Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus
Chapter-1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe,
The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for Class 10 social science, social science Class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts.
VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-
1.Who was Frederic Sorrier?
Ans. Frederic Sorrier was a painter.
2.In which year did Frederic Sorrier prepare a series of four prints?
Ans. In 1848
3. Which famous French artist had prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dreams of a world?
Ans. Frederic Sorrier
4.What brought sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe in the 19th century ?
Ans. The emergence of the nation-state
5.Differentiate between the concept of a modem state and a nation state. How did the sense of common identity develop in Europe?
Ans. (1) In a modern state a centralized power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory. It had been developing over a long period of time in Europe.
(2) A nation state was one in which the majority of its citizens and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent
(3) This commonness was forged through struggles, through the actions of the leaders and the common people and did not exist from time immemorial.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE IDEA OF THE NATION
Very Short Answers:-
1.What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries?
Ans. The main aim of the French revolutionaries was to introduce various measures create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
2. Describe the events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe.
Ans. Liberalism, the end of many feudal or traditional laws and practices in French Revolution had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe.
1.What happened when the news of revolutionary events in France reached the different cities of Europe? Explain.
Ans. (i) when the news of the revolutionary events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs.
(ii) Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which had entered into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s.
(iii) With the outbreak of the revolutionary Wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
2.After 1804 how did the peasants, artisans and new businessmen enjoy freedom in the Units of Europe
Ans. The Civil Code of 1804 (the Napoleonic Code) gave up all privileges based on birth, maintained equality and also established right to property. It abolished the feudal system.
(i) The peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues. It emancipated the peasants and raised their self-confidence. In the towns, Napoleon simplified administrative ‘I:. The system was centralized by formulating uniform law for the citizens within its territory
(ii) Internal custom duties and dues that hampered the flow of business were abolished and a new uniform system of weights and measures was constituted.
(iii) Freedom of markets and abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital helped the new businessmen to expand their business.
(iv) This brought prosperity across the classes. Common national currency facilitated the movement, exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
(v) Artisans also had a free hand to represent their creations.
1.Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe. Which conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during Napoleon’s rule? State.
Ans. During the nineteenth century, Europe faced many great obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the commercial classes due to the following reasons:
(i) There was enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(ii) Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums and could not afford to fulfill the basic needs.
(iii) Unemployment increased. In most countries, there were more job seekers than employment.
(iv) Cheap machine-made goods from England were giving stiff competition to small producers of European towns.
(v) The prices of food inflated manifolds due to bad harvest. It led to a widespread pauperism in European towns.
2. How did the local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon react to French rule? Explain.
What were the reactions of the local population to the French rule in the areas they conquered?
Describe any five reforms introduced by Napoleon in the territories he conquered.
“Napoleon was a great administrator!” Explain the statement in the light of the changes he brought about in France.
Ans. The reaction of the local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon was mixed.
(1) Initially, the French armies were seen as the torch-bearers of liberty. In Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed. But very soon, people could realize that the new administrative system of Napoleon was not going to guarantee political freedom.
(2) Increase in taxes, censorship and forced conscription into as outweighing the advantages of administrative reforms which
(3) Thus, the initial enthusiasm of people started dying and Napoleon and his ever-increasing oppressive rule.
3.Describe the effects of the French Revolution.
Ans. Following were the effects of the French Revolution:
(1) The sovereignty was transferred from monarchy to a body of French citizens.
(2) Now, the people had the right and power to constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
(3) There developed a notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution.
(4)A centralized administrative system was established.
(5) Uniform laws were formulated for all citizens within the French territory
(6) Internal custom duties and dues that hampered the flow of business were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was constituted.
(7) French became the common language of the nation. Local dialects were discouraged.
(8) The French nation declared its mission to liberate the people of Europe from despotism i.e., help other people of Europe to become nations.
4.Explain any three measures or practices which created a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. Or `
From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.’ Support the statement with any five suitable measures.
Analyze the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Describe any five steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people.
Ans. Following were the measures and practices introduced by French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people :
(1) The idea of /a patria (the fatherland) and le citizen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution.
(2) A new French flag, the tricolor, was chosen to replace the formal royal standards.
