Ch. – 2 Federalism Extra Questions and Notes

By | September 28, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

Civics

Chapter- 2 Federalism

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts.

                                                                         WHAT IS FEDERALISM 

Very Short Answers:-

1.How is a federal government organized?

 Ans. Power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.

2.”Indian Constitution has a unitary bias.” Support the statement with one example.

Ans. The power sharing arrangement between the union and the state given in the Constitution of India clearly distributes power between the two. In this sense, it is federal. But, the system becomes unitary when the residuary power rests with the union.

3.How is federal government different from unitary government? Give one difference.

Ans. Under the unitary system, the central government can pass on orders to the provincial or the local governments but in a federal system, central government cannot order the state governments to do something.

4.What is other factors besides politics that keep the federations united?

Ans. Respect for diversity and desire for living together.

5.Define federalism.

Ans. Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.

Short Answers:-

1.What is federalism? Explain any three features of federalism.

Ans. Federalism: Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.

The main features of federalism are as under:

 (i)There are two or more levels of government.

(ii) Different tiers of government govern the some citizens, but each tier has its o jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.

(iii) The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified constitution.

 (iv) Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure .i financial autonomy.

2.”Holding together federations” do not give equal power to its constituent units. Explain the statement with the help of examples in context to India.

Ans. (1) All states in the Indian Union do not have identical powers.

(2) For example, Jammu and Kashmir enjoys a special status and has its own Constitution.

 (3) Many provisions of the Indian Constitution do not apply here.

 (4) Indians who are not the permanent residents of Jammu and Kashmir, cannot buy land or house here.

(5) Smaller units called Union Territories do not have the powers of a state. The Central Government has special powers in running these areas.

3.Distinguish between unitary form of government and federal form of government.

Or

Compare Federal and Unitary System of government.

 

 4.Distinguish between Coming Together Federations and Holding Together Federations with examples. India comes under which type of federation?

Or

Differentiate between ‘Coming Together Federation’ and ‘Holding Together Federation’ with examples.                                                                                                                         

Or

 Highlight three major distinctions between the federations of ‘coming together’ type and ‘holding together’ type.                                                                                                 

Or

 Compare the federations of ‘coming together’ type and ‘holding together’ type.

Ans.

 5.India comes under which type of federation and why?

Ans. (1) India comes under ‘holding together’ federations.

(2)(i) It decides to divide its power between the’ constituent States and the national government.

(ii) The Central Government tends to be more powerful vis-à-vis the States.

(iii) Very often different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers.

 (iv) Some units are granted special powers.

Long Answers:-

1.States in India often ask for more autonomy or more power. Should they be given more power or not? Support your answer with two arguments.

Ans. (1) Indian Constitution divides the power of governance between Union and State which is more or less based on federal structure of the government. This division of power is more inclined towards union government seeing the tradition of the Indian political history.

(2) The demand for more autonomy is one of the most controversial issues of the Indian federalism, although federalism is an important feature of the constitutional structure of the Indian democracy.

States should be given more power or more autonomy for the following reasons :

(i) The centre is strong in Indian political system. The centre has been given monopoly on almost all the subjects except for few, on which states have reserved say due to some local importance.

(ii) The centre has, yet, power to give directions to the states in certain matters. The states have to depend upon the centre for financial assistance.

(iii) Misuse of central government’s control over state and misuse and ineffectiveness of the office of Governor.

(iv) Unbalanced growth of different states is due to some policy defects. Provisions can be introduced to effective planning of states and centre through a non-political, independent buddy.

2. Explain any five features of the federalism.

Ans. The features of federalism are as follows:

(1) There are two or more levels of government. Different tiers govern the same citizen, i but each has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.

(2) The jurisdictions of the respective levels of government are specified in the Constitution. So, their existence and authority is constitutionally guaranteed.

 (3) The fundamental provisions of the Constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.

 (4) Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution and the powers of different levels of government. The highest court decides if disputes arise between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers.

(5) Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.

WHAT MAKES INDIA A FEDERAL COUNTRY

Very Short Answers:-

1.In which list of the Indian Constitution does a railway come? Why?

 Ans. Union List because it is a subject of national importance and requires a uniform policy throughout the country.

2.How do the central and state governments enjoy their power in federal system?

Ans. The jurisdictions of the central and state governments are specified in the Constitution.

3.How much majority in the parliament is required to amend any part of the Indian Constitution ?  

Ans. Any change to it has to be first passed by both the Houses of Parliament with at least two-third majority.

