Novel for class 10- English CBSE
By Anne Frank
MISCELLANEOUS Notes and Study Material
Following is the novel of CBSE class 10 – The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank. All the aspects like chapter wise summary in simple words, downloadable pdf files, short story of the novel, book review, Anne Frank Biography, Important Extra questions and Answers for SA 1 and SA 2, short Summary, main characters, Anne Frank autobiography, solutions of the diary of a young girl,Chapter wise Notes and Study Material, Introduction, Analysis, Understanding the Theme, main characters, Chapters in short, Conclusion and much more you will find below. Just get dive in-
1. Why were the members worried about Mr Koophuis?
Ans. Mr Koophuis was the man who helped the families of Mr Frank and Mr Van Daan hide. He was amazingly brave and cheerful. He was a great help for the families and always cheered them up. Mrs Frank said, “When Mr Koophuis enters, the sun begins to shine”. In fact, everyone felt like that. However, he was never well, has a lot of pain and is not allowed to eat much or do much walking. His condition was worsening and he had to go to the hospital for an abdominal operation. He would have to stay there for at least four weeks. In fact, he was suffering from the haemorrhage of the stomach. The hiding families were sort of helping hands. The situation led them to a miserable state. To add to this problem, an important business conference was to be held whose main points Mr Frank had discussed with Mr Koophius. The gentleman who had been expected duly arrived, Mr Koophius was not available for the meeting, All this created a very puzzling situation for the members of the families.
2. What arrangements were made for the intellectual enrichment of Anne, Margot and Peter?
Ans. In 1934, Anne first admitted to a Montessori Kindergarten Nursery School and she remained there up to class Vita. In 1941, she went to the Jewish Secondary School with her sister, Margot. The anti-Jewish laws were instituted after 1940 by the Nazis. Jews were forced to wear yellow stars to identify themselves. They were also restricted from going outside at night, visiting Christian homes and attending non-Jewish schools. Mr Kept or was the old moth’s teacher of Anne. He was annoyed with Anne because she charted too much. Anne relates to her Daddy a bit more and describes the reading tasks and experiences of all including Peter and Margot. As time passes, Anne devotes herself to studies and to reading books. She is looking forward to starting a correspondence course in shorthand. Anne continues to study French, Math, History and shorthand. She used to pass her time learning shorthand and reading books, especially that of Greek Mythology. Peter and Margot though not young, yet were sober. Anne was advised to be polite and tolerant like Margot. Margot was brilliant and always scored good marks. Anne points out that Margot and Peter were always allowed to read nearly all the books brought by Mr Koophius in Secret Annexed, while Anne was allowed to read only some. This pinches Anne and so she feels that her parents favour Margot because she is sweet, pretty and intelligent. In this way, sufficient arrangements were made for the intellectual enrichment of Anne, Margot and Peter.
3. Even though they went into hiding, the Frank family maintained a certain standard for themselves. Comment.
Ans. Anne herself confides in Kitty, the diary that no one could guess that there were so many rooms in the ‘Secret Annexed’. There was room to be used as the Frank family’s bed-cum-sitting-room. There was also a study and bedroom for the two young ladies, i.e., Anne herself and her sister, Margot. There was a little room containing the wash-basin and a small W.C. compartment. Anne also adds that one is simply amazed that there could be “such a big-light room in such an old house by the canal.”
Quite impressed by the Annexed destined to be there hiding, Anne goes on adding joyfully that there are a gas stove and a sink in the lightroom. The Annexed also comprises a large attic, the general living room, dining room and scullery. Apart from this, there is the kitchen for the Van Dan couple and a little apartment for Peter Van Dan.
Besides providing his family as comfortable an accommodation as he could in the hiding, Mr Frank also took care that both his daughters were provided with useful and interesting books for their knowledge to be updated on various subjects.
4. A lot of ups and downs can be found in the relationship between both the sisters in `The Diary of a Young Girl’. What can be concluded about them after reading the diary?
Ans. Both Anne and Margot were quite different from each other. Margot was the eldest child of Franks. She was reserved in nature. Unlike Anne, she enjoyed her mother’s confidence. She shared her feelings, thoughts, and ideas with her mother and enjoyed doing so.
Another trait of Margot was that she kept to herself and never interfered with others. She was brilliant and always scored well. Anne diary shows her feeling jealous of Margot more than once.