(3) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed as the National Assembly.
(4) New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
(5) A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory
(6) Internal custom duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(7) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
THE MAKING OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
VERY SHORT ANSWERS:-
1.What was the main objective of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815?
Ans. To undo the changes brought about in Europe during Napoleonic wars.
2.Who hosted the Congress of Vienna in 1815?
Ans. Duke Metternich
1.In 1834, why was a Customs Union formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states?
Ans. (1) Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each of these possessed its own currency, and weights and measures.
(2) A merchant travelling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods would have to pass through 11 customs barriers and pay a customs duty of about 5 per cent at each one of them.
(3) Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the good. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, this involved time-consuming calculation.
(4) Such conditions were viewed as the obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes, who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital.
(5) So, In 1834, a Customs Union or Zollveretn was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.
2.’Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class in Europe in the 19th century’ Support the statement with suitable facts.
Ans. (1) The members of landed aristocracy followed a common way of life. This helped them in their unity.
(2) They owned estates both in the rural and town areas. In other words, they owned majority of land tracts.
(3) They spoke French. This helped them in diplomacy. This also helped them to have a distinct place in high society.
(4) They were socially more united as they had marriage relations among their families.
(5) This powerful aristocracy was numerically a small group and the majority of the population was made up of the peasantry.
3.How was the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 implemented? Explain with examples.
Why did the representatives of the European powers met at Vienna in 1815 to draw up a settlement for Europe? Explain.
Ans. (1) The main objective of the Treaty of Vienna was to undo most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
(2) The Treaty of Vienna of 1815 was implemented in the following ways
(i) The Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed durum French Revolution was restored to power.
(ii) France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
(iii) The Kingdom of Netherlands was set up in the north.
(iv) Geneva was added to Piedmont in the south and Prussia was given important new territories.
(v) Austria was given control of Northern Italy and Russia was given part of Poland.
4.Evaluate the contribution of Italian revolutionary- Giuseppe Mazzini in spreading revolutionary ideas in Europe.
Ans. (1) Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, lie was born 1807.
(2) He became a member of secret society of the Carbonating. He founded two more underground societies, first, ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and second, Young Europe’ in Berne whose members were like minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German j states.
(3) Views of Mazzini:
(1) He believed that nations are natural units of mankind.
(a) In his view, creation of nation-states is a necessary part of struggle for freedom.
(iii) He was opposed to monarchy and believed in the vision of democratic republics. He did not believe in small states and kingdoms. He wanted to forge them into a unified nation.
5.Why were the European governments driven by a spirit of conservatism?
Ans. (1) European Governments were driven by the spirit of conservatism after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815.
(2) Conservatives believed that established traditional institutions of state and society-lie the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies, property and the family should be preserved.
(3) Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days they realized from the changes initiated by Napoleon that modernization could, in fact, strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy.
(4) That would make state powers more effective and strong.
(5) Because of modern and efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
6.How did Mazzini realize that the creation of nation-states was a necessary step in a freedom struggle? Explain.
Ans. (1) In 1815, most of the revolutionaries wanted the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of the struggle for freedom. Giuseppe Mazzini was one of them.
(2) As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. Then he founded two underground societies to help him unite the cotuitrit
(3) Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So, Italy could not be the patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
(4) It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.
(5) This unification could become the basis of Italian liberty and the possibility of economic development and political dominance.
7. Describe any three main features of the economic condition of the German-speaking regions in the first half of the 19th century.
Ans. German-speaking regions in the first half of the 19th century faced economic hardships.
(1) Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states.
(2) Each state possessed its own currency and weights and measures. A merchant travelling from Hamburg to Nuremberg had to pass 11 customs barriers and pay a customs duty of about 5% at each one of them.
(3) Different weights and measures were big obstacles to economic exchange and growth as it involved time-consuming calculation.
1. In many European countries, a revolution led by the educated middle classes was underway in the year 1848. Explain with suitable examples_
Ans 1. In European countries, in the year 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle dames was underway.
(1) It was parallel to the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers.
(2) Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed.
(3) In other parts of Europe, where independent nation-states did not exist such as German. % tauter…Poland and Austro-Hungarian Empire men and women of the liberal middle classes wiled their demands for constitutionalism with national unification.
