Short Answer Type Questions-
Qu. 1- How do the heavens ‘blaze forth’ the death of Julius Caesar?
Answer-The heavens sent omens foretelling a major calamity like Calpurnia’s dream of Caesar being murdered, a lioness whelping in the streets, graves opening and dead bodies lying around, warriors fighting upon the clouds, and drizzling blood upon the Capitol, horses neighing, dying men groaning, ghosts shrieking about the streets.
Qu. 2-Why does Calpurnia say Caesar’s ‘wisdom is consumed in confidence‘? What does she mean?
Answer-Calpurnia means that though Caesar is wise, he is over-confident. His wisdom is destroyed by his over-confidence.
Qu. 3- What did Calpurnia dream about Caesar? How did Decius Brutus interpret the dream?
Answer- Calpurnia dreamt she saw Caesar’s statue spout blood like a fountain with a hundred spouts and Romans came smiling and dipped their hands in it. She saw the dream as a warning that danger was imminent. Decius Brutus interprets the dream as a lucky vision. He said it signified that from Caesar Rome shall imbibe fresh life and great men will earnestly desire relics marked with his blood.
Qu. 4-What are the arguments put forward by Decius Brutus to convince Caesar to go to the Capitol?
Answer- Decius flatters Caesar into disregarding the fears of his wife. He says that the senate has decided to offer a crown to Caesar that day and if he does not go they may change their minds and mock him for being afraid. They may say that the senate should be dismissed till Caesar’s wife has better dreams.
Qu. 5-Why is Decius more successful than Calpurnia in persuading Caesar?
Answer-Decius is more successful than Calpurnia in persuading Caesar because he appeals to Caesar’s ambition and vanity. Caesar accompanies the conspirators to the Capitol and to his death.
Qu. 6-What is the petition put before Caesar by the conspirators? How does Caesar respond to it?
Answer-The conspirators want Caesar to recall the order of exile passed against Metellus Cimber’s brother, Publius. Caesar refuses to listen to them and change his mind.
Qu. 7-Who says ‘Et tu, Brute‘? When are these words spoken? Why?
Answer-Caesar says these words just after Brutus stabbed him. Caesar loved Brutus and could not believe Brutus would do such a deed.
Qu. 8- In the moments following Caesar’s death, what do the conspirators proclaim to justify Caesar’s death?
Answer-The conspirators proclaim that they killed Caesar to free Rome of him and to establish democracy ‘Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement!’
Qu. 9-Seeing the body of Caesar, Antony is overcome by grief. What does he say about Caesar?
Answer-Antony is saddened that the great conqueror Caesar is reduced to a dead body lying on a small piece of the ground. He expresses willingness to die at the conspirators’ hands while their hands and weapons are still warm with Caesar’s blood.
Qu. 10-Whom does Antony call ‘the choice and master spirits of this age’? Why?
Answer-Antony calls the conspirators—Brutus, Cassius and the others as ‘the choice and the master spirits of this age’. He is actually mocking them beneath his pretence of flattery.
Qu. 11-How do Brutus and Cassius respond to his speech?
Answer-Brutus tells him not to beg for his death at their hands. He says that he killed Caesar for he loved Rome more than he loved his friend. Cassius, on the other hand, appeals to Antony’s greed and says that he will have a say in the new government.
Qu. 12-Why does Cassius object to allowing Antony to speak at Caesar’s funeral? How does Brutus overcome this objection?
Answer-Cassius fears Antony and his ability as an orator. Brutus says he will speak first and tell the citizens that Antony was speaking with their permission.
Qu. 13-What are the conditions imposed by the conspirators before allowing Antony to speak at Caesar’s funeral?
Answer-While speaking of Caesar’s greatness, Antony must not blame the conspirators for ‘murdering’ Caesar. He must also say that he has been permitted to speak at Caesar’s funeral by the conspirators. Moreover, he must speak from the same pulpit as Brutus.
Qu. 14-When he is left alone with the body of Caesar, what does Antony call Brutus and the others?