4.In which list of the Indian Constitution does education come? Why?  

Ans. Concurrent List. Both the Union as well as the State Governments can make law on the subject.

5.Which level of government of India manages subject of union territories?

Ans. The Central Government

6.Which administrative authority of India manages subjects of union territories?

 Ans. The Central Government

7.What is meant by residuary subjects?

Ans. The subjects which are not mentioned in Union, State and Concurrent Lists are called as residuary subjects. The Union Government has the power to legislate on them.

8.Which institution decides in case of any dispute about the division of powers between centre and state?

Ans. The Judiciary

9.In which list of the Indian Constitution do cyber laws come?

Ans. Residuary List

10.Which level of government in India can make laws on the subjects included in the Concurrent List?

 Ans. Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments.

11.Which state in India enjoys a special status under the Indian Constitution?

Ans. Jammu and Kashmir

12.Who is the guardian of Constitution of India ?

Ans. Supreme Court

Long Answers:-

1.Why has federalism succeeded in India? Which three policies adopted by India have ensured this success?

Or

 Explain the factors that make federal government in India so attractive.                  

 Ans. (1) Federalism has succeeded in India because of the nature of the democratic politics of the country. This ensures that the spirit of federalism, respect for diversity and desire for living together have become a shared ideal in our country.

(2)(i) There is a clear demarcation of power and revenues between the different levels of government.

(ii) The Indian Constitution clearly allocates power to different levels of government —the three lists of power.

 (iii) The Supreme Court has been given the power to solve federal disputes. Sources of revenue are clearly demarcated.

(iv) There is a mutual trust and agreement between the government at different levels.

2.Which five provisions of the Indian Constitution make India a full-fledged federation?Explain.                                                                                 

Or

 Highlight the steps taken by Government of India towards making it a successful federation.

Or

Which five provisions of the Indian Constitution make India a federation? Explain

Or

 Examine the factors that have strengthened Indian federalism.               

Ans. India can definitely be said to be a federation because it incorporates all features of federalism.

(1)’ India has three levels of government.

(2) There is clear demarcation of power and revenues between the different levels of government.

(3) Indian Constitution clearly allocates powers to different levels of government — the three lists of powers.

 (4) No unilateral changes in fundamental section are possible to be made by any one level of government.

(5) The Supreme Court has been given the power to solve federal disputes. Sources of revenue are clearly demarcated.

(6) There is mutual trust and agreement between the governments at different levels.

3.Explain how the federal experiment has been successful in the matter of formation of states in India.

Ans. (1) The federal experiment has been successful in matter of formation of states in India because of the nature of the democratic politics of the country.

(2) Earlier, when the demand for the formation of linguistic states was raised, some national leaders feared that it would lead to the disintegration of the country.

 (3) But the experience has shown that the formation of linguistic states has actually made the country, more united.

(4) It has also made administration easier.

(5) (i) Linguistic States : After independence, the boundaries of many old states of India were changed in order to create new states to ensure that people who spoke the same language, lived in one state. For example, Gujarati-speaking Gujarat and Marathi-speaking Maharashtra.

 (ii) Cultural States: Some states were created to recognize differences of culture, ethnicity and geography, e.g., Nagaland, Jharkhand and Uttarakhand.

4.Explain the power sharing among government at different levels.

Or

 How are legislative powers divided between Union Government and State Governments of India ? Explain giving examples.                                                                                               

Or

Explain Union List and State List.                                                                                                  

Or

Describe the three-fold distribution of legislative powers between the Union Government and State Governments of India.                                                                                              

Or

How are legislative powers divided between Union Government and State Governments? Explain with examples.

(1)Union List, (2) State List, and (3) Concurrent List.

 Ans. The powers of government have been divided into three lists:

 (1) Union List: It contains 97 subjects like defense, foreign affairs, railways, post anti- telegraphs, foreign trade and currency and coinage, etc. The Union Government alone can make laws on subjects mentioned in this list.

(2) State List: It includes 66 subjects like police and jails, agriculture, public health, local government, trade and commerce, liquor, etc. The State Governments alone can make laws on subjects mentioned in this list.

(3) Concurrent List: It includes 47 subjects like education, forests and trade union, marriage and divorce, etc. Both the Union Government as well as the State Governments can make laws on subjects mentioned in this list. In case of conflict, the law made by the Union Government will prevail. Residuary powers lie with the Centre. In such cases, only Parliament has the power to make laws on these subjects.

5.How is federal power sharing more effective today than in the early years? Explain.