(4) The middle classes took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles and Constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
(5) Abolition of aristocratic privileges and social and political equations gained popularity Freedom for the individual was also supported.
2.”The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary was a patchwork of many different regions and people.” Justify the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. (1) In the mid-eighteenth century, there were no ‘nation-states’ as we know them today,
(2) German, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
(3) Even Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse people.
(4) They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. Different languages were spoken. People belonged to different ethnic groups.
(5) The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary was a patchwork of many different regions and people which included the Alpine regions — the Tyrol Austria and the Sudetenland as well as Bohemia where the aristocracy was predominantly German-speaking.
(6) In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar and other local dialects.
(7) In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish. Within the boundaries of the empire, a mass of subject peasant people also lived.
THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS: 1830-1848
Very Short Answers:-
1. Who said, “True German culture is to be discovered among common people? It
Ans. Johann Gottfried Herder
2. Which treaty recognized Greece as an independent nation?
Ans. Treaty of Constantinople
1.’The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years’. Explain the statement with the help of suitable examples.
Why was the issue of extending political rights to women a controversial one within the liberal movement in 1848? What do these revolutions reveal about political conflicts due to gender differences?
Ans. (1) The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movements in which a large number of women had participated actively over the years.
(2) Though women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations but they were denied suffrage.
(3) When the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
2. Explain the political meaning of liberalism.
Ans. (1) The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root ‘Liter’ meaning free.
(2) Politically liberalism’ emphasized the concept of government by consent.
(3) Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clergies. privileges, a Constitution and representative government through parliament.
3. Describe the circumstances that led to the July Revolution of 1830. Who led such revolutions in Europe?
Ans. (1) In July 1830, the first upheaval took place in France.
(2) The Bourbon kings who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815 were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries who installed constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head.
(3) The economic hardships, a rise in food price, the burden of feudal dues and obligations on the peasants were some more reasons for the revolt.
(4) The July Revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
(5) This revolution was led by liberal nationalists belonging to the educated middle-class elite among whom were professors, school teachers, clerks and members of the commercial middle classes.
4. Why was the period between 1830-48 called the age of revolutions in Europe? Give any five reasons.
Ans. (1) There were many revolutions in Europe between 1830-48.
(2) As conservative regimes tried to consolidate their power liberalism and nationalism came to be increasingly associated with the revolution in many regions of Europe such as the Italian and German states, the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland.
(3) These revolutions were led by the liberal-nationalists belonging to the educated middle-class elite among whom were professors, school teachers, clerks and members of commercial middle classes.
5. How far is it correct to say that the time period from 1830 to 1848 saw hunger, hardship, revolt and revolution of the liberals? Explain.
Ans. Europe saw the worst days from 1830 to 1848. Hunger, hardship, revolt and revolution of the liberals made economic condition worst. There was an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(1) There were more seekers of the job than employment in most of countries.
(2) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.
(3) The textile industry was most affected by England’s industrialization.
(4) The rise of food prices or a year o” f bad harvest led to wide-spread pauperism in towns and villages.
(5) The year 1848 was such a year. Food shortages and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads which forced Louis Philippe to flee.
6. Explain the statement “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches a cold”.
Ans. The statement that “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches a cold” can be explained in the following manner:
(1) Most of the European countries followed them persistently.
(2) The July Revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of Netherlands.
(3) An event that mobilized nationalist feeling among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek War of Independence.
1. Describe the revolt led by the Silesian weavers against contractors in 1845.
Ans. In 1845, weavers of Silesia had led a revolt of against contractors who supplied the raw materials. They gave them to order for finished textiles but reduced their payments.
(1) The workers were living in absolute poverty and misery.
(2) On 4 June at 2 P.M., a large crowd of weavers emerged from their homes and marched in pairs up to the mansion of the contractor.
(3) They were demanding higher wages. But, they were treated with scorn and threats.
(4) Then, some of the weavers entered forcefully into the house. They smashed the window Panes, furniture and porcelain. They entered the storehouse and tore to shreds the supplies of cloth.
