Long Walk to Freedom Extra Questions | Board Material

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Nelson Mandela Extra Questions

By Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela  

About the Author- Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela           

Nelson Mandela was a great hero who gave freedom to the blacks in South Africa. He was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata, then a part of South Africa’s Cape province. He fought against the ‘apartheid’ regime of South Africa which believed in racialism. He spent more than thirty years in South Africa’s prisons. He became the first Black President of South Africa when his parts came to power in democratic elections in 1994. This passage forms a part of the autobiography of Nelson Mandela titled Long Walk to Freedom. It is a saga of the glorious struggle that the Blacks of South Africa waged against the apartheid regime to gain freedom.

Plot/ Theme / Central Idea of the Lesson/ Literary Analysis of Nelson Mandela/ Main Idea

The lesson pays tribute to those black heroes and patriots who waged a relentless struggle against the apartheid or the racist regime of South Africa. Here we find a description of the inauguration ceremony held in the Union Buildings attended by politicians and dignitaries from more than 140 countries.

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Nelson Mandela gives a message of peace and unity of mankind. He foresees a new regime which will be based on the equality of men and women. He hopes that in the new regime there will be no exploitation of man by man. There will be no room for racialism and segregation in the new order.

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Summary in English- Nelson Mandela

  1. First Non-Racial Government: It was the 10th of May, 1994. The day was bright and clear. The inauguration ceremony of the first non-racial government was held at the lovely amphitheatre in the Union Buildings in Pretoria. It was the largest gathering of international leaders on South African soil. Politicians and dignitaries from more than 140 countries attended the ceremony. First of all Mr. de Klerk was sworn-in as second Deputy President. Then Thabo Mbeki was sworn-in as the first Deputy President. Then came Mandela’s turn. He was sworn-in as the first black President of South Africa.
  2. Mandela’s speech: Mandela spoke how for decades South Africa was the seat of white supremacy. Now the presence of all people confer glory and hope to newborn liberty. The blacks who were considered as outlaws not so long ago were hosting the nations of the world on their soil. Their victory over ‘apartheid’ was a common victory for justice, peace and human dignity. Political freedom had been won. Now they would work hard to liberate all their people from the bondage of poverty, deprivation and diseases. Never would South Africa again face the oppression of one by another.
  3. impressive Display of jets: Then there was a spectacular display of jets. South African jets and helicopters roared in perfect formation over them in the sky. It was also a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy and to the new government. Then two national anthems were played.
  4. The sense of History: Nelson Mandela was overwhelmed with a sense of history. A few years after the Anglo-Boer war, apartheid was introduced in South Africa. The society based on racial-discrimination was the harshest and most inhuman society in the world. Now a new system based on the equality of all men regardless of their colour and race has replaced the old and cruel system.
  5. The policy of Apartheid: Apartheid created a deep and lasting wound in the people. The decades of exploitation and oppression of the black produced heroes like Tambo’s, Sislus and others. These black heroes were men of extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity. The greatest wealth of South Africa was not in its minerals and diamonds but in men of such great character.
  6. The struggle of Comrades: Nelson Mandela learnt the meaning of courage from such brave comrades. Courage is the victory over fear. These comrades were ready to risk and sacrifice their lives for an idea—the idea of freedom and equality. Even in the darkest prisons their hopes and faith were not broken. They never allowed the flame of struggle to be extinguished.
  7. Twin Responsibilities: Nelson Mandela thought that every man has twin obligations. He has a duty towards his wife and children and an obligation to his people and country. In South Africa, it was impossible for blacks like him to fulfil both those obligations. If any black tried to live like a free human being, he was punished and isolated. He was forced to live an isolated life — away from his family. He was forced to live a life of rebellion and secrecy.
  8. Joining the African National Congress: Mandela realised that not only was he deprived of freedom but his brothers and sisters were also deprived of freedom. That was why he joined the African National Congress. It was his desire for the freedom of his people and their self-respect that totally transformed him from a weak young man to a bold one. A law-abiding lawyer was forced to become an outlaw. He realised that freedom is indivisible. He knew the oppressed must be liberated. The oppressed and the oppressor alike are robbed of their humanity. Both of them must be liberated.