Answer-Antony calls the conspirators butchers.
Qu. 15-What prediction does Antony make regarding the future events in Rome?
Answer-Antony predicts that Italy will be cursed as civil war shall break out; bloodshed, destruction and dreadful sights will become so familiar that mothers shall smile when they see their infants killed in war, pity will be destroyed due to foul deeds becoming common. Caesar’s spirit shall roam about for revenge, dead bodies will be lying around rotting and stinking and there will be no one to accord them a decent burial.
Qu. 16-What reasons does Brutus give for murdering Caesar?
Answer-Brutus says that Caesar was ambitious. Brutus loved Rome and the ideals and that Rome stands for more than just Caesar. He loved Caesar but he loved Rome more.
Qu. 17-Who says, ‘Let him be Caesar‘? What light does this throw on the speaker?
Answer-One of the citizens says this after Brutus’ speech. He has not understood the reasons Brutus has given for Caesar’s murder.
Qu. 18-Why is Antony’s speech more effective?
Answer-Brutus’ straightforward appeal to logic and reason versus Antony’s appeal to emotion through the use of irony, sarcasm, reiteration, and figurative language, creating images in the listeners’ minds, is more effective.
Qu. 19-At the end of the scene what is the fate of Brutus and Cassius?
Answer-Brutus and Cassius are attacked by the mob who rush to set fire to their houses.
Qu. 20-Why does Calpurnia urge Caesar not to step out of the house?
Answer-Many bad omens had been witnessed during the night. The watchmen had seen certain strange sights. A lioness had given birth to her young ones in the streets, graves had opened, and ghosts had been heard shrieking in the streets. Fierce battles had been fought in the clouds and the blood of the soldiers had fallen on the Capitol. Calpurnia herself had seen a horrible dream in which she had seen Caesar being murdered and Romans bathing their hands in Caesar’s blood. Frightened by these sights and her dream, Calpurnia urged Caesar to stay at home as these happenings foretold the death of a great person.
Qu. 21-Why does Caesar make the following remark: ‘Cowards die many times before their deaths’?
Answer-Caesar makes the above statement to calm Calpurnia’s fears. Frightened by bad omens and her dream, Calpurnia urged Caesar to stay at home as these omens predicted the death of a great person. Caesar tells Calpurnia that while cowards imagine their death frequently, thus dying in their minds several times over, brave men, refusing to dwell on death, die only once. He cannot understand why men fear death, which must come eventually to all. Caesar maintains that he will not stay at home out of fear.
Qu. 22-How does Decius interpret Calpurnia’s dream about Caesar’s murder?
Answer-Calpurnia in her dream had seen a statue of Caesar spouting blood from a hundred places and many Romans bathing their hands in the blood. Decius told Caesar that Calpurnia had completely misinterpreted her dream. Caesar’s statue gushing blood in many places and Romans bathing hands in it signified that Rome would draw reviving blood from Caesar. Great men would come to obtain tinctures, relics, and other tokens of remembrance from him. Caesar would prove to be a source of inspiration for Rome and his achievements would be the source of renewed vitality for the country.
Qu.23-What arguments does Decius give to convince Caesar to go to the senate?
Answer- Firstly, Decius interprets Calpurnia’s dream in a favourable light to show that Caesar would be the source of inspiration for Rome. From Caesar Rome shall imbibe fresh life and great men will earnestly desire relics marked with his blood. He then tells Caesar that the senate had decided to offer a crown to him that day, and if he did not attend the meeting of the senate, they may change their minds. After listening to these arguments, Caesar dismisses Calpurnia’s fears and decides to go to the senate.
Qu. 24-What was the petition that was put before Caesar? Why?
Answer-Metellus approached Caesar to request that his brother, Publius Camber, who had been banished from Rome, be granted permission to return. The petition had been put forward by the conspirators knowing very well that Caesar would not grant their request as Publius Cimber was banished by lawful decree, and there was no just cause for absolving his guilt. Moreover, Caesar prided himself on being firm on his decisions. Caesar’s refusal would then give them an excuse to assassinate him.
