Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus
Chapter-1 Resources and Development
The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for Class 10 social science, social science Class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts.
Very Short Answers:-
Ans. Everything which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘resource’.
1.Do you think that resources are free gifts of nature as is assumed by many? Justify your answer with any three suitable arguments.
Ans. (1) No, the resources are not the free gifts of nature.
(2) (i) An these natural things are available on the earth surface abundantly unless and until humans modify them into usable products.
(ii) Thus, with the value addition to these substances through human intelligence, skill and technology resources are developed to satisfy human needs.
(iii) Resources are a function of human activities. People transform material available in our environment into resources and use them.
TYPES OF RESOURCES
Very Short Answers:-
1.What are potential resources?
Ans. The resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilized.
2.Give one example of a non-renewable resource.
Ans. Fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum
3.What term is used for resources that can be recycled but are non-renewable?
Ans. Recyclable resources
1.What is the importance of natural resource? Why is it necessary to conserve them?
Ans. (1) Resources are important for the development of any country. For example, fossil fuels are essential to generate energy, mineral resources are important for industrial development, etc.
(2) It is necessary to conserve resources because:
(i) Their irrational consumption and over utilization have led to socio-economic and environmental problems.
(ii) It takes million of years for the formation of natural resources.
(iii) Natural resources are available in fixed quantity and they are non-renewable.
2.Distinguish between stock and potential resource. Give one example of each.
3.What are the biotic and biotic resources? Give some examples
Ans. (1) Biotic Resources: These resources are obtained from biosphere and have life e.g., human beings plants and animals, etc.
(2) Biotic Resources: These resources are composed of non-living things e.g., rocks and metals.
4.Distinguish between the renewable and non-renewable resources.
Explain the difference between renewable and non-renewable resources with suitable examples.
1.How many types of resources are available in a country? Explain. Make a chart also.
Classify the resources on various bases.
Ans. Types of resources available in a country are as follows:
(1) On the basis of origin: (i) Biotic Resources; and (ii) Biotic Resources.
(2) On the basis of exhaustibility: (i) Renewable resources; and
(ii) Non-renewable Resources.
(3) On the basis of ownership: (1) Individual Resources;
(ii) Community-owned resources;
(iii) National Resources; and
(iv) International Resources.
(4) On the basis of the status of development: (i) Potential Resources;
(ii) Developed resources;
(iii) Stock; and
2.Classify resources on the basis of ownership by giving examples.
Classify resources on the basis of ownership. Mention the main nature of each.
Provide a suitable classification for resources on the basis of ownership. Mention main features of any three types of such resources.
What is meant by the term ‘resource’? List the types of resources classified on the basis of its ownership.
How many types of resources our country has on the basis of ownership? Give at least one example for each type.
Ans. (1) Everything which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘resource’.
(2) Classification of resources on the basis of ownership:
(i) Individual: Privately owned like land, house, well, pond, etc.
(ii) Community: Accessible to all members of the community, like village commons, grazing grounds, parks, playgrounds, etc.
(iii) National: They belong to the nation, like minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, etc.
(iv) International: They are regulated by international institutions, like oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone.
3.Explain the types of resources on the basis of exhaustibility with the help of examples.
Classify resources on the basis of origin. Give any two examples of each.
Classify resources on the basis of exhaustibility. Mention four features of each.
Ans. (1) On the basis of origin:
(i)Biotic Resources: These resource biosphere and have life. For example, animals, plants, human beings, etc.
(ii) Biotic Resources: These resources are composed of non-living things. For example, resources are metals, rocks, etc.
(2) On the basis of exhaustibility:
(i) Renewable Resources:
(a) The resources which, can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are Cal le° renewable resources.
(b) For example, water, forests, wind energy, solar energy, etc.
(c) The renewable resources may be divided into continuous or flow resources e.g. Wind water and biological resources e.g. forests.
(d) Biological resources may be divided into natural vegetation and wildlife.
(ii) Non-renewable Resources: (a) These resources take million of years in their formation.
(b) They cannot be renewed or reproduced once they are used up.
(c) For example, coal, petroleum, metals, etc.
(d) Some of the resources are recyclable like iron, copper, etc.
DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES
Very Short Answers:-
1.In which country was the first International Earth Summit organized?
Ans. The first International Earth Summit was in Brazil.
1.What is Agenda 21? List its two principles.
Ans. (1) It is the declaration signed by world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which took place at Rio she Janeiro, Brazil. It aims at achieving global sustainable development.
