as follows:
(i) He always helped the poor people.
(ii) He criticized useless expenditure.
(iii) He opposed the sale of child brides.
(iv) He opposed gambling and use of alcohol and opium.
1.Explain, with examples, how religious groups played an important role in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.
Ans. (1) Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. Christianity introduced by French missionaries, was intolerant of this easy going attitude and viewed the Vietnamese tendency to revere the supernatural as something to be corrected.
(2) Scholars’ Revolt in 1868 was an early movement against French control and spread by Christianity. This led a general uprising in Gnu An and Ha Tine provinces where thousands of Catholics were killed.
(3) Huynh Phi So started Hood-Ha Movement in 1939. It drew on religious ideas popular in Anti-French uprising of the society.
(4) Some religious organizations and groups in Vietnam were inspired and started movements against the colonial rule.
(5) Although, religious movements had a contradictory relationship with mainstream nationalism. But, the significance of these movements in arousing anti-imperialist sentiments should not be underestimated.
2.Mention any three features of Hood-Ha Movement.
Describe the Hood-Ha Movement against the French.
Ans. Following are the important features of Hood-Ha Movement in Vietnam:
(1) It was a Buddhist movement launched by Huynh Phi So in 1939.
(2) It gained popularity in the fertile Mekong River Delta area.
(3) It drew on religious ideas popular in anti-French uprisings of the 19th century
(4) Huynh Phi So performed miracles and helped the poor. He criticized useless expenditure. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium.
(5) The French suppressed the movement and called Huynh Phi So ‘Mad Bonze’ and exiled him to Laos.
THE VISION OF MODERNISATION
Very Short Answers:-
1.Pham Boy Chua met which Chinese reformer in Yokohama in 1905?
Ans. Liang Quiche
2.Which nationalist of Vietnam was intensely hostile to the monarchy?
Ans. Pham Chu ‘firth
3.Pham Boy Chua, a nationalist, was educated in which traditional way? ‘Mss. Confucian tradition. Who wrote the ‘History of the Loss of Vietnam’?
Ans. Pham Boy Chua
1.The role of Pham Boy Chua, as an activist to resist the French domination in 19th Century.
Ans.1. (1) Pham Boy Chua was a Confucian scholar-activist.
(2) He advocated that first foreign enemy (French) should be driven out of Vietnam.
(3) Monarchy should be used to achieve the goal.
(4) Pham Boy Chua shook hands with the elite classes of China and Vietnam to form an anti-French alliance.
(5) Chua was not in favor of raising people to abolish the monarchy.
1.With what aim was the ‘Go East Movement’ started in Vietnam in the first decade of 20th century? What was its outcome?
Write any three primary objectives of the ‘Go East Movement’ in Vietnam.
Describe any five features of the ‘Go East Movement’.
Describe the different aspects of the “Go East Movement”.
Ans. (1) (i) Early Vietnamese nationalists were greatly inspired by the ideals prevalent in Japan.
(ii) Japan provided models for those who were looking for a change and also gave refuge to who escaped French police.
(iii) In the first decade of 20th century, a “Go East Movement” became popular. In 1907-08, nearly 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education.
(iv) For many of them the primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow the puppet emperor and re-establish the Nguyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French.
(v) The nationalists looked for foreign help and arms to fulfill their goals.
(2) Outcome: Vietnamese students established a branch of Restoration Society in Tokyo but after 1908 Japanese ministry clamped them down. Many Vietnamese were deported and exiled to other countries.
2.Who were Pham Boy Chua and Pham Chu Minh? What was the goal for which both of them worked? How did their opinion differ in achieving their goal?
Ans. (1) (i) Pham Boy Chua was a major figure in anti-colonial resistance in Vietnam.
(ii) Pham Chu Trinh was hostile to monarchy. He opposed the idea of resisting France.
(2) Their goals: (i) Pham Boy Chua lamented the loss of sovereignty of severing ties with China.