Qu. 25-In what manner does Caesar assert the firmness of his decisions when he rejects Metellus Cimber’s petition in the senate?
Answer-Caesar declares that he is not an ordinary man who is moved by entreaties and appeals. He says that he is as constant as the pole star which has no equal in the sky for its changeless quality. Like the pole star, Caesar too does not change his mind. He tells the conspirators not to try to make him change his mind as he was not like them. If he had been an ordinary mortal, then he would have changed his mind. But nothing that they could say would cause him to deviate from his decision.
Qu. 26-Briefly describe how Caesar was assassinated.
Answer-The conspirators urged Caesar to recall Publius Cimber but he rejected their petition. Casca was the first person to stab Caesar. As Caesar refused to recall Publius Cimber, Casca said, ‘Speak hands for me’ and stabbed Caesar from behind. The other conspirators also stabbed Caesar. When Caesar saw Brutus stab him, he gave up the struggle and saying, ‘Et tu, Brute’ muffled up his face in his mantle and died at the foot of Pompey’s statue.
Qu. 27-Why does Antony ‘shake hands’ with Caesar’s enemies?
Answer-Antony realises that as he is Caesar’s friend, his credit stands on ‘slippery ground’. The conspirators may kill him too, in order to prevent any opposition to their plan. Therefore he meets the conspirators and professes friendship with them. Even while he is shaking hands with them, he knows that he is going to avenge Caesar’s death. He knows that with his ability as an orator he can swing the Roman populace to his side. But to do this he must first be allowed to speak at Caesar’s funeral. Keeping all these reasons in mind, Antony pretends friendship with the conspirators.
Qu. 28-How does Brutus justify the assassination of Caesar when he addresses the mob?
Answer-Brutus tells the Romans that he participated in the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar not because he did not love Caesar but because he loved Rome more than he loved Caesar. He says if Caesar had been allowed to live, the Romans would have been treated like slaves by him. He had assassinated Caesar in their interests. Caesar had to be killed because he was ambitious and every Roman who loved his country and who wanted to live as a free citizen would rejoice at Caesar’s death.
Qu. 29-How does Antony prove to the mob that Caesar was not ambitious?
Answer-Antony tells the mob that Caesar had brought many prisoners to Rome, and the ransom he had obtained for the release of those prisoners had filled the public treasury. This act of Caesar’s showed that he was not ambitious. Furthermore, Caesar had wept whenever the poor people had cried in their distress. This sympathy of Caesar for the poor people showed that he was not ambitious, as ambitious people are hard-hearted. Finally, Caesar had refused the offer of a crown at the feast of Lupercal though Antony had thrice offered the crown to him.
Qu. 30-How does Antony produce in the hearts of the mob a feeling of sympathy for the dead Caesar?
Answer-Antony calls upon the mob to get ready to shed tears and shows them the dead body of Caesar. He shows them the many wounds which had been afflicted upon Caesar’s body. Pointing to the wounds, he shows them the ones made by Cassius, Brutus and Casca. He says that the cut made by Brutus was the unkindest one as Caesar loved Brutus dearly and Brutus had betrayed this love. The Romans are filled with sympathy for Caesar and their eyes fill up with tears.
Qu. 31-Why was the conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar hatched?
Answer-The conspiracy to assassinate Caesar was hatched to prevent him from being crowned the king of Rome. Brutus and Cassius had a grudge against Caesar and they wished to have the power in their hands rather than with Caesar.
Qu. 32-Was Caesar really ambitious? Find evidence from the play to support your answer.
Answer-Caesar was not ambitious at all. He brought many glories and victories to Rome and Romans. He was kind and sympathetic person. He refused the crown thrice. Caesar was very compassionate. Ile understood the plight of the poor. He promised seventy-five drachmas to every Roman.
Qu. 33-What was Cassius’ motive for murdering Julius Caesar?