Ans. (1) For a long time, the same party ruled both at the Centre and in most of the States. As and when the ruling party at the State level was different, the party(is) that ruled at the Centre tried to undermine the power of the States.

 (2) The Centre would often misuse the Constitution to dismiss the State governments that were controlled by rival parties. This undermined the spirit of federalism.

(i) In recent times: due to coalition governments at the Centre, a new culture of power sharing and respect for autonomy of State Governments was developed.

(ii) Also, a major judgment of the Supreme Court made it difficult for the Centre to dismiss state governments arbitrarily. Thus, federal power sharing in India is more effective today.

6.Mention any five main features which make India a federal country.

Or

What are the salient features of federalism in India?

Ans. Following are the features that make India a federal country:

(1) The power sharing arrangement between the Union and the State given in the Constitution of India clearly distributes between the two.

(2) Some of the powers of the State Governments have been further transferred to the Panchayats. It means India exercises distribution of power at different levels.

(3) Both the Union and States have their separate subjects under Union and State L It shows federal nature of the country.

(4) Both Union and States have their own financial institutions, sources and distribute of revenue. In this way, it is federal.

(5) The provision of High Courts for the States and the Supreme Court for the nation a whole is a federal feature.

HOW IS FEDERALISM PRACTISED

Very Short Answers:-

1.Which era is the beginning of the coalition governments at the Centre in India?

Ans. 1990s was the beginning of the era of the coalition governments at the Centre in India.

2.What other factors besides politics keep the federations united?

 Ans. To safeguard and promote unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.

3.What status has been given to Hindi by the Constitution of India?               

 Ans. Official language

4.How many languages are recognized as Scheduled Languages by the Indian Constitution?

Ans. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as Scheduled Languages by the Indian Constitution.

5.Much of the official work in Indian States is done in which language?

Ans. Much of the official work in Indian States is done in the official language of the concerned States.

6.Why was States Reorganization Commission formed?

Ans. States Reorganization Commission was formed because when the demand for the formation of states on the basis of language raised, some national leaders feared that it would lead to the disintegration of country

7.Name two states which were created to recognize differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography.

Ans. Nagaland, Uttarakahand.

8.What is a coalition government?

Ans. Coalition government refers to a government formed by the coming together of at least two political parties. Usually, partners in a coalition form a political alliance and adopt a common programmed.

9.In which year the boundaries of several old states of India were changed to create new states?

Ans. In 1947

10.Who is called head of the state at the state level?

Ans. The Governor.

Long Answers:-

1.Why has the government of India not imposed any particular language as an official language for the whole nation? Explain.

 Ans. (1) Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language.

(2) Hindi was identified as the official language as Hindi is the mother tongue of only about 40 per cent of Indians.

(3) Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution.

 (4) A candidate in an examination conducted for the Central Government positions may opt to take the examination in any of these languages.

(5) States too have their own official languages. Much of the government work takes place in the official language of the concerned State.

(6) The Central Government responded by agreeing to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes.

(7) The flexibility shown by Indian political leaders helped our country avoid the kind of situation that Sri Lanka finds itself in.

2.How is federalism practiced in India?

Or

How has federalism helped in India? Give your own assessment.                   

Ans. (1) In India, the creation of linguistic states was the first and the major test for democracy and federal system. The linguistic division was done to ensure the people who spoke the same language lived in the same state.

(2) Some states like Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand were created to recognize the differences based on culture, ethnicity and geography.

(3) The second way India practices federalism is that our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official language and till now 21 languages have been recognized as the scheduled languages.

(4) Restructuring of the Centre-State relation is one more way in which federalism has been strengthened in practice.

(5) In the present day political scenario, the State Governments are practicing their powers more independently.

3.Critically analyze the Centre-State relations prior to 1990 and after.

 Ans. (1) Prior to 1990, except for once, the Congress ruled at the Centre for about 40 years. These were the years when the single party made the government.

(2) The government at the Centre ruled the States with biased views. It supported those states which had a government formed by the same party.

 (3) The rise of regional politics in many States has changed the Centre-State relations significantly after 1990. This was also the beginning of the era of coalition governments at the Centre.

(4) Since, no single party got a clear majority in the Look Sabah, major national parties had to enter into an alliance with many small regional parties. Hence, regional parties do take care of their states.

(5) This led to a new culture of power sharing and respect for the autonomy of State Government. It became difficult for the Central government to dismiss state governments in an arbitrary manner.

4.Why did the makers of our Constitution declare India to be a ‘Union of States’? Why were some sub-political units of India given a special status?