(ii) Pham Chu Trinh wanted to establish a democratic republic influenced by democratic ideas of West.
(i) Pham Boy Chua was in favor of taking support of the monarchy to overthrow the French but Pham Chu Trinh was intensely against it.
(ii) Chua educated in Confucian tradition, was influenced by Chinese reformer, Liang Quiche while Trinh was motivated by democratic ideas of the West.
(iii) Chua advocated that first the foreign enemy should be driven out and after achieving independence, other things could be discussed. Trinh wished to overthrow the monarchy in order to create a basis for the promotion of popular rights.
(iv) Chua was not in favor of raising people to abolish the monarchy while Trinh was for it.
THE COMMUNIST MOVEMENT AND VIETNAMESE NATIONALISM
Very Short Answers:-
1.What was the result of the peace negotiation in Geneva that followed the French defeat in Vietnam?
Ans. The Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country
2.What was the full form of NLF that opposed Ngo Dinah Diem’s dictatorial rule?
Ans. National Liberation Front (NLF)
3.In which peace negotiations was Vietnam persuaded to accept division of the country?
1.Explain the reasons for the conflicts between Japan and Vietnam in 1940 and the results of that conflict.
Ans. Following were the reasons for conflicts between Japan and Vietnam in 1940:
(1) In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as a part of its imperial drive to control South-east Asia.
(2) So, nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese.
(3) The League for the Independence of Vietnam, which came to be known as Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation.
(4) The League for the Independence of Vietnam recaptured Hanoi in September 1945.
(5) The democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became the Chairman.
2.Do you think that US underestimated the power of a small country like Vietnam? Explain.
Ans. (1) USA was apprehensive of an alliance between National Liberation Front and Ho Chi Minh. The USA was worried about communist gaining power, it decided to intervene decisively.
(2) But USA underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, sacrifice and fight for independence.
(3) They underestimated the power of a small country to fight the most technologically advanced country in the world.
1.What was the role of National Liberation Front in Vietnam?
Ans. (1) National Liberation Front, formally National Front for the Liberation of the South Vietnamese was a political organization friend on December 20, 1960 to affect the overthrow of the South Vietnamese government and the reunification of North and South Vietnam.
(2) An overtly communist part was established in 1962 as a central component of the NLF.
(3) The NLF reached out to those parts of South Vietnamese society who were displeased with the government.
(4) The dictatorial rule of Ngo Dinah Diem came to be opposed by a broad opposition united under the banner of the National Liberation Front.
(5) With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the North, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The NLF occupied the presidential palace in Saigon on 30 April and unified Vietnam.
2.Explain the importance of Ho Chi Minh trail and the nature of war that Vietnamese fought against the US.
‘HO Chi Minh Trail is a good example of proper utilization of limited resources’. Explain.
Explain how the Vietnamese used the limited resources to great advantage during the war in?
What was Ho CM Minh trial? Highlight its importance in the Vietnam War against the US.
Ans. (1) The story of the Ho Chi Minh trail is one way of understanding the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the USA. It symbolizes how the Vietnamese used their limited resources to great advantage.
(2) The trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads, was used to transport men and materials from the North to South.
(3) The trail was improved from the late 1950s and from 1967 about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail.
(4) The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts, supplies were transported in trucks but mostly they were carried by the porters, who were mainly women. These porters carried about 25 kg on their backs or about 70 kg on their bicycles.
(5) Most of the trail was outside Vietnam in neighboring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnam. The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies but efforts to destroy this important supply line by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuild very quickly.
3.The phase of struggle between 1965-1972 with US was called brutal for Vietnamese. Explain the reasons.
Ans. (1) Thousands of US troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time B52s.
(2) They resorted to the wide-spread attacks and use of chemical weapons — Napalm, Agent Orange.
(3) Between 1961 and 1971, some 11 million gallons of this chemical, Agent Orange was sprayed from cargo planes by US forces. Their plan was to destroy forests and fields. Dioxin, an element of Agent Orange, is known to cause cancer, deformities and Bram. Damage in children.