Anne writes in her diary a number of times that Margot was favoured by all including her parents whereas she was always criticized. Almost everybody found fault with whatever she did. Anne even writes that whenever her father showed his parental affection for Margot, it hurt Anne. She was jealous of her sister.
Besides, Anne admits that Margot was sweet, pretty, and intelligent. No wonder, she was preferred over Anne, by all.
Also, Margot was sensitive to what others felt, and hence was helpful to them, and always tried her best to co-operate with all around. No wonder, she is a lovable child. Even Anne cannot deny this. Anne, on the contrary, is quite rebellious by nature. It makes others shun her. It further intensifies Anne’s jealousy of Margot.
However, Anne loves her sister, Margot. Though she feels jealous of her many times, she cannot think of losing her sister.
5. What similarity and difference do we see in the personalities of the Dan couple?
Ans. There are quite a few similarities and some differences between the personalities of Mt Van Dan and Mrs Van Dan. Both suffer from self-conceit. Both are greedy as well. Mr Van Dan is the first to be served during meals. Besides, he takes a lot of everything, if it is what he likes. As far as Mrs Van Dan is concerned, she must get the best of everything—the tiniest potatoes, the sweetest mouthfuls of food, etc. So, she is no different from her husband in this respect.
Moreover, the Van Dan couple spares no opportunity to comment on the Franks. However, there are some differences between Mr Van Dan and Mrs Van Dan as well. Their attitudes towards war are quite different. The Van Dan couple had seen a red glow through the open window. However, their perceptions differed.
Mr Van Dan thought that there was a fire in the neighbourhood. However, Mrs Van Dan thought that it was their house that was on fire! Mrs Van Dan, as described by Anne, comes out to be more selfish, cunning, calculating, and disagreeable than her husband, Mr Van Dan. Besides, Mr Van Dan is more dignified and seems to have greater integrity of character.
6. Misfortune brought a change in the thinking of the inmates of the Secret Annexed. How did it affect the basic character of even the simple ones? Prove it by giving examples from the diary.
Ans. The inmates of the ‘Secret Annexed’, living in the hiding were in constant of being discovered by the Germans. Their misfortune brought a drastic change in their thinking as well. The basic character of even the simple ones was severely affected.
Anne writes that there were often more unpleasant things than pleasant ones. For example, Mr Koophius was hospitalized for an abdominal operation. Elli had a fit of nerves as she was sent out too often for shopping and running errands, for the Franks and Van Deans had to be in hiding. With Koophius being ill, Elli had to attend to the office work as well. Moreover, Mie being at home with cold, Elli was at her wit’s ends especially as she had a sprained ankle and a grumbling father. The circumstances had been affecting all and that too quite severely.
The unfortunate circumstances have affected all, sparing none. Things turned so bad that talks turned into arguments and quarrels. Anne even started to hate living there. She was often in tears. Relationships turned sour, as everyone was largely depressed and hopeless.
7. How did Anne divert her attention from the disturbances of the house?
Ans. The very first thing that Anne decided to get herself diverted from the disturbances of the house was observing people and recording her thoughts about them in the diary.
Even otherwise, Anne had her own interests and hobbies, which helped her keep herself occupied. She had a flair for writing besides, practising shorthand and reading books. She got books from the library which kept her interest. Then, of the royal families. She began to search for fen, she developed an interest in making family trees of the French, German, Spanish, English, etc. in the newspapers, books and pamphlets she got hold of. This further led her interest into history. She read books on Greek and Roman mythology. On Sunday, Anne devoted her time in looking over her large collection of film stars. Besides, Mr Karle brought the magazine `Cinema and Theatre’ on Mondays.
8. The residents were living in constant fear in the hiding but they did not leave their strong will and indomitable courage to survive. How can you say this?
Ans. When the Frank family and others occupied the ‘Secret Annexed’, little did they think that it would be a long stay for them. Mair strikes, bomb attacks, executions and the like went on, the inmates became somewhat desperate. They remained always in fear about their fate. This led to several constraints for them making little noise, lying in partial/complete darkness, eating whatever little they could procure and the like. Days rolled to months and months to years with a situation outside worsening. The life in the Annexed added with its wretchedness made the residents frustrated. However, Mr Frank always kept his cool. He kept saying that the political situation is optimistic, that the British would win the war. Same was with Mr Dassel. lie stuck to his routine work and kept on proclaiming that it would be impossible that they would be caught by the Germans. Finally, in the month of June in 1944, hope revived within all the members of the ‘Secret Annexed’. It strengthened them. So far, they had put up bravely with all the fears, privations and sufferings. They had proved that other people could cry and give vent to their misery but not them yet. The invasion by the British gave the inmates a feeling that friends were approaching to save them from the oppression of the terrible Germans.