(5) The contractor fled with his family but came back after 24 hours with the army. In the exchange that followed eleven weavers were shot. „
2.”Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation Support the statement with suitable examples.
“The development of nationalism did not come only through wars. Culture also played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.” Explain with suitable examples.
How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain.
Ans. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of nation in Europe in the following ways:
(1) Art and poetry, stories and music helped in shaping nationalist feeling in Europe.
(2) Romanticism, a cultural movement, sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiments. For example, the massacre at Chios’ by Eugene Delacroix, appealed to the emotions of Greek.
(3) German philosopher, J.G. Herder said that true German culture could be discovered among the common people through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that express the true spirit of the nation.
(4) ‘Das Volk’ portrayed German culture.
(5) `Karol Kurpinski’ celebrated nationalist movement through folk dances and operas.
(6) Allegory was developed such as Marianne and Germania.
(7) Vernacular languages strengthened nationalist feelings.
3. The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Explain the role of Romantic imagination in a national feeling.
Mention any three important contributions by Romanticists to national movements.
Ans. Role of Romantic imagination in a national feeling:
(1) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.
(2) Art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
(3) Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of the nation.
(4) Romanticists believed that it was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.
(5) They emphasized on vernacular languages and the collection of local folklore not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate.
(6) They tried to change the cultural element into nationalist symbols.
THE MAKING OF GERMANY AND ITALY
Very Short Answers:-
1. Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871?
Ans. The Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871.
2. Who was Count Cavour?
Ans. The Chief Minister of Italy
3. Name a famous Italian Revolutionary.
Ans. Giuseppe Mazzini
4. How was the United Kingdom of Great Britain formed?
Ans. By the Act of Union, 1707
1.Describe the events which led to the proclamation of Victor Emmanuel II as King of unified Italy
Ans. (1) Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programmed for the unitary Italian Republic. But, failure of uprising both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now tells on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify Italy.
(2) Chief Minister Cavour through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered a “feat of Austria by Sardinia-Piedmont in 1859.
(3) Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership ultaiepe Garibaldi joined the fray and marched into South Italy and the kingdom of the Two Sicilians and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish ruler.
(4) Under these circumstances in 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of Unit Italy.
2.Why is the process of unification of the United Kingdom considered to be a long drab out process?
Why England was more powerful than other nations in the British Isles? Explain we three examples.
Ans. (1) There was no British nation prior to the 18th century. The British Isles was inhabited by the ethnic people such as English, Welsh, Scot and Irish. But, the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power. It was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the island.
(2) In 1688, the British Parliament seized power from the monarchy and formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. This Act enabled England to impose its influence on Scotland and in 1707 brought Scotland in the United Kingdom.
(3) Ireland was deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants. English helped the Protestants to establish their dominance. Ultimately, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
1. How did? Does Italy have a long history of political fragmentation like Germany?
Describe the background and execution of the process of Italian unification.
Ans. (1) Like Germany, Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational Habsburg Empire.
(2) In the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states and only one Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.
(3) Even the Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations.
(4) Italy was unified in 1861 and Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of United Italy.
(5) Following are the features of the unification movement in Italy:
(I) During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programmed for the unitary Italian Republic. The ruling elites also were of the view that a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance.
(ii) The unification of Italy was a result of many wars. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France by Chief Minister Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont defeated the Austrian forces in 1859.
(iii) Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Garibaldi joined the fray.
(iv) In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the kingdom of the two Sicilians and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish ruler. In this way, the unification process was completed.
2.”In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution.” Elaborate with the help of suitable examples.
How formation of the nation-state was the result of a long drawn out process in Britain Explain.
Ans. (1) In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of the long-drawn-out process.
(2) There was no British nation prior to the 18th century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
(3) All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions.
(4) But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
(5) The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state with England at its centre, came to be forged.
(6) The Act of Union 1707 brought Scotland in the United Kingdom. Later Ireland was also incorporated in 1801 in the United Kingdom. This way, England emerged as a nation-state.
3. Describe any two dissimilarities between the process of unification of Italy and Germany.
Ans. (1) The German unification was not supported by armed volunteers. In Italian unification, Garibaldi had won the support of local peasants to drive out the Spanish rulers.