Answer-Cassius was jealous of Caesar’s growing power and influence. In fact he didn’t wish to see hits 0 the great conqueror of the world. He didn’t want that Caesar should rule the Romans and that is why he wished and murder him.
Qu. 34-Why was it essential for the conspirators to include Brutus in the conspiracy?
Answer- It was essential for the conspirators to give a stamp of legitimacy of their cause of murdering Caesar. Brutus was a man of noble ideas. Also he was very close to Caesar. But he fell to the dirty tricks of the conspirators to join them to kill Caesar.
Qu. 35-What were the mistakes made by Brutus that led to the failure of the conspiracy?
Answer-Brutus allowed Antony to give Caesar a suitable funeral after giving a speech to the people at the Capitol. Second. his utter simplicity and belief in Antony. Third, leaving Antony alone with Caesar’s dead body and mob. Fourth, his not heeding Cassius’s fears in allowing Antony to speak to the people.
Qu. 36-Comment on Caesar’s friendship with Antony.
Answer-Antony was a dear friend of Caesar. He did not agree with Brutus that Caesar was an ambitious person who wanted to rule over Rome. In fact he was ready to lay down his life for Rome. After Brutus speech at Caesar’s funeral, Antony delivers an emotional speech. He tells the mob that Caesar was not at all ambitious. He refused the crown three times. He said that Caesar had left 75 drachmas for every Roman. Antony appealed to the sentiments of the mob and even showed the wounded corpse of Caesar. The mob was so influenced by Antony’s speech that they fumed against the conspirators. Thus Antony showed his affection and respect for Caesar.
Qu. 37-What is the role of Julius Caesar’s ghost in the play, Julius Caesar?
Answer-The ghost ofJulius Caesar appears twice in the play: once before Brutus when he is sleeping in his tent, it stood by his bed side and said nothing. The second time it appears in a battle at Philippi. The ghost appeared in front of Antonius and Octavius. It did not say anything. The purpose of the ghost was to make Brutus realise his mistake. He was carried away by emotions and joined hands with the conspirators. Caesar’s death led to turmoil and unrest in Rome. Brutus is unhappy seeing all this and kills himself with his own sword.
Qu. 38-Why does Antony call Brutus ‘the noblest Roman of them all‘?
Answer-Antony’s comment that Brutus is ‘the noblest Roman of them all’ is laced with sarcasm. Actually he wishes to tell the public that Caesar was not at all ambitious as pointed by Brutus but he does not say this immediately rather he cites instances and instigates audience slowly and logically. Antony is a great orator. He first calls Brutus the noblest Roman in order to gain attention and sympathy of the public. Slowly he tells the public that it was not Caesar’s ambition but Brutus’ personal grudge against Caesar that made him kill Caesar. Thus he is able to avenge his friends’ death as the mob after hearing Antony’s speech turns against the conspirators.
Qu. 39-How do Brutus and Cassius meet their end?
Answer-Brutus wants that their forces should move to Philippi and attack the enemy. Cassius does not agree and leaves alone. On the plains of Philippi, Brutus and Cassius reach with their forces where there are the armies of Octavius and Antony. With the interference of Octavius their wrong doing comes to an end. Then the forces of Cassius and Antony fight in which Antony emerges victorious. Cassius could not accept this defeat and commits suicide. Brutus too is disheartened and kills himself with his own sword.
Qu. 40-Why did Cassius tell Brutus not to allow Antony to speak on Caesar’s funeral?
Answer-Cassius told Brutus not to allow Antony to speak at Caesars funeral because he feared that Antony would use his superb oratorical skills to sway the masses against the conspirators and undo all their plans.
Qu. 41-Why did Caesar’s will infuriate the Romans?
Answer-Caesar’s will intbriated the Romans because the man who had been branded by the conspirators as a tyrannical despot who lusted for power. was revealed as a person who had made all of the Rome. the heirs to his property after his death.
Qu. 42- Why does Calpurnia try to stop Caesar from going to the senate?