(4) Phosphorous bombs destroyed many villages and decimated jungles.
(5) Civilians died in large numbers.
4. Why did the US government decide to intervene in the Civil War of Vietnam? What were its effects on the people of Vietnam?
What were the causes for the involvement of the US in the war in Vietnam?
Explain under what circumstances did the US enter the Vietnam War?
Ans. (1) (i) After 8 years of intense fighting, Vietminh finally defeated French in 1954 at the fortress of Dine Bien Phi.
(ii) The Geneva Conference concluded with the division of Vietnam into North and South.
(iii) USA was apprehensive of an alliance between National Liberation Front and Ho Chi Minh.
(iv) The US was worried about communists gaining power, it decided to intervene decisively.
(v) They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, to sacrifice, and fight for independence.
(2) (i) The phase of struggle especially, between 1965-1972 with US was called brutal for Vietnamese.
(ii) Thousands of US troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks.
(iii) The wide-spread attacks and use of chemical weapons and phosphorous bombs destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
5.”The US entry into the war marked a new phase that proved costly to the Vietnamese as well as to the Americans.” Explain.
Describe the effects of the US entry into war in Vietnam for the Vietnamese as well on the life within the USA.
How was the effect of the war, going on in Vietnam, felt within the US as well? Explain.
Ans. Of course, the US entry into the war proved costly to the Vietnamese as well as to the Americans in the following ways:
(i) From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 US service personnel served in Vietnam.
(ii) Even though the US had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualties were high. About 47,244 died in battle and 303,704 were wounded.
(iii) Many people in the US were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they saw as indefensible.
(2)(i) The phase of struggle between 1965-1972 with US was called brutal for Vietnamese.
(ii) Thousand of the US troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks.
(iii) The wide-spread attacks and use of chemical weapons and phosphorous bombs destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
6.Explain various challenges faced by the ‘New Republic of Vietnam’.
What were the challenges faced by New Republic of Vietnam? Give five points.
Ans. (1) The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Boa Dai as their puppet.
(2) Faced with the French offensive the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dine Bien Phi.
(3) In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and South were split.
(4) The division set in motion a series of events that turned Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death and distraction to its people as well as the environment. The Boa Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinah Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government.
(5) With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US watched this alliance with fear and decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.
7.What were the reasons behind the long war between the French and Vietnamese forces till 1954?
Ans. (1) Colonial domination was exercised by control over all areas of private and public life. The French occupied Vietnam not only militarily; they also sought to reshape its social and cultural life. In the late nineteenth century, French rule was resisted by various nationalists.
(2) The Great Depression of the 1930 had a profound impact on Vietnam. The prices of French and rice fell leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings. The French put these uprisings down with great severity.
(3) In 1940, Japan occupied Vietnam. The League for the Independence of Vietnam fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic 01 Vietnam was formed.
(4) The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tried to regain control by using the Emperor, Boa Dai, as their puppet.
(5) Faced with the French offensive, the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dine Bien Phi.
8.Who was Ho Chi Minh? State his contributions in the freedom movement of Vietnam.
Who was Ho CM Minh? What was his contribution to Vietnam?
Ans. (1) Ho Chi Minh was the first Communist Chairman of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
(2) His contributions to Vietnam are as follows:
(1) In 1930, he brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist Party.
(ii) He was inspired by the militant demonstration of the European Communist Parties.
(iii) In 1940, Japanese occupied Vietnam. So, now they had to fight against the Japanese as well as French.
(iv) A league called ‘Vietminh’ was formed to fight the Japanese and they got back Hanoi in 1945.
(v) The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became its Chairman.
9.Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life in the US itself?
Describe any three effects of the US-Vietnam war on life within the US itself.
Explain the effects of the US involvement in Vietnamese war in the US itself.
Ans. (1) (i) The USA was apprehensive of an alliance between National Liberation Front and Ho Chi Minh.