(2) No secret societies were formed so as to achieve the goal of unification of Germany. But in Italy, Mazzini formed Young Italy.
(3) Italian unification was completed 10 years before Germany was united.
(4) Germany, in its unification, had to fight against France and Austria, while in Italian unification Cavour had a tactful diplomatic alliance with France to defeat Austria.
(5) Bismarck followed the policy of ‘Blood and Iron’ for German unification, while Cavour used his excellent diplomatic skills in Italian unification.
4. Write any five points to show the importance of Giuseppe Garibaldi.
Ans. Role of Garibaldi in the unification of Italy:
(1) Garibaldi headed the armed volunteers who fought for the unification of Italy.
(2) The kingdom of Two Sicilians was ruled over by the Spanish ruler. Garibaldi wanted to win the support of the local Italian peasant population.
(3) In 1860, Garibaldi marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of Two Sicilians and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants. He drove out the Spanish rulers.
(4) The peasant masses who had supported Garibaldi in southern Italy had never heard of Italia, and believed that la Talia’ was Victor Emmanuel’s wife!
(5) In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the king of United Italy.
5.Examine the role of Prussia in the unification of Germany.
Explain the dominance of Prussian measures and practices on Germany.
Ans. Role of Prussia in German Unification:
(1) The middle-class German’s effort to unify German confederation into nation-state in 1848 was foiled by the combined forces of monarchy and military.
(2) But, it was Prussia who later headed the unification movement under the leadership of Its Chief Minister Bismarck.
(3) Bismarck took the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(4) He fought three wars for over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France.
(5) The process of unification completed with Prussian Victory in 1871, when Kaiser William I was declared the head of the State.
6.Through a focus on any two European countries, explain how nations developed over the 19th century
Ans. In the nineteenth century, nations developed in many ways. For example:
(i) Italy emerged after the long drawn wars between the forces of Sardinia-Pied and those who ruled over the different parts of Italy such as Austria, Spanish, e
(ii) But, it was only through the successful diplomatic engineering of Cavour that military could attain the end result.
(2)(i) Britain, on the other hand, did not have any history of bloodshed.
(ii) There the one ethnic group — English, exerted its power over the other ethnic. groups — Scottish, Irish etc. of the land.
(iii) The English abolished their national symbols, political institutions, national dresses and other cultural identities.
(iv) The English put them to follow the British flag, national symbol and anthem, etc.
7.Otto Von Bismarck was the architect of ‘German unification’. Explain.
Explain the process of unification of Germany.
Briefly describe the process of unification of Germany.
Ans. Following were the processes of unification of Germany:
(1) In 1948, a large number of political associations comprising of middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans tried to unite the different regions of Germany into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.
(2) This initiative was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the army, supported by landowners of Prussia.
(3) Prussia took over the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its Chief Minister Bismarck was the architect of this process.
(4) He followed the policy of Blood-Iron to materialize nationalist aspirations. He took the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy over a period of seven years, fought three wars with Austria, Denmark and France and emerged victoriously.
(5) These victories completed the process of unification of Germany. In January 1871, the Prussian King Kaiser William I was proclaimed the German Emperor.
8. Discuss the role of Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi in the unification of Italy.
Ans. (1) Cavour:
(i) He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.
(ii) Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France, engineered by Cavour, Sardinia–Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces.
(2) Garibaldi: He gathered a large number of armed volunteers and marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilians and succeeded in winning the support of locals to drive out Spanish.
(3) Mazzini: (i) He had sought to put together a coherent programmed for the Unitary Italian Republic.
(ii) He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goal.
(4) Ring Victor Emmanuel II: He tried to unify the Italian states through war.
VISUALISING THE NATION
Very Short Answers:-
1. Name the allegory which represented the Republic of France.
Ans. Statue of Marianne
2. What does the crown of oak leaves worn by Germania stand for
3.In France, whose images were marked on coins and stamps during the 1850s?
1. Who was christened as Marianne? What was the importance of the way in which she was portrayed? Or
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Ans. (1) (i) The artists in France, in 1850, personified the nation. It means the nation was represented as a person. They chose the female figure to represent the nation. This female figure, in itself, contained the idea of people’s nation.