Or

 Why did the makers of our Constitution declare India to be a ‘Union of States’?      

 Ans. (1) India became a ‘Union of States’ because it consisted of both British ruled territories as well as many princely states.

(2)Some sub-political units of India have a special status: (i) All British ruled regions have the same status.

 (ii) All princely states that have voluntarily joined have the same status as British ruled territory.

 (iii) French and Portuguese ruled territories were given the status of Union Territory.

 (iv) Jammu & Kashmir joined India on special condition.

5.Write any four characteristics of language policy of India.

Or

How has the linguistic policy of Indian Government promoted peace and integration in the country?                                                              

 Ans. The characteristics of language policy in India are as follows:

(1)Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official language but there were many safeguards to protect other languages.

 (2) Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution.

(3) States too have their own official languages. Much of the government’s work takes place in the official language of the concerned State.

 (4) The Central government responded by agreeing to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes.

 (5) Promotion of Hindi continues to be the official policy of the Government of India. But, the Central Government can’t impose Hindi on States where people speak different languages.

DECENTRALISATION IN INDIA

Very Short Answers:-

1. Name the representative body formed by a few Gram Panchayats.

Ans. A Panchayat Semite or Block or Manual.

2.Which local body has a ‘Mayor’ as its head?

 Ans. Municipal Corporation.

3.What is another popular name of Rural local government in India?

Ans. Panchayati Raj

4.What proportion of seats are reserved for the women in the Indian local self-government?

Ans. One-third seats are reserved for women in the Indian local self-government.

5.Name the independent institution that has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections in India.

 Ans. State Election Commission

6.Which local body looks after the basic civic amenities in big cities?

Ans. Municipal Corporations

7.What is the official post for the chairperson of a Municipal Corporation?

Ans. The mayor

8.What was the main objective of the Constitutional Amendment made in 1992 in India?

Ans. The main objective of the Constitutional Amendment made in 1992 in India to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.

9.Which local body has a ‘Mayor’ as its head?

Ans. Municipal Corporation.

10.What is another popular name of Rural local government in India?

Ans. Panchayati Raj

11.What proportion of seats are reserved for the women in the Indian local self-government?

Ans. One-third seats are reserved for women in the Indian local self-government.

12.Name the independent institution that has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections in India.                         

Ans. State Election Commission

13.Which local body looks after the basic civic amenities in big cities?

Ans. Municipal Corporations

14.What is the official post for the chairperson of a Municipal Corporation?

Ans. The mayor

15.What was the main objective of the Constitutional Amendment made in 1992 in India?

Ans. The main objective of the Constitutional Amendment made in 1992 in India to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.

Short Answers:-

1.Which features of Panchayati Raj do you like the most and why? Explain.

Ans. (1) In Panchayati Raj System, I like the most Gram Panchayat

 (2) Gram Panchayat is a council consisting of several ward members often called Pinch and a President or Serpent.

(3) They are directly elected by all the adult population living in that ward or village.

(4) It is a decision-making body for the entire village.

(5) The panchayat works under the overall supervision of the Gram Sabah. It has to meet at least twice or three times in a year to approve the annual budget of the Gram Panchayat and to review of it.

2.Why is decentralization favored in democracy Identify any two reasons.

Ans. (1) When power is taken away from Central and State Governments and given to local government, it is called decentralization.

2.(i) The basic idea behind decentralization is that there are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level. People have better knowledge of problems in their localities.

(ii) They also have better ideas on where to spend money and how to manage things more efficiently.

(iii) Besides, at the local level it is possible for the people to directly participate in decision making. This helps to inculcate a habit of democratic participation.

3.Explain any five steps taken towards strengthening of the third tier of democracy in India.

Ans. (1) It has been made constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.

 (2) Seats have been reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the SCs, STs and OBCs to ensure their participation.

(3) Also, one-third of all positions are reserved for women.

(4) An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each State to conduct Panchayat and Municipal elections.

 (5) The State Governments are required to share some powers and revenues with local government bodies. The nature of power sharing varies from State to State.

4.What is a Gram Sabah? Describe any four functions of a Gram Sabah.

Ans. (1) Gram Sabah: A body comprising of all adult members of a village or a group of villages.

Functions of Gram Sabah are as under: 

(i)It elects the members of the Gram Panchayat.

(ii) The Gram Sabah supervises the work of the village panchayat.

(iii) It approves the annual budget of the panchayat.

(iv) It reviews the performance of the Gram Panchayat.