Main Points of the Story

  1. The inauguration ceremony of the first non-racial government was held in the Union Buildings in Pretoria.
  2. Politicians and dignitaries from more than 140 countries attended the ceremony.
  3. Nelson Mandela was then sworn-in as the President of the Republic of South Africa.
  4. For decades South Africa had been the seat for white supremacy.
  5. The blacks were considered as outlaws.
  6. Their victory over ‘apartheid’ was a common victory for justice, peace and freedom.
  7. Nelson Mandela was overwhelmed with a sense of history.
  8. The society based on racial discrimination was the harshest and most inhuman society in the world.
  9. The decades of oppression and exploitation of the blacks produced heroes like Tambo’s, Sisulu and others in South Africa.
  10. Mandela learned the meaning of courage from such brave comrades who were ready to sacrifice their lives for the freedom of their people.
  11. Every man has twin responsibilities —responsibilities towards his family and for his people and country.
  12. If any black tried to live like a free human being, he was punished and isolated from his family and community.
  13. Mandela realised that not only he but his brothers and sisters were deprived of freedom.
  14. His desire for the freedom and dignity of his people made him a rebel.
  15. He realised that freedom is indivisible.

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Extract Based / comprehension test  Questions and Answers of Nelson  Mandela

1. It was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force but a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new government that had been freely and fairly elected. Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and police, their chests bedecked with ribbons and medals from days gone by, saluted me and pledged their loyalty.

(a) What type of government was chosen in South Africa?

(b) How was it chosen?

(c) What do the military generals do?

(d) How has their attitude changed and why?

 Ans. (a) A democratic government was chosen in South Africa.

(b) It was chosen through free and fair elections.

(c) The military generals saluted and pledged their loyalty in front of Mr Mandela.

(d) A few years ago, military generals had arrested Mr Mandela. Their attitude had changed because the country had got freedom from the racial dominations.

2. It was this desire for the freedom of my people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect that animated my life that transformed a frightened young man into a bold one that drove a law-abiding attorney to become a criminal.

(a) What animated the narrator’s/author’s life?

(b) Who is the law-abiding attorney here?

(c) How did `he’ become a criminal?

(d) When and what transformation took place in Mandela?

 Ans. (a) The desire for the freedom of his people’s life changed his life.

(b) Nelson Mandela

(c) `He’ became a criminal according to the then prevalent laws because he was fighting for his people’s freedom.

(d) It was his desire for freedom for all that transformed a frightened young man into a bold one and a law-abiding attorney into a criminal.

3. The ceremonies took place in the lovely sandstone amphitheatre formed by Union Buildings in Pretoria. For decades this had been the seat of white supremacy, and now it was the site of a rainbow gathering of different colours and nations for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government.

(a) Which ceremonies are referred to here?

(b) What does `rainbow gathering mean?

(c) Who led the first non-racial government?

(d) Where did the ceremonies take place?

Ans. (a) Installation of the non-racial government.

(b) Gathering of people from different nations.

(c) Nelson Mandela

(d) The ceremonies took place in the lonely sandstone amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria.

4. On that lovely autumn day, I was accompanied by my daughter Zenani. On the podium, Mr. de Klerk was first sworn in as Second Deputy President. Then Thabo Mbeki was sworn in as First Deputy President. When it was my turn, I pledged to obey and uphold the Constitution and to devote myself to the well-being of its people.

(a) Who is the speaker of these lines?

(b) What oath did the speaker take?

(c) In which capacity did the speaker take the oath?

(d) Where did the oath taking ceremony take place?

Ans. (a) Nelson Mandela.

(b) To obey and uphold the constitution and to devote himself to the well-being of the South Africans.

(c) As the President of South Africa

(d) The oath-taking ceremony took place in the sandstone amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria.

5. Never, never, and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another.

 The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement.

(a) What was the wish for the country?

(b) What does the expression — ‘the sun shall never set here’