(ii) This figure was named ‘Marianne’. It represented liberty, justice and republic.
(iii) The statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind people of the national symbol of unity.
(iv) It was marked on coins and stamps.
(v) This figure of ‘Marianne’ gave the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form which became an allegory of the nation also.
(2) (i) Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
(ii) In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves as the German oak stands for heroism.
2.How was a nation visualized in the eighteenth and nineteenth century in Europe? Explain with the help of two suitable examples.
Ans. 18th and 19th-century artist’s personification of a nation in allegories:
(1) Artists represented nations as a female figure which did not stand for any particular woman but gave the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form.
(2) Thus, female figures became an allegory of a nation. During the French Revolution, artists used female figures to portray ideas such as liberty, justice and republic through symbols.
(3) In France, she was christened Marianne underlining the idea of a people’s nation with characteristics drawn from those of liberty and republic.
(4) Her statues were erected in public places to remind the people of unity and persuade them to identify with it. Her images were also marked on coins and stamps.
(5) In Germany, ‘Germania’ became the allegory of the nation wearing a crown of German oak leaves, as the German oak stood for heroism.
NATIONALISM AND IMPERIALISM
Very Short Answers:-
1. Name the region whose habitats were broadly known as Slays.
Ans. The Balkan region
2. Which countries wanted to control Balkans?
Ans. Germany, Austria-Hungary, England
3. Which country was not interested in the Balkan Peninsula?
1. How was Europe closely allied to the ideology of liberalism?
Ans. In Europe, the educated liberal middle class spearheaded the nationalist movement. They stood for the freedom of individual and equality of all before the law. Following were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals:
(1) Political ideas — The ideology of liberalism supported the ideas of national unity and abolition of aristocratic privileges. It also advocated for a constitutional and representative government through parliament. It did not stand for the idea of universal suffrage.
(2) Social ideas — They supported freedom for the individual and the idea of equality of all before the law.
(3) Economic ideas — There was freedom of markets and abolition of State-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. In 1834, a custom union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and it was joined by all German states. Zollverein abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies. Introduction of a system of weights and measures also strengthened the ideology of liberalism.
2. Justify the statement with suitable examples that “Nationalism, aligned with imperialism, led Europe to disaster in 1914.”
`Nationalism aligned with imperialism led Europe to indulge in the First World War in 1914.’ Justify the statement with any five suitable arguments.
How did the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire make the Balkan region very explosive? Explain.
Why did nationalist tension emerge in the Balkans?
Ans. (1) By the last quarter of the nineteenth century, nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment of the first half of the century but became a narrow crew with limited ends.
(2) Nationalism aligned with imperialism led Europe to disaster in 1914. But, many countries in the world which were colonized were in very bad shape.
(3) During the period an intense rivalry among the European powers emerged over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
3. How had the Balkan region become the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after1871? Explain with examples.
`By the end of 19th-century nationalism did not retain its idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of the first half of the century, but became a narrow creed with limited ends.’ Explain by giving a detailed account of the Balkan region which was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871. Or
How did Balkan region problems lead to a series of wars and finally giving shape to the First World War? Explain.
Ans. For the following reasons, Balkans was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871:
(1) Balkans was a region of geographical and ethical variations comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were known as Slays.
(2) A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
(3)As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
(4) The Balkan states were jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of other. Balkans also became an area of big power rivalry.
(5) Each European power such as Russia, Germany, England, and Austria-Hungary was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans and this led to a series of wars eventually the First World War.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
1.”Count Cavour’s efforts made the unification of Italy, a dream come true.” What striking features of Cavour do you see in his role in the unification of Italy?
Ans. (1) Tactfulness.
(2) Strong diplomacy.
(3) High degree of convincing power.
(4 ) Great organizational skill.
(5) Excellent co-ordination.
(6) Extreme patriotism.
(7) Devotion towards goal
2.”It is said that Napoleon had ruined democracy.” What positive acts of Napoleon attract your attention?
Ans. (1) Devotion towards equality.
(2) Restoration of natural rights.
(3) Uniformity of administration.
(4) Demolition of privileges.
(5) Freedom to peasants.