9. What role did Mie and Karle play in the lives of the people dwelling in the hiding?
Ans. Mie Gees was working under Mr Frank. She played a very important role when the Frank family was in hiding. She gave a good moral support — the most needed — for the family Mie brought the family food and visited them frequently. Whenever she came, she brought with her ration coupons for the family. Also, she brought news from the outside world. Her entry brought a fresh air to the family. For Anne, Mie was a good friend to whom she could open up. Mie played also a role in arranging together with Elli, little gifts and surprises on birthdays and festivals.
Mr Karle was one of Mr Frank’s and Mr Van Dan’s business associates. He helped the Frank family during their hiding. He indeed was the one who prepared the ‘Secret Annexed’ as a hiding place. He kept their business running and gave the family moral and psychological support. Anne liked him because he catered to her needs especially when he made it a point to bring one of Anne’s favourite magazines ‘Cinema and Theatre’ which greatly pleased her.
10. What role did the radio play in the lives of the residents of the Secret Annexed?
Ans. ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’ is a compilation of the diary entries of Anne Frank. She has recorded all her feelings at the time when her family was in the hiding, in her diary.
It was Second World War time when being Jews, Frank family had to go into hiding from being caught by the Germans. Being shut from the outside world, the inmates of the Secret Annexed had only the radio for their means of communication with the outside world.
The BBC and German news on the radio helped them get updates of the war-torn world outside. There were the “special air-raid announcements” that alerted people during air attacks. According to Anne, the British were making a non-stop business of their air attacks with the same zest as the Germans were of lying.
The radio started from early in the morning and kept inmates occupied till late in the evening. They had their lunch and dinner during news time. They sat around the radio and discussed food, sleep and politics. After a special news, most of them started arguing which mostly led to discord and quarrels.
As days rolled by, the radio news became the sole reason for changes in the temper of these inmates depressing or raising the hopes of their relief from this wretched life.
11. What kind of changes occurred in the outside world during the war? Explain on the basis of your reading of ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’.
Ans. Anne’s diary was written during the Second World War when Germany seized the Netherlands. The Jews were made to wear a yellow badge to identify themselves. They were executed mercilessly. Many Jew families like the Franks managed to hide from the Germans. Even while in hiding, these families had to face several problems. Life was almost hellish with shortages of food and other essential items. There was restricted movement. Several innocent Jews were killed by German soldiers. The families in hiding lived in constant fear of being found out by the German soldiers. And then there were constant bombardments of German camps in Holland by the British Air Force. The sirens and the bombings were tumultuous for the common people. There was an organization called The Free Netherlands’ that helped the families in hiding, by supplying the essentials to them. However, education of children was affected which could not be compensated. Living in constraints itself proved to be of a great experience to these children in the hiding. Overall, from Anne’s entries, we can understand the varied feelings that run through the inmates – the happiness, the hopefulness, the petty fights, the frights, the desperations, celebrations and so on.
12. Do you think Anne was jealous of her sister Margot? Give reasons to support your answer.
Ans. Margot was the eldest child of Franks. She was reserved in nature. How she differed from Anne, was that she had won her mummy’s confidence, unlike Anne. Margot liked to share her feelings with her mummy.
Another trait of Margot was that she kept to herself and never interfered with other’s matter. She was brilliant and always scored good marks. Being the eldest child, she had the privilege and freedom to read books that she enjoyed. Anne points out that Margot and Peter were always allowed to read nearly all the books brought by Mr Kowhais, while Anne was allowed to read only some. This pinches Anne and so she feels that her parents favour Margot because she is sweet, pretty and intelligent.
Certainly, Margot being sensitive, lovable and helpful tried her best to cooperate with others. Even Anne’s mother openly points out this trait of Margot, whereas Anne’s rebellious nature made people shun her. But Anne only got infuriated with the way others treat Margot. This attitude of Anne clearly shows that she is jealous of Margot. Anne very well knew that for her nature she could never be like Margot who bore silently all the difficulties of life in hiding. This inability of Anne is exhibited in her analysis of Margot’s character. Towards the end. Anne thus acknowledges her admiration for Margot wishing she also could acquire Margot’s goodness.