(2) The principles are:-
(i) It is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty and disease through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
(ii) Secondly, every local government should draw its own local Agenda
1.Examine the three major problems created as a result of indiscriminate utilization of natural resources.
“Indiscriminate use of resources has led to numerous problems.” Justify the statement in three points.
Explain major problems caused by indiscriminate use of resources.
Ans. (1) Resources have been depleted for satisfying the greed of a few individuals.
(2) The resources get accumulated in a few hands, which in turn, divide the society into two segments, i.e., haves and have knots or rich and poor.
(3) Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
(4) Human activities like deforestation, over-grazing, construction and mining have led to soil erosion.
(5) Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and traces of over-burdening.
Very Short Answers:-
1.Resources which are surveyed and their quantity and quality have been determined for utilization. What are they called?
Ans. Developed resources
2.”There is enough for everybody’s need and not for anybody’s greed.” Who gave this statement?
Who said “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for anybody’s greed?”
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi
1.Whom did Gandhi make responsible for the depletion of resources at the global level Explain any two reasons.
Ans. (1) Mahatma Gandhi made the humans’ greed responsible for the depletion of resources at the global level. According to him, the never satisfying nature of humans ails ways wants more from the nature.
(2) (i) Moreover, when one demand is met, humans set another demand of higher value. In this ever growing demand trap, the nature is exploited and exhausted.
(ii) The -humans are not wise enough to reuse the available resources and plan the resources judiciously. That is the reason there is so much uneven distribution of resources in the world.
1.”India is rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources.” Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with examples.
“In India, some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources.” Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three examples
Ans. (1) I agree with the statement that India is rich in certain types of resources but e deficient in some other resources.
(2) For example, (i) The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
(ii) Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.
(iii) The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.
(iv ) The cold desert of Latah is relatively isolated from the rest of the country.
(v) Latah has a very rich cultural heritage but it is deficient in water, infrastructure and some vital minerals.
(vi) Assam has mineral oil deposits as well as water resources but lacks in development.
2.”The Earth has enough resources to meet the need of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development Discuss?
Ans. (1) Resources are vital for any developmental activity.
(2) The irrational consumption and over-utilization of resources may lead to socioseco oral and environmental problems.
(3) Indiscriminate exploitation of resources led to global ecological crises such as global warming, environmental pollution, etc.
(4) The greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technologic the root cause for resource depletion at the global level.
(5) If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals and countries continues’ the future of our planet is in danger.
(6) There is need for sustainable development. It means development should without damaging the environment and development in the present should not comp with the need of future generations.
3.Explain the three steps involved in the resource planning in India.
Describe the three main steps involved in the complex process of resource planning.
Explain the three stages of resource planning in India.
Ans. (1) Resource planning is a technique or skill of proper utilization of resources. Planning is a widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources.
(2) its three phases are as under
(i) Resource inventory: This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources across the country.
(ii) Evaluation: This includes evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(iii} This consists of matching the resource development plans with over all national development plans.
4.Explain the role of human in resource development.
Ans. (1) Human beings should not use the resources indiscriminately. It has led to global ecological crisis such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
(2) Resources should not be allowed to accumulate in a few hands. it dived into two segments, i.e. , haves and have notes or rich and poor.
(3) Resource planning should be done for sustainable development. It means development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.
(4) Conservation of resources should be given priority because they are vital for developmental activity
(5) Optimum utilization of resources need to be practiced since resources available in fixed quantity and cannot be reproduced or renewed.
5.Why is it essential to have resource planning? Explain any three reasons.
“Resource planning is essential.” Assess the statement with suitable reasons.
Why is it essential? Explain any two reasons.
Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources in a court India? Justify this statement with two relevant points and an example.
`Resource planning is essential.” Analyze the statement.
Ans. (1) Resource planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use resources.
(2) (i) Some of the resources like coal, petroieurn, etc. are available in. limited quantity. Resources are depleting at a faster rate. So, it needs a resource plant: a for their sustained alit judicious use. The societal is resource planning like
(ii) Some of the resources have been accumulated by a handful of people. This restricts equitable access to the resources.
(iii) Indiscriminate exploitation of resources is another factor that necessitates resource planning.
(iv) Resources are the gifts of the nature. These should be used judiciously and in a way that the coming generations do not get deprived of these resources.
(v) Resource planning is important for sustainable development.