5.Assess the need for local government.

Or

Explain the importance of local self government for establishing grassroots democracy.

Ans. Need for local government: (1) There are a number of problems and issues that are best settled at the local level, because people have a better knowledge of the problems in their localities.

(2) The local people are aware of their needs and can give priorities to them.

(3) It helps to initiate the process of direct decision-making.

 (4) It helps to inculcate the habit of democratic participation.

(5) Local government is the best way to realize one important principle of democracy, namely local self-government.

Long Answers:

1.In Panchayati Raj system 1/3rd of the seats have been reserved for women. Do you feel that the same should be done for State Legislatures and Parliament? Support your answer with arguments.

Ans. (1) In favor : (i) Many feminists and women’s movement feel that unless women control power, their problems will not get adequate attention. One way to ensure this is to have more women as elected representatives.

 (ii) One way to solve this problem is to make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. This is what the Panchayati Raj has done in India. One-third of seats in local government bodies — in panchayats and municipalities — are now reserved for women.

 (iii) Women’s organizations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of et least one-third of seats in the Lok Sabah and State Assemblies for women. A bill with this proposal has been pending before the Parliament for more than a decade.

 (iv) Aims at eliminating gender inequality and discrimination against women, through political empowerment of women.

In against : (i) Quota is not an answer to women’s problems and quota results in discrimination on the basis of gender, violation of the democratic right of people to choose their representatives and violation of the democratic right of people to contestations.

(ii) The reservation will only help elite women who are proxy of powerful men; women candidates may not get party ticket to contest from unreserved constituency etc. Therefore, there is no need for reservation for women in the Legislatures.

(iii) Political parties should be made responsible to ensure distribution of tickets in such a manner that the various social and economic strata of society, especially marginalized and disadvantaged groups, get adequate representation.

2.’Local governments have made a significant impact on Indian democracy. But at the same time, there are many difficulties before them.’ Evaluate.                

 Ans. (1) Constitutional status for local government has helped to deepen democracy in our country. It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.

(2)At the same time, there are many difficulties: (i) While elections are held regularly and enthusiastically, Gram Sabah’s are not held regularly.

 (ii) Most state governments have not transferred significant powers to the local governments. Although 73rd and 74th amendment provided comprehensive list for area of function enumerated in schedule 11 and 12 in Constitution of India, most of these items are overlapping with the functions of the state list. Therefore, they have very less scope to be meaningful.

(iii) Nor have they given adequate resources. Local government has no source of revenue except for the grants from State and Centre, which has political base rather than requirement. Local governments are allowed to collect taxes, but due to inadequate man power, lack of digitization, and awareness, they fail to collect tax and generate revenue.

 (iv) We are thus still a long way from realizing the ideals of self-government.

3.Explain any five features of Panchayati Raj system.

Or

 Mention any three features of ‘Three tier rural governments.                                

 Ans. Rural local government is popularly known by the name Panchayati Raj. The features of the Panchayati Raj system are as follows:

There is a three tier local self government: (i) Gram Panchayat : Each village, or a group of villages in some States, has a gram panchayat.

 (ii) Panchayat smite : A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form what is usually called a panchayat smite or block or manual.

 (iii) Zillah Paris had : MI the panchayat sanities or manuals in a district together constitute the villa (district) perished.

(2) It is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.

(3) Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.

(4) An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.

 (5) The State Governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from State to State.

4.Which Constitutional Amendment made the third tier of government in India more effective and powerful? Describe any four constitutional steps taken in this amendment to empower local governments.

Or

Describe the Constitutional Amendment of 1992 regarding the decentralization of power.

Or

 Explain the major steps taken towards decentralization for making the third-tier of government more powerful.                                                                                                                                       

 Ans. (1) The Constitutional Amendments of 1992 empowered the third tier of government to India and made it more effective and powerful.

 (2) Following are the constitutional steps taken in this Amendment to empower local governments:

(i) Before 1992, the local governments were under the control of state government. After the Amendment, these bodies got a constitutional status.

(ii) Prior to this Amendment, elections to the local bodies were not held regularly. DJ now, it is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections.

 (iii) Before 1992, local governments did not have any powers or resources of their own, Now, the state governments are required to share some powers and revenues with the local government bodies.

 (iv) There was no reservation for women in all states in the local bodies before 1992, but now at least one-third seats are reserved for women.

5.Explain any five advantages of decentralization of power.

                                                                   Or

 Why is decentralization of powers considered good for democracy? Explain.