13. The inmates used to celebrate the birthday of every resident. How did it help them to de-stress themselves?
Ans. One thing that kept the spirits of the inmates of the Secret Annexed alive was their celebration of birthdays. Anne celebrated her twelfth birthday even before she went into hiding. She had a couple of books as gifts for her birthday and it was a memorable one, as afterwards, she had gone to secret Annexed.
In the hiding, Peter’s birthday was celebrated with gifts. On Mrs Frank’s birthday, she got some extra sugar from Karle as a gift. That was a much-needed gift as ration was a treasure for the inmates. Daddy got poems written by Anne, Margot and mummy as gifts. Besides, he got books each from Mr Koophius, Karle and Dassel. They were brought in a big attractive box nicely decorated and contained eggs, beer, yoghurt and a green tie.
Mrs Van Dan’s birthday was celebrated though not in a big way. The inmates managed a little party in her honour with a specially nice meal. Mrs Van Dan also’ got a pot of lamb, coupons of cheese, meat and bread. Her husband presented red carnation flowers as a family tradition.
14. How did Anne feel about her grandmother?
Ans. Anne was very unhappy when she thought about granny and Lies. She felt bad that she understood very little of what granny suffered, and how sweet she had been. Anne was sorry to know how lonely her Granny must have been in spite of them. A person can be lonely even if he is loved by many people because he is still not the “one and only” to anyone. Granny had been very faithful and good and never let anyone down. However, naughty Anne had been, granny always stuck up for her. No one ever talked about themselves to Granny and she had lived a lonely life in spite of all of her family members. Anne admired her granny particularly for a terrible secret that she had carefully kept to herself the whole time. Anne was sorry for she could do nothing for her sweet Granny and she had to live a lonely life, even she had many relatives. None of her relatives turned to her in high time of need but she never complains and passed away silently. This created a hurricane in Anne’s heart and she really felt sorry for her.
15. What tells you that Anne was not a meek girl? Discuss giving examples from ‘Diary of a Young Girl’.
Ans. Anne, the author of the diary presents herself to be an intelligent girl who even at the age of fifteen could be a sensitive thinker. From the beginning of her diary entry till its end, there is a marked change in her perspective of the people and situation around us. From the changes, we can understand Anne herself. She was finding the hiding an adventure at first but then the reality outside changes her opinion. Every time we find her rise up from being the meek girl who could fall into depression into a strong girl. This is because of her optimism about humanity. She accepts their misfortunes which had affected them in every way. Even is she could not attend school, she found other ways to enrich her knowledge. When she was of rations, then also she faced it by eating whatever was available to her. When by Annelid and the fears of war, she wondered if it would be better to die a quick death than to live in a confined, fearful existence. But the next moment, she overcame this pessimism by realizing that she loved her life too much and that she was fortunate to have had the opportunity to evade the Germans.
16. Anne Frank had an acute sense of humour and satire. Discuss.
Ans. Besides, presenting the world around her with all its grimness, Anne ensures that she partakes the humour and satire in them all. She presents humour and satire as a teenager, on both personal and political levels. She points out sarcasm as her mother’s characteristic when she points out to her mother reading “Gentlemen, Wives and Servants.” She also emphasizes on a satirical note that the book could be read by Margot, while she was not allowed to read it. She also makes fun of Van Dan’s uttering when they say “Margot doesn’t need parenting advice as she is naturally, good, kind and clever, perfection itself.” Anne also extends her satirical comments when she writes about the political realm. She calls the Nazis “Fine specimens of humanity, those Germans, and to think I’m actually one of them !” Later, Anne highlights the inverted nature of being human in the world during the Holocaust. She writes, “The wounded seem so proud of their wounds — the more the better”. At the ‘Secret Annexed’, Anne also records the humorous happenings with Mrs Van Dan when Dassel tries to remove her tooth.
17. What made Anne hopeful when the Fascists were overthrown in Italy?
Ans. On the night of July 25, 1943, there was an air raid alarm. Hearing this Anne’s hunger vanished, though it was a nice meal. After air raids, many parts of the city were on fire. Mrs Van Dan was telling Otto Frank that Mussolini had resigned and the King of Italy had taken over the government. Anne called this a ‘wonderful news’ which everyone there was eager to hear for months. People at the ‘Secret Annexed’ jumped with joy, as after a terrible day of air raids, they all had some hope for all bad things to end and hope for peace. The defeat of Fascism actually signalled internal discord and Italy’s surrender was good for the long term of the war. For those at the Secret Annexed, this political situation would mean the end of the war.