(ii) The US was worried about communists gaining power, it decided to intervene decisively.
(iii) They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, to sacrifice and fight for independence.
(2) Following were the impacts on life in the US :
(i) Many people in the US were critical of the government for getting involved in a war they saw as indefensible.
(ii) The US media and film played a major role in supporting and criticizing the war.
(iii) Hollywood made films in support of war such as John Wayne’s ‘Green Berets’ in 1968, whereas, Francis Ford Coppola’s ‘Apocalypse Now’ (1979) reflected the moral confusion caused by the war in the US.
(iv) Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates. This meant that many of those sent to fight did not belong to the privileged elite but were minorities and children of working middle-class families.
NATION AND ITS HEROES
Very Short Answers:-
1.Which Vietnamese women organized a large army to resist the Chinese?
Ans. ‘Prong sisters
2.During which period the Truing sisters fought against Chinese domination?
Ans. 3943 CE
3.Who wrote a play based on the lives of the Truing sisters?
Ans. Than Boy Chua
4.Who were the Truing sisters?
Ans. Women rebels in Vietnam.
1.Who was Tried Au? How did she become a sacred figure?
Ans. (1) (i) Tried Au was one of the most venerated women rebels of the past in Vietnam.
(ii) She lived in the third century CE. Orphaned in childhood, she lived with her brother.
(2) CO On growing up she left home, went into the jungles, organized a large army and Chinese rule. 90 Finally, when her army was crushed, she drowned herself. cm She became a sacred figure, not just a martyr who fought for the honor of the Nationalists popularized her image to inspire people to action.
1.Describe the role played by women in the US Vietnam war.
Highlight the contribution of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam. Did they succeed?
Ans. The following roles were played by women in the US Vietnam war
(1) The Vietnamese women actively participated during war with the US. Nguyen the Xian is said to have shot down a jet with just twenty bullets.
(2) They had a rifle in one hand and a hammer in the other. Women joined men and helped in nursing the wounded.
(3) They helped fight enemy by making underground rooms and tunnels.
(4) The women built airstrips, neutralized tens of thousands of bombs. They transported tones of cargo, weapons and food and shot down fifteen planes.
(5) About 14,000 women worked along the Ho Chi Minh trail to support the Vietnamese fighters. There were about 1.5 million women in the regular army, the militia, the local force and professional teams.
(6) Yes, they succeeded in their purpose.
2.Who wrote the play based on the lives of Truing sisters? What was depicted in the play?
Ans. (1) In 1913, the nationalist Pham Boy Chua wrote a play based on the lives of the Truing sisters. These sisters had fought against Chinese domination in 39-43 CE.
(2)In this play, he depicted these sisters as patriots fighting to save the Vietnamese nation from the Chinese.
(3)They were depicted in paintings, plays and novels as representing the indomitable will and the intense patriotism of the Vietnamese. WO They gathered a force of over 30,000 and resisted the Chinese for two years. Ultimately, when they were defeated, they committed suicide, instead of surrendering to the After Pham’s play, the Truing sisters came to be idealized and glorified.
3.Pact the role of women as warriors during the war between the US and Vietna examples that during war between Vietnam and the US women were represented s warriors but also as workers.
Ans. The role of Vietnamese women during the US intervention in 1960:
(1) The acts of Truing sisters and Thou Au inspired the nationalist sentiment amongst the Vietnamese women, they began to involve themselves in the nationalist movement.
(2) They acted as warriors. They performed different functions. They were in regular army, the militia and the local forces and professional teams.
(3) They shot down jets, fought battles and carried weapons.
(4) They nursed the wounded. They worked as coolies and porters. They repaired Ho Chi Minh trail.
(5) They constructed underground tunnels and room along the trail.
(6) (i) They were not only the brave fighters, they were hard workers too. The Vietnamese women were depicted as having rifle in one hand and a hammer in the other.
(ii) In the peace time, they started working in the fields and agricultural co-operatives.
(iii) They also worked in factories and other production units.