Ans. (1) When power is taken away from Central and State Governments and given to local government, it is called decentralization of power. It modifies the concept of democracy through the idea of local self-government.

(2)(i) It fulfils the needs of power-sharing in a vast and diversified country like India, which cannot be run only through federal governments. In this way, it modifies the concept of democracy.

(ii) It helps in settlement of large number of problems and issues at the local level because local people have better knowledge of problems in their localities. They also have better ideas and efficient management.

(iii) It makes possible for people to directly participate in decision-making process related to their own issues. In this way, it helps to inculcate the habit of democratic participation among people.

(iv) It provides the best way to realize one important principle of democracy, namely local self government.

6.What is the rationale for decentralization of power? Describe the functions of Rural Local Government.

Or

 What is the rationale for decentralization of power? Explain the structure of Rural Local Government in India.                                                           

Ans. (I) (i) The rationale behind decentralization is to ensure community participation 1 for proper growth and development of the community itself. It is aimed to ensure social, S economic and political development of the community.

(ii) It is also oriented to ensure no or less interferences in the local affairs by the Union and State executive bodies. It has been executed to make village, ‘Little Republic’.

 (2) Following are the functions of the rural local government:

(i) Supply of water for domestic use.

(ii) maintaining public health and sanitation.

 (iii) Construction and repairing of public roads.

(iv) Lighting on roads and public places.

 (v) Construction, repairing and maintaining public buildings, grazing lands, forest, public wells and tanks in good conditions.

7.Explain any four provisions that have been made towards decentralization in India after the constitutional amendment in 1992.

Or

Explain five changes towards decentralization brought in the Constitution after the amendments made in 1992.                                                            

Or

 Explain any five provisions of the Constitutional Amendment of 1992 that strengthened the third tier of government in India.                                                                                                       

Ans. The third-tier of our country has been made more effective and powerful by the constitutional amendment of 1992 which empowers local government through following Provisions:

(1) It is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.

 (2) Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes to ensure their Participation.

 (3) Also, one-third of all positions are reserved for women.

 (4) An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.

(5) The State Governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local Government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from State to State.

8.State any two achievements and any two problems of the Panchayati Raj system in India.

Ans. (1) The Panchayati Raj system of India is the largest experiment in democracy conducted anywhere in the world. Its achievements are as follows:

(i)The constitutional status for local government has helped to deepen roots of democracy in India.

(ii) It has also increased representation and voice of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and women in Indian democracy through measures of reservation.

 (2) At the same time, there are many difficulties:

(i) While elections are held regularly and enthusiastically, Gram Sabah’s are not held regularly.

(ii) Most State Governments have not transferred significant powers to the local governments. Nor have they given adequate resources. India is, thus, still long away from realizing the ideals of self-government.

9.Explain the importance of local-self government in the light of decentralization.

Or

 What is meant by decentralization of power? What is the basic idea behind decentralization?  Explain.                                                                       

 Ans. (1) (i) When power is taken away from Central and State Governments and given to local government, it is called decentralization of powers. It is the distribution of power between different levels of government.

 (ii) Decentralization makes possible for people to directly participate in decision-making process. It provides the best way to realize one important principle of democracy, namely local self-government.

(2)Importance of local self-government:

(i) There are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level.

 (ii) People have better knowledge of problems in their localities.

(iii) They also have better ideas about where to spend money and how to manage things more efficiently.

 (iv) It also helps to inculcate the habit of democratic participation among people.

10’India has a large cultural, regional and religious diversity, but there is unity among people.’ What factors are responsible for this? Elaborate.

Ans. The real success of federalism in India can be attributed to the nature of democratic politics in our country. This ensured that the spirit of federalism, respect for diversity and desire for living together became shared ideals in our country.

(1) The spirit of federalism: The Constitution clearly provided a threefold distribution of legislative powers between the Union Government and the State Governments.

(2) Respect for diversity: The creation of Linguistic States was the first and a major test for democratic politics in our country. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same State. Some States were created not on the basis of language but to recognize differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography.

 (3) Desire for living together: Country decides to divide its power between the constituent States and the national government. The Constitution declared India as a Union of States-Although, it did not use the word federation. In India, we have ‘holding together’ federation. In this second category, the Central Government tends to be more powerful vies-a-vies the State to keep the country united which has large cultural, regional and religious diversities.

(4) Absence of National language: Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official language. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution as safeguard to protect other languages. Much of the government work takes place in the official language of the concerned State.

(5) Independent Judiciary: The judiciary plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitutes anal provisions and procedures.

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