18. What tells you that human beings continue to be petty-minded even in the most trying circumstances?
Human beings continue to be petty-minded even in the most trying circumstances. Comment with reference to ‘Diary of a Young Girl’.
Ans. The Franks and Van Deans occupy the ‘Secret Annexed’, in 1942. In the (beginning,20 5- 4AFC 9they ) saw staying there as an adventure. Soon, the individual characteristics of the inmates are brought to light with Anne making entries of her opinions about them based on her observations. Of these inmates, Mrs Van Dan and Mr Dassel turn out to be the most unbearable beings even in the most trying situations. She often fights with her husband and can be rightly called a fatalist who can be petty, egotistical, flirtatious, stingy and disagreeable to everyone. She along with Mr Diesel held the idea that greed was the only way to protect themselves from the horrors of war. In tames, when they had to be united, Mrs Van Dan could be seen irritating others by her talks and attitudes. Mr Van Dan’s pettiness could be seen in his insistence on Mrs Van Dan to sell her fur coat to get his tobacco filling which was almost a ‘luxury’ at the time of crisis. Mr Dassel, a close-minded stubborn person also could be seen as petty. When Anne requested him to allow her to use the little table in their room twice a week, he outrightly refused and even criticized her as poorly brought up.
19. Who was Annelid?
Ans. After more than a year of stay at the ‘Secret Annexed’ and the little hope of getting out of it and the worsening atmosphere outside, Anne was haunted by the war. Her fears, loneliness in the form and insecurities magnify Annelid her school friend. Annelid was one of Anne’s close friends who used to appear in Anne’s dreams several times. She was a symbolic reference to Anne’s guilt. This Jewish girl had been deported to the concentration camps. She haunted Anne as a personification of the nasty war and its after-effects. So, she was always in a rage. Anne felt guilty that she was powerless to help ell Annelid. Anne questioned her own self why Annelid who represented the fate of her friends and companions had to suffer while she been tortured survived in hiding. These children had bee for and murdered by Nazis. Hangnail’s frequent appearance in dreams made Anne turn to God comfort.
20. “I still believe, in spite of everything, at people are truly good at heart”. Define Anne’s character in light of the above statement.
Ans. The novel, The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank ends with the statement, “In spite of everything, I still believe that people e are months good at heart.” These words were found in an entry in her diary dated July 1944, several not before or she perished in a concentration camp. I think Anne felt this way because she was a free-spirited, open-minded person. I think that it is truly sad that she believed everyone, even the people who were out to kill her and her family, to be too good very deep down. She is always looking at the brighter side of things. When she was in the attic, she would always talk about all of the things she would do when she got out and the war will be over. Everyone in the attic would always be so stressed about the problems like the shortage of food, and being quiet. But Anne was different, it was like whatever happened to her she could handle. She used to say when she felt sad, she’d close her eyes and imagine a world with peace. And, it made her feel better.
21. Why did the Nazis target the Jews? What was the Nazi pogrom about?
Ans. On the nights of November 9-10, 1938, the Germans carried out a pogrom (a series of coordinated deadly attacks) against Jews throughout Nazi-occupied Germany and Austria. This was called Kristallnacht, also referred to as the night of Broken Glass. The name comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after Jewish- owned stores, buildings and synagogues had their windows smashed. After the 1940s, the Nazis instituted anti-Jewish laws. The Jews were forced to wear a yellow star as identity. They could not travel on trams and had restricted timings for shopping. They were also restricted from going outside at night, visiting Christian homes and attending non-Jewish schools. Many Jewish families like the Franks went into hiding fearing execution by the Germans. While in hiding, these Jews faced a shortage of food and other essential items. The German soldiers mercilessly killed the Jews that they came across. This situation had a severe on their psyche, like that on those living at the ‘Secret Annexed’. People there exhibited a sense of fear of anxiety, hopelessness and frustration.
22. Describe in brief, the final outcome as depicted in the Afterword’.
Ans. Anne Frank’s diary covers a period of approximately two years, beginning from the mid of June 1942 to August 1944. The diary then ends abruptly. However, there are historical Proofs about the lives of those in the ‘Secret Annexed’.