4.Explain the role of `Truing sisters’ in the nationalist movement of Vietnam.
Ans. (1) ‘Truing sisters’ had fought against the Chinese domination in 39-43 CE.
(2) These sisters fought as patriot to save Vietnamese nation from the Chinese.
(3) Pham Boy Chua wrote a play based on their lives and they were idealized and glorified. They were depicted in paintings, plays and novels as representing the indomitable will and the intense patriotism towards Vietnam.
(4) These sisters gathered a force of over 30,000 and resisted the Chinese for two years.
(5) Ultimately, when they were defeated, they committed suicide, instead of surrendering to the enemy.
THE END OF THE WAR
Very Short Answers:
One Mark Questions
1.Which actress had visited Vietnam and praised their heroic efforts?
Ans. Jane Fonda
2.When and where was the peace settlement signed to end the conflict between Vietnam and the USA?
Ans. 1974 in Paris
3.When did the NLF occupy the Presidential Palace in Saigon and unify Vietnam?
Ans. 30 April, 1975
4.When was Vietnam unified?
1.How did the long war between the US and Vietnam come to an end ? Describe.
Ans. (1) The US failed to achieve its objective. Vietnam’s resistance could not be crushed
(2) It proved costly to the US. There were high casualties on the US side over.
(3) It was the first war shown on the television. Battles were shown on daily news world
(4) People were disillusioned with the US and its policy of war was criticized.
(5) Widespread questioning of government policy strengthened moves to end war. Finally, a peace treaty was signed in Paris in January, 1974.
2.How did prolongation of Vietnam War create strong reactions even within the US? Explain.
Ans. (1) Many were critical towards Government’s approach:
(i)People became critical of the government for getting involved in a war they saw as indefensible.
(ii)When the youth were drafted for the war, the anger spread.
(iii)Compulsory service in the armed forces was waived off for university graduates. Only minorities and children of working class families were sent to war.
(iv)The US faced heavy casualties.
(2) Critical to understand the reason of war:
(i) People were not able to understand the reason for this war.
(ii) Francis Ford Coppola’s ‘Apocalypse Now’, reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US.
(3) Fear of domino effect:
(i) The war grew out of a fear among the US policy makers that the victory of Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect i.e., communist governments would be established in the other countries of the area.
(ii) They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action and fight for . independence.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
1.”French domination over Vietnam tried to snatch many values from the life of the local people.” In the light of the above statement, mention a few such values.
Ans. (1) Self-respect and dignity:
It is quite natural that serfdom strikes on the self-respect and dignity of the people of the country.
(2) Preservation of custom and culture:
French domination over Vietnam snatched the value of preservation of custom and culture. This is because, by introducing the French language, they felt the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilization of France. They would respect French sentiments and ideas, see the superiority of French culture and work for the French.
(3)Educational and social values :
French systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French school for Vietnamese.
(4)Religious values :
French also tried to snatch away religious values in form of efforts to spread Christianity.
(5)National pride :
By making serfdom, French snatched away the national pride of the people of Vietnam.
2.”The history of Vietnam shows that women were great patriots and warriors and they fought wars against the intruders.” In the light of the above statement, write the values that they set as examples for the coming generations.
Ans. (1) Patriotism: Really, women were great patriots and warriors. Trunk sisters and Tried Au were the symbols of patriotism.
(2) Freedom of land and soul : They sacrificed themselves for the freedom of land and soul.
(3) Velour : They were brave warriors. Trunk sisters and Tried Au resisted Chinese rule. They committed suicide for the honor of the country.
(4) Organizational skill : They have great organizational skills. Truing sisters gathered a force of over 30,000. Also, Tried Au organized a large army.
(5) National pride : They really fought bravely for national pride.
(6) Self-respect and unity : Truing sisters resisted Chinese for two years. Finally, when they were defeated, they committed suicide instead of surrendering to the enemy.
(7) Courage : They were very courageous. Their stories inspired many Vietnamese women to joins the army.