Answer-Calpumia tries to stop Caesar from going to the senate. as she was scared that some mishap might happen. She describes her frightening dreams to Caesar and tells him that they indicate a bad omen.
Qu. 43-Now does Brutus convince the Romans that Caesar deserved his death?
Answer : Brutus convinces the Romans that Caesar deserved his death by stating that it was for the of his country rather than his own personal interest. He accuses Caesar of being over ambitious. Moreover, has Speech had a declamatory quality using a language higher than that of the common tongue.
Qu. 44-‘Let him be Caesar.’ What does this line tell us about the attitude of the Roman mob?
Answer-The third ciozen here says that because he misinterprets l3rutus’ intentions for killing Caesar. His faith arouses after Brutus says the powerful words “I have the same dagger for myself, when it shall please my country to need my death.” lie feels that it was good that the ambitious Caesar died and thus, his position could be replaced by the more worthy Brutus. He felt that if Brutus had welfare of the nation in his mind, he didn’t mind Brutus being throned as the new ruler.
Qu.45-Calpurnia sees a frightening dream of Caesar. Describe the dream and explain its implication.
Why did Calpurnia try to stop Caesar from going to the Senate?
Answer-Calpurnia believed in omens and portents. She has seen and heard about strange sights. This superstitions woman had a bad dream about her husband. She saw Caesar being murdered. She dreamt that Caesar’s statue was sprouting forth blood in showers like a fountain with many spouts. Many happy and brave young citizens of Rome came flocking there with smiling faces and washed their hands joyfully in this flowing blood. She feared that the dream was an evil omen and a warning of coming danger to Caesar. She was terrified by unnatural an extraordinary things which she thought portent danger to Caesar’s life.
Qu. 46-Why is Decius Brutus more successful in persuading Caesar than Calpurnia?
How does Decius Brutus persuade Caesar to accompany him to the Senate House?
Answer-Decius Brutus is more successful than Calpurnia in persuading Caesar. He has good oratorical skills, gives a flattering interpretation to Calpurnia’s dream. He also tells Caesar that the senators have planned to other him the crown. If he does not go to the Senate, they might change their minds.
Qu. 47-Give any two reasons that Brutus gave to the citizens to justify the assassination of Caesar.
Answer-After Caesar’s murder Brutus addressed the mob. He told them that Caesar was ambitious. He was a tyrant who deprived Romans of their liberty. He treated them as slaves. So he deserved to be assassinated.
Qu. 48-What did Caesar’s will have for the commoners?
How did Caesar’s will reveal his love for the Romans?
Answer-Caesar’s will was read by Antony. He revealed that all his private harbours and orchards were open to the Roman Public. Caesar had also left 75 drachmas to each Roman.
Qu. 49-How do the heavens predict the death of Caesar the night before his assassination?
Answer-The night was stormy and there was thunder in the air and many unnatural events had taken place. Fiery, fierce warriors fought a regular battle in the sky and blood rained on the Capital.
Qu. 50-What is the purpose of Antony’s speech? Does he succeed in his mission?
Answer-Purpose of Antony’s speech is to rouse the sentiments of the fickle-minded people to take revenge by fighting the conspirators. He gets success as the crowd gets ready for mutiny and rises in revolt to burn the traitors houses.
Qu. 51-On what pretext do the conspirators kill Caesar?
Answer-Julius Caesar had banished Publius Cimber. Metellus Cimber pleaded humbly to repeal his brother’s banishment. Caesar didn’t like it and spurned him like a dog out of his way. He declared himself ‘Constant as the North Star’ clearly telling him that he would not change his decision. Hearing this, Casca stabbed Caesar followed by other conspirators and Brutus.
Qu. 52-Bring out a character sketch of Caesar in ‘Julius Caesar’.
Answer-Caesar was an ambitious man. He declared himself ‘Constant as the North Star’ which clearly depicts the firm-determined personality of Caesar. He believed in superstitions also as he sent his messenger to ask the priest whether he should go to the Senate House or not. But even then he was a fearless and confident man who was murdered by his own friends due to his arrogance.