Of the eight people in the ‘Secret Annexed’ only Anne’s father survived. The Dutch helpers of the inmates managed to live through the War.
On the morning of August 4, 1944, Anne and others in the ‘Secret Annexed’ were captured by the Nazis. They were then sent to concentration camps. Mr Bugler and Mr Kalian were arrested and sent to a prison in Amsterdam. The police took all the money and valuables at the `Secret Annexed’.
Due to the fact that Kalian was ill, he was freed. He lived in Amsterdam until he died in 1959. Bugler escaped and went to live in Canada where he died in 1989.
All other prisoners died in concentration camps. Anne and her sister died of illness at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
Anne’s father was finally taken back to Amsterdam. In 1953 he moved to Switzerland, married again and lived there until his death in 1980. He spent the rest of his life trying to share the message of his daughter’s diary with the rest of the world.
23. The Jews experienced traumatic phases. Describe their psyche during these trying times.
Ans. The Nazis, in November 1938, began a series of attacks on the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied areas, with the objective of wiping out the Jews. Discriminatory restrictions were placed on them by the Nazis, and eventually, they were sent off to concentration camps. The Gestapo ripped apart Jewish families, bullying them, beating them, and marching them to their deaths.
In such times, the Jews lived under a blanket of fear. As we see in Anne’s diary, feelings swung from despair to happiness and despair again. Jews who could manage to do so fled Germany. However, the advancing Nazis pursued with the massacre. Thus the Jews always lived in hiding, fearing for their lives. The foremost emotion in their minds was that of dread —of being discovered, of being sent to concentration camps, of being murdered mercilessly, all for being a Jew. Disappointment, fear, hopelessness and helplessness were the pervading emotions among the Jews. Even today, it is heart-rending to merely read about the Holocaust. It can only be imagined what the Jews actually experienced.
24. Diary is an effective way to learn the events took place during the World War. The Diary of Anne Frank is the best example of it. Discuss to support your answer.
Ans. Certainly, the diary is an effective way to learn the events took place during the World War. This is because it systematically chronicles the events on daily basis. Also, the writer documents the events, its process, causes, impacts and possible remedies with full of honesty, emotions, knowledge and experiences.
The Diary of Anne Frank is undoubtedly the best example of it. It is one of the most honest, wisest and most moving commentaries on war and its moving impact on human beings. It is a collection of honest thoughts and expressions of a young writer living under extraordinary conditions. It documents her experiences especially in hiding during the German occupation of the Netherlands during the Second World War on a daily basis. The diary provides a private expression of her thoughts. She candidly describes her life, her family and companions and their situation very honestly. The humorous way of Anne’s writing in such dangerous circumstances as well as her sensitivity and talent to describe difficult situations and the tragedy of her short life made her diary praiseworthy.
25. What is the plot of Anne Frank’s The Diary of a Young Girl’?
Describe the plot structure of the novel ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’ written by Anne Frank.
Ans. The Diary of a Young Girl’ is a masterpiece of a young girl of 15 years old, Annelids “Anne” Marie Frank. Anne’s original entries are written in three volumes — June 14, 1942 —December 6, 1942, December 22, 1943 — April 27, 1944. It was thought that entries from December 1942 — December 1943 were misplaced. However, this period’s entries were rewritten by her. The third existing notebook contains entries from April 17, 1944 — August 1, 1944. On May 20, 1944, Anne revised, edited and redrafted her diary with the intention of publishing it, thereby it giving its present-day structure, wherein all entries are addressed to her diary ‘Kitty’. It is one of the most honest, wisest and moving commentaries on war and its impact on human beings. Also, it is a collection of honest thoughts and expressions of a young girl living in extraordinary situations. The diary tells us much more about the private side of adolescence and brings us close to Anne’s experience in a humorous way. The diary describes her life from 12 June 1942 until 1 August 1944. It documents her experiences especially in hiding during the German occupation of the Netherlands during the Second World War. It is written in a humorous way, displaying the considerable talent of observation, originality and description.
The diary has been praised for its literary merits also.
26. What made Anne Frank’s diary a piece of the historical record? Why was it considered authentic?
Ans. Anne Frank’s diary is a piece of historical record because it is one of the most honest, wisest and most moving commentaries on the War, and for its impact on human beings. It documents her experiences especially in hiding during the German occupation of the Netherlands during the Second World War in a very chronological order.