6.”India’s vast and diverse size is the most important resource.” Support the statement
Ans. (1) In India, there is diversity not only in physiographic divisions but also in availability of resources.
(2) There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources.
(3) For example, (i) Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in mineral and coal deposits.
(ii) Arunachal Pradesh has abundant water resources.
(iii) Rajasthan is endowed with solar and wind energy.
(iv) Cold desert area of Latah is isolated from the rest of the country and is deficient in water, infrastructure and some vital minerals. So, it can be said that India’s vast and diverse size is the most important resource.
Very Short Answers:-
1.How much is the mountain share in the total land area?
2.Which relief feature of India has 30 per cent of the total surface area of the country?
1.Explain any three purposes for which land resources are used.
Ans. (1) We live on land by constructing houses.
(2) Land supports natural vegetation and wild life.
(3) On land we develop transport and communication system by laying down roads and railway lines.
(4) We cultivate land for growing various food crops and cash crops.
(5) All the secondary (manufacturing) activities are performed on land through various industries.
2.What are the main advantages of India’s land under a variety of relief features?
Ans. India has land under a variety of relief features, plateaus’ plains and islands.
(1) About 43 per cent of the land area is plain, which provides facilities for agriculture and industry.
(2) Mountains account for 30 per cent of the total surface area. They ensure flow of some rivers; provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects ford
(3) About 27 per cent of the land area is plateau. It possesses reserves of minerals, fuels and forests.
LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA
Very Short Answers:-
1.What was the percentage of the net sown area of India in 2002-2003?
Ans. The net sown area of India in 2002-2003 was 43.41%
2.Describe ‘Fallow land’ in one sentence.
Ans. The land left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year is called fallow land.
3.How much desired area is required for forest in our country?
1.Why has the land under forests not increased much from 1960-61?
Ans. (1) The land under the forest in India was not increased much since 1960-61 because the fringes of the forest were gradually been encroached by the agricultural sectors.
(2) The ever growing population of India did not allow the natural vegetation to grow and spread as growing population needs more food as well as more areas for settlement.
(3) After independence the government of India was busy settling other socio-political and economic issues while forest development was not taken seriously.
2.The land under cultivation has reduced day-by-day. Can you imagine its consequences?
Ans. (1) If the land under cultivation reduces at the present rate, a day will come when demand for food would exceed manifold and the supply would never meet up the demand.
(2) The agriculture sector will not be able to provide sufficient raw materials to the industrial sector.
(3) The country will have to depend more on imports.
3.State any three physical factors as well as three human factors which determine the use of land in India.
Ans. (1) Physical factors: (i) ‘Topography: Rugged topography, steep slopes, rocky terrain are not fit for cultivation.
(ii) Climate: Regions having extreme hot or cold climate are not suitable for growing crops.
(iii) Soil types: Soils rich in humus are good for growing crops. Alluvial soils are most suitable for cultivation.
(2) Human factors: (i) Population density;
(ii) technological capability;
(iii) culture and traditions, etc.
LAND DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION MEASURES
Very Short Answers:-
1.Which two states have suffered land degradation due to overgrazing?
Ans. Gujarat and Rajasthan have suffered land degradation due to overgrazing.
2.Which agent of erosion is responsible for maximum land degradation in India?
3.Which is the major cause of land degradation in Punjab?
4.Mention one method of checking soil erosion.
Ans. (1) Strip cropping
(2) Terrace farming
(3) Contour sloughing.
5.In which state has mining caused severe land degradation?
Ans. Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Odessa.
1.Which is the main cause of land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh? How can it be checked? Explain.
Explain the main cause of land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya how can it be checked?
Ans. (1) The main causes of land degradation in these states is large scale over-grazing. This has caused severe land degradation.
(2) Measures to check: (i) Forestation and proper management of grazing. (ii) Planting of shelter belts of plants.
(iii) Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
(iv) Control on overgrazing.
2.How is over-irrigation responsible for land degradation? Which states of India face this problem?
Ans. (1) Over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging, leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
(2) The states of India which face this problem are: (i) Punjab (ii) Haryana (iii) Western Uttar Pradesh.
1.Suggest any six measures to solve the problems of land degradation in India.
Suggest any three methods of soil conservation suitable to Indian conditions.
How can the problem of land degradation be solved in India? Suggest some solutions.
Ans.(1) The vegetation provides the protective cover to the land. Vegetation cover does not allow the rain water to fall straight on the land, thus, helps to maintain the soil fertility. Afforeztation helps to solve the problem of land degradation.