Qu. 53-Why didn’t Cassius want to allow Antony to speak at Caesar’s funeral?
Answer-Cassius was much more far-sighted and practical than Brutus. He knew that Antony was a clever and tactful person. That’s why he didn’t want him to speak at Caesar’s funeral. He had realised that Antony was a good orator who could move the people against him.
Qu. 54-Antony displays remarkable maturity in the way he befriends the conspirators in order to avenge Caesar’s death. Explain.
Answer-He knows that he will be killed if he stands in direct opposition. He, therefore, befriends the conspirators and wins their trust. He then uses the mob’s anger and feeling of revenge through his emotional speech.
Qu. 55-What is the request made by the conspirators to Julius Caesar before his assassination?
Answer-The conspirators desired that Caesar’s orders banishing Publius Cimber should be revoked and that he be granted freedom of repeal/enfranchisement.
Qu. 56-How did Brutus justify the assassination of Caesar?
Why did Brutus betray his beloved friend Julius Caesar?
Why does Brutus kill Caesar?
Answer-He loved Caesar but he loved Rome more. If Caesar lived, the Romans would have become slaves. Caesar was ambitious so he had to be killed. In the interest of the Romans, Caesar had to be assassinated. rutus loved his country and countrymen more than anything else in the world. He was a true patriot. When the conspirators convinced him that Caesar was over-ambitious, he betrayed him and killed him. According to Brutus, Caesar was very ambitious. He loved Rome more than he loved Caesar. Caesar was likely to treat Romans as slaves. So he murdered him. ‘As he was ambitious, I slew him’ was his reply.
Qu. 56-Why is Antony’s speech more effective than that of Brutus?
Answer-Brutus’ speech is abstract and philosophical whereas Antony’s speech is more effective as he appeals to the basic instincts of the commonmen. These people have assembled in the form of a mob. As Antony is a good speaker, he very cleverly directs his speech towards Caesar’s greatness as a human being using verses and employing all the tricks of rhetoric. He moves, step by step, wins the sympathy of the audience. He comes down the pulpit and stands among the common people, bares Caesar’s wounds and makes them speak for him. Hence, he is able to arouse their basic instinct of revenge against the conspirators by telling them about Caesar’s will, that Caesar has left his everything to them. And the conspirators call him ambitious.
Qu. 57-Why is Decius Brutus successful in taking Caesar to the Senate in spite of Calpurnia’s efforts to prevent him from going ?
Answer-Decius Brutus is successful in persuading Caesar as he is the most trusted friend and a fellow Roman warrior. Caesar is not a coward. When Calpurnia tells him to inform the Senate that Caesar is sick, he decides to go against her wishes as he was too proud. Brutus interprets her dream to his own advantage. Moreover, he tells a lie that the Senate has decided to crown him. His flattery succeeds while Calpumia’s love fails.
Qu. 58-The crowd in Julius Caesar is fickle minded. Comment
Answer-The mob is not rational but impulsive and changeable and if earaged, it is a powerful source of mischief and danger. At first the mob supports Brutus but after hearing Antony they got furious with the senators and indulged in plunder and killing. The mob is vacillating, ignorant and emotional.
Qu. 59-Caesar’s dead body could accomplish what Caesar could not do in his life time.” Discuss the strategic importance of Caesar’s dead body and how it is exploited to the maximum.
Answer-Mark Antony takes full advantage of Caesar’s dead body and exploits this situation to the hilt. Caesar’s dead body emotionally grieves the Romans, his stabs cause them pain. Antony points out the wounds and this physical evidence turns the tide. The Romans psychologically start.
Qu. 60-Give two examples of supernatural elements from the play.
Answer-Calpurnia sees many ill-omens in her dreams. They are mostly supernatural elements used to predict the future. The examples are as follows:
- A lioness lays a litter in a city street.
- Graves opened, the dead walked and there were fierce battles fought in the skies.