The diary was considered authentic and one of the most enduring documents of the 20th century. It describes her life from 12 June 1942 until 1 August 1944. It is a collection of honest thoughts and expressions of a young girl living in extraordinary situations. It is considered authentic as there were indeed, eight people in the Secret Annexed who were arrested by the German secret police. Of the eight, only Anne’s father survived. After her premature and tragic death in 1945, her father, learning from the diary about her ambition to become a writer, compiled the diary, edited it and got it published in 1947. This also made Anne’s diary a piece of historical record.
27. What changes came in Anne’s personality because of her life in the Secret Annexed? What impression does it leave on your mind?
Anne underwent a transition at the Annexed from an obnoxious teenager to a mature girl. Discuss.
Comment on the wonderful and significant transformation of Anne in the Annexed.
Ans. Anne Frank was a girl of self-confidence. She was loving and expressive. She always loved to enjoy freedom, right from her school days. She was a sociable girl. She had many friends — both boys and girls in her school days.
But, the Secret Annexed had changed her personality. The changed condition had made her a little bit demanding. She had to live the rest of her life in a hideout. This had snatched from her the joy of being young and vibrant, which people of her age naturally enjoyed. This also impacted her way of thinking about the things, situations and relationships. In Secret Annexed, Anne was often in low spirits but never in despair. She regarded their hiding as a dangerous adventure, romantic and interesting at the same time. She thought she was young and strong and living a great adventure, God had given her a lot—a happy nature, a great deal of I cheerfulness and strength. She had matured into an independent, optimistic and vibrant young girl who was ready to face the world and also all I its challenges. Her self-correction of her mistakes and desire to progress in life — all leave a lasting impression on the reader, and also reveal her transformation from an unpleasant, stubborn girl to a mature, understanding person.
28. Even during those days, Anne was strictly against gender bias. Elucidate.
Discuss Anne’s view of gender inequality. Elucidate reflecting on Anne’s character trout’s.
Ans. In one of her entries, Anne wonders why women are thought to be inferior to men and express her shock at this ‘injustice’. She talks about a modern woman, the right to be completely independent, and the right of women to be respected as well. She declares that women, who struggle and suffer pain for the continuation of the human race, during childbirth, make courageous soldiers! She goes on to condemn the prevalent value system whereby men do not acknowledge how great and beautiful women’s share in society is. She ends the entry with the prediction of the notion that it’s a woman’s duty to have children, will change and give way to the admiration of all women in appreciation of their capabilities. Anne herself expresses a desire to be a journalist or famous writer, unlike her mother, sister or even Mrs Van Dam who wished to live ‘domesticated lives’.
29. Anne stands out as a girl who never loses her optimism and courage in spite of adverse circumstances. Describe by giving examples.
Ans. From her own entries in the diary, Anne Frank reveals to us much about her character. She is courageous and optimistic, who yearns to be independent. She openly lets out her opinions to her readers. Her optimism is revealed every now and then when she writes about the situation in the ‘Secret Annexed’ as well as the world outside. After they go into the hide-out, she gives herself holidays, which show her relaxing tendency. She finds little change in life at the ‘Secret Annexed’. She also rightly points out that there is no use in grumbling about leaving all nice things behind and staying in the hide-out. Again, she feels that whatever the situation be, she must become good through her own efforts. She tries to improve herself slowly. Though she does not fully approve of Mr Dassel’s presence, she feels that she has to make sacrifices for a good cause. As for the world outside, she feels a void, wicked and frightened about the war front. She, however, has a consolation that there is nothing we can do but wait as calmly as we can till the misery comes to an end. Even the shortages at home, Anne feels, can be overcome! Anne keeps track of all the happenings outside and at one place she declares, “the war goes on just the same whether or not they quarrel, or long for freedom and fresh air; so they should try to make the best of their stay in the hideout.” As things improved by the end of March 1944, Anne feels her life improved, that God will not leave her alone. By the end of June 1944, Anne declares that everything is alright around her and tempers are improving as the super-optimists are triumphing. Finally, she herself agrees that she has lots of courage and has always felt strongly that she can bear a great deal, feel free and young.
30. What according to Anne, can appease Mr Van Dan?
How can Mr Van Dan be appeased?