(2) Shelter belts can be created on the margins of the desert areas.
(3) In semi-arid areas, land degradation can be curbed by cultivation technique. It is based on moisture conservation.
(4) The industrial effluents and wastes are a major cause of land degradation. Therefore, effective measures must be taken for the proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes.
(5) Over-grazing of land by animals is to be controlled.
(6) It is also necessary to stabilize the shifting of sand dunes in the desert areas. It ran be done by planting thorny bushes.
2.Explain any three human activities which are mainly responsible for land degradation in India.
Explain any five human activities accountable for land degradation in India.
Ans. Three human activities mainly responsible for land degradation in India are:
(1) Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete, leaving deep scars.
(2) In the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odessa deforestation due to mining has caused severe land degradation.
(3) In the states like Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, there is overgrazing.
(4) Mineral processing generates dust and retards infiltration of water into the soil.
(5) In the states of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging, leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
SOIL AS A RESOURCE
Very Short Answers:-
1.In what broad category do the soils of Maharashtra fall?
Ans. Black Cotton Soil.
2.What is formed when water flows over large areas down the slope causing soil ebon?
Ans. Sheet erosion occurs when water flows over large areas down the slope causing soil erosion.
3.Which soil is perfect for the growth of cashew nuts?
Ans. Red late rite soil is perfect for the growth of cashew nuts.
4.Bad land and ravines are found in which river basin in India?
Ans. Bad land and ravines are found in the Chambal basin.
5.What is the other name of ‘Black soil’?
Ans. The other name of black soil is recur soil.
6.What is meant by ‘Strip cropping’?
Ans. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up wind. This method is known as strip cropping.
7.In which regions of India does Terrace Cultivation stop soil erosion?
Ans. In western and central Himalayas Terrace Cultivation stops soil erosion.
8.Which soil is ideal for growing cotton?
Ans. Recur soil
9.’Late rite’ has later meant?
1.Name the soil type which is widely found in Western Rajasthan. Explain two important characteristics of this soil type which makes it unsuitable for cultivation.
Ans. (1) Arid soil is found in Western Rajasthan.
(2) Characteristics of arid soil:
(i) Very dry and cannot retain moisture as the grains are loosely bonded.
(ii) Poor in organic matter or humus due to lack of plant and animals living on it.
2.What is soil erosion? What measures should be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
Suggest any three measures to control soil erosion in the hilly areas.
What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
Ans. (1) Soil erosion: The denudation of soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion.
(2) (i) Contour sloughing : Sloughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
(ii) Terrace cultivation: Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces. Terrace cultivation restricts erosion.
(iii) Strip cropping: Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.
(iv) Shelter belts: Between the crops, trees are planted to create shelter. These are called shelter belts. These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the desert in western India.
3.Describe any three features of arid soils.
Describe any five characteristics of ‘arid soil’.
Mention any three features of arid soil.
Ans. Features of arid soils:
(1) Arid soils are sandy in texture and saline in nature.
(2) This soil lacks in humus and moisture.
(3) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by kantar.
(4) The kantar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water.
(5) After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable.
4.How does red soil develop and in which part of India? What makes it look red and yellow?
Ans. (1) Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks.
(2) These soils develop in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan Plateau.
(3) These soils develop a reddish color due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in hydrated form.
5.What is soil conservation? Explain any four methods of soil conservation suitable to Indian conditions. Or
Suggest any three measures of soil conservation.
Ans. (1) Soil conservation is a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the Earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse, acidification, Stalinization or other chemical soil contamination.
(2) Four methods of soil conservation areas under:
The best way to conserve soil is to increase area under forests. Indiscriminate felling of trees should be stopped and efforts should be made to plant trees in new areas. A minimum area of forest land for the whole country that is considered healthy for soil and water conservation is between 20 to 25 per cent but it was raised to 33 per cent in the second five year plan; the proportion being 20 per cent for the plains and 60 per cent for hilly and mountainous regions.
2. Checking Overgrazing:
Overgrazing of forests and grass lands by animals, especially by goats and sheep, should be properly checked. Separate grazing grounds should be earmarked and fodder crops should be grown in larger quantities. Animals freely move about in the fields for grazing and spoil the soil by their hoofs which leads to soil erosion. This should be avoided.
3. Constructing Dams:
Much of the soil erosion by river floods can be avoided by constructing dams across the rivers. This checks the speed of water and saves soil from erosion.
4. Changing Agricultural Practices:
We can save lot of our valuable soil by bringing about certain changes in our agricultural practices. Some of the outstanding changes suggested in this context are as under:
(i) Crop Rotation:
In many parts of India, a particular crop is sown in the same field year after year. This practice takes away certain elements from the soil, making it infertile and exhausted rendering it unsuitable for that crop. Rotation of crops is the system in which a different crop is cultivated on a piece of land each year.
This helps to conserve soil fertility as different crops make different demands on the soil. For example, potatoes require much potash but wheat requires nitrate. Thus it is best to alternate crops in the field. Legumes such as peas, beans, clover, vetch and many other plants, add nitrates to the soil by converting free nitrogen in the air into nitrogenous nodules on their roots.
Thus if they are included in the crop rotation nitrogenous fertilizers can be dispensed with. By rotating different types of crops in successive years, soil fertility can be naturally maintained. For example, wheat may be cultivated in the first year, barley in the second and legumes in the third.
The cycle may then be repeated. Further, there are some crops such as maize, cotton, tobacco and potato which can be classed as erosion inducing, whilst some other crops such as grass, forage crops and many legumes are erosion resisting. Small grain crops like wheat, barley, oats and rice are between these two extremes.
(ii) Strip Cropping:
Crops may be cultivated in alternate strips, parallel to one another. Some strips may be allowed to lie fallow while in others different crops may be sown e.g., grains, legumes, small tree crops, grass etc. Various crops ripen at different times of the year and are harvested at intervals. This ensures that at no time of the year the entire area is left bare or exposed. The tall growing crops act as wind breaks and the strips which are often parallel to the contours help in increasing water absorption by the soil by slowing down run off
(iii) Use of Early Maturing Varieties:
Early maturing varieties of crops take less time to mature and thus put lesser pressure on the soil. In this way it can help in reducing the soil erosion.
(iv) Contour Ploughing:
If ploughing in done at right angles to the hill slope, following the natural contours of the hill, the ridges and furrows break the flow of water down the hill This prevents excessive soil loss as gullies are less likely to develop and also reduce run-off so that plants receive more water. Thus by growing crops in contour pattern, plants can absorb much of the rain water and erosion is minimized.
(vi) Terracing and Contour Bunding:
Terracing and contour bunding across the hill slopes is a very effective and one of the oldest methods of soil conservation. Hill slope is cut into a number of terraces having horizontal top and steep slopes on the back and front. Contour bunding involves the construction of banks along FIG- 7.7. Contour Ploughing the contours.
Terracing and contour bunding which divides the hill slope into numerous small slopes, checks the flow of water, promotes absorption of water by soil and saves soil from erosion. Retaining walls of terraces control the flow of water and help in reducing soil erosion. Sometimes tree crops such as rubber are also planted to combat soil erosion (Fig. 7.8).
But there is a limit to which bunding is an effective measure of soil conservation. When the slope is steeper than 8 per cent or 1 in 12, bunding becomes expensive and less effective. Nothing over 20 per cent or 1 in 5 should be terraced. Fields of a slope steeper than 15 per cent or 1 in 6 should be withdrawn from ploughing as they are not usually worth the labour of making benches very close together.
6.Describe any three main characteristics of black soil in India.
Which soil is called recur soil’? Explain any four characteristics of this soil.
Describe features of black soil.
Ans. (1) Black soil is also called recur soil. These soils are made up of extremely fine particles, i.e., clayey material.
(2) These soils have good capacity to hold moisture.
(3) They are rich in calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime but poor in phosphoric contents.
(4) They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which help in the proper aeration of the soil.
(5) These soils are sticky when wet and so has to be tilled immediately after the first shower in the pre-monsoon period.
7.How are alluvial soils formed? How is Banger different from Khaddar?
Define alluvial soil. Distinguish between Khaddar and Hangar.
How are alluvial soils formed? How is Banger different from Khaddar?
Ans. (1) Alluvial soils are formed due to sand, silt and clay particles deposited in the plains by the river systems.
(2) (i) Banger is old alluvial soil while khaddar is new alluvial soil.
(ii) Banger has higher concentration of kantar nodules than Khaddar.
(iii) Khaddar has more fine particles and is more fertile than Banger.
8.Write human activities that lead to soil erosion.
Ans:- Human activities that lead to soil erosion:
(i) Deforestation is the removal of trees and other vegetations which hold the soil together. When vegetation is removed the soil surface turns loose and more easily removed by running water and wind.
(ii) Overgrazing of land by animals results in removal of grass over a large area making it easy for wind and running water to remove the soil.
(iii) Defective methods of sloughing the fields in up and down manner along the slopes make it easier for running water and wind to cause erosion.
(iv) Mining areas are highly degraded. It is full of heaps and pits. Such land becomes unfit for agriculture.
9.Mention any two human activities which are responsible for the process of soil erosion. Explain the two types of soil erosion mostly observed in India.
Explain the two types of soil erosion mostly observed in India. Mention different human activities responsible for soil erosion.
Ans. (1) Deforestation, overgrazing, mining, construction, etc. are responsible for the process of soil erosion.
(2) Types of soil erosion: (i) Gullies: The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels/gullies. The unfit land caused by gullies is called bad land or ravines.
(ii) Sheet erosion: Water .flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. The top soil is washed away. This process is known as sheet erosion.
1.Explain any three factors responsible for the formation of soil.
Why is soil considered as a living system? Mention any two factors that are responsible (200) for soil formation.
Explain any five factors responsible for the formation of soil.
Explain the factors responsible for soil formation.
Ans. (1) Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth. The soil is a living system. It takes million of years to form soil up to a few cm in depth.
(2) Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life are responsible for soil formation.
(i) Relief: Steep slopes have thin soil layer due to erosion. Thick fertile soils are developed in the valleys and lowlands.
(ii) Parent rock: Soils are formed by weathering of rocks depending on the types of rocks. There are different types of soil.
(iii) Climate: The process of weathering, quantity of moisture, dryness, etc. in the soil depends on climate.
(iv) Vegetation: The amount of humus in the soil depends upon the vegetation cover. Areas under thick vegetation have more fertile soils but desert lands have less fertile soil and less humus.
(v) Time: The physical, chemical and organic processes take place and lead to the formation of fertile soil only in a long span of time.
2.State the geographical factors that are responsible for the evolution of black soil. Why is it considered the most suitable for growing cotton?
Ans. (1) Climatic conditions along with present rock material are important factors for making of black soil. The parent rock is volcanic rock.
(2) It is ideal for growing cotton because:
(i) It has capacity to hold moisture.
(ii) They are rich in calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
(iii) This soil is also known as black cotton soil.
(iv) They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which help in the proper aeration of the soil.
3.Distinguish between Khaddar and Bangle. Name any two states where alluvial soils are found.
Ans. (1) (i) Khaddar: Khaddar is the new alluvial soil. It has more fine particles and is more fertile.
(ii) Banger: Banger is the old alluvial soil. It is less fertile because it has higher concentration of kantar nodules.
(2) The entire northern plains (Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal) are made of alluvial soil. It is also found in the eastern coastal plains.
4.Describe any three types of soil available in India.
What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
Ans. (1) Alluvial soils: (i) These soils are very fertile. They consist of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
(ii) On the basis of age, alluvial soils are classified as Banger and Khaddar.
(iii) Alluvial soils are found in entire northern plains and eastern coastal plains.
(2) Red Soils : (i) These soils have developed due to prolonged weathering of the old crystalline rocks.
(ii) These are found in the eastern and southern parts of Deccan Plateau.
(iii) These soils are generally less fertile. But under irrigation, they become quite Productive. It is ideal for growing rice, millets, etc.
(3) Black Soils: (i) These soils develop by the weathering and decomposition of the basaltic rocks of lava plateau or Deccan trap.
(ii) These are found in North-West Deccan Plateau. These soils are fairly fertile.
(iii) These are ideal for growing cotton, groundnut, sugarcane, etc.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
1.”Soil is an important natural resource. When there is land degradation, a number of things are affected.”
In the light of the above statement, mention some man-made factors responsible for the degradation of land.
Ans. (1) Deforestation.
(2) Mining activities.
(5) Cement industry.
(6) Industrial effluents and wastes.
(7) Domestic wastes.
2.”Resources are limited on the earth. Many of them cannot be recreated.’ What do you think there is need of conserving resources?
Ans. (1) Resource is limited but demand is unlimited.
(2) it will be equally needed by the future generations.
(3) Its over-consumption may lead to various socio-economic problems.
(4) Its over-consumption may lead to various environmental problems.
(5) Its over-consumption may result in global ecological crises.
For the above reasons conservation of resources is a must.