Ans. Mr Van Dan, the head of the Van Dan family, comes to stay with the Frank family at the ‘Secret Annexed’. From the beginning, we find him keeping to himself somewhat aloof from the rest, except picking up fights with his wife. He exhibits self-centeredness most of the time and feels undisturbed by the condition at the ‘Secret Annexed’. Of course, he cries too much about having to forego so many nice things, being at the ‘Secret Annexed’. As for passing comments on the members of Frank family, he does not miss out a single chance. In her entries, Anne frequently mentions his extensive smoking and eating habits. Cigarettes, potatoes and meat are the things that could appease Mr Van Daan when he is in the blue. When there is a shortage of these things in ‘Secret Annexed’, as the situation worsened outside, and he has not anything to smoke we find him declaring that he is feeling ill, that they don’t live well enough, that he must have meat. He also says that he must “smoke and smoke”, and have enough food; that the political situation or Mrs Van Dan’s moods are not so bad as the scarcity of these in life.
31. Why is it important to develop one’s character?
Ans. In her diary, Anne Frank expresses her emotions and feelings towards others, as well as her opinions about people’s attitudes. As a young girl of twelve, at the beginning of her diary entry, she presents herself to be a courageous girl with free thinking and a little bit of a rebellious attitude. She had always looked upon her father for his guidance. Anne shows herself to be self-proved. She has her own views, plans and ideas and yearns for a companion in whom she can confide. But very often she finds herself concerned by others because of her attitudes. However, at the end of her diary entries, she prides herself for the outstanding trait in her character that is knowledge of herself. As she ponders over this, she finds her “self-consciousness” haunting and condemning her for uttering wrong things in wrong situations. In this context, she also points out that as for upbringing of children, the parents can only give advice and put them on the right paths, but the final forming of a person’s character lies in their own hands. This was what her father had told her long before, that children must look after their own upbringing. So, developing one’s character by analyzing one’s strengths and weaknesses and improving upon them is very important to move along in life. For, no one can influence or interfere with other’s thoughts or feelings, but he/she can act according to what his/her self-conscious tells him/her.
32. After reading the diary entries of Anne, what impression do you form about Mrs Van Dan?
Ans. When Anne comes to know that the Van Deans are going to come to their place for hiding, she feels enthusiastic and cheerful. She looks forward to that arrival, as she feels that there will be “much more fun and not so quiet”, as it is the silence that frightens one who stays in hiding. Soon, Anne finds Mrs Van Dan to be unbearable and unpleasant. Later, through Anne’s other entries we also come to know that Mr Van Dan is moody, self-centred, greedy, dominating and pushing. Very often we find Mrs Van Dan picking up fights with Mrs Frank and commenting about Anne’s upbringing, calling her headstrong, and bad mannered. Perhaps these characteristics of hers may be attributed to her frustration about her stay in the hideout. She keeps complaining about the shortcomings, how she had to leave out nice things at home to come and stay here. This also shows in the frequent unpleasant exchange of words between her and Mr Van Dan. For, Anne also points out elsewhere that she is exceptionally industrious and tidy, that all the while she is healthy in mind and body and cheerful too. But her unpleasant attitude makes Mrs Frank think her to be “too stupid to waste words over” and make Margot feel her as an unimportant figure in the ‘Secret Annexed’, and Mr Frank find her too ugly. According to Anne’s analysis of Mr Van Dan, one can make her give in easily despite all her selfishness, stinginess and underhandedness, as long as one does not irritate her and get on her wrong side.
33. Describe Anne’s relationship with her mother. What made it complex?
Describe Anne’s relationship with her mother as revealed in her diary entries of May 1944.
Ans. Anne’s relationship with her mother was not cordial. She had some differences of opinion with her mother. But Mrs Frank did her all duties as a mother, without any ifs and buts. However, she had a better understanding of Margot, her elder daughter. Though loving and caring, she was misunderstood by Anne, who could never enjoy cordial relations with her. Anne was contemptuous towards her, and her callous attitude only made things worse.
According to Anne, her mother was frightfully irritable and always heralded unpleasantness for her. She further says that she and her mother were the exact opposite in everything. So, they naturally were bound to run up against each other. Her mother’s untidiness, her sarcasm and her lack of sweetness terribly affected Anne. In Anne’s view, her mother’s failings were something she found harder to bear than anything else. Although, Anne always made resolutions not to notice mummy’s bad example and see only the good side of her. Also, Mrs Frank’s attachment to her elder daughter, Margot infuriated Anne. Anne’s indifference pained her, but her lack of tact and Anne’s rigidity led to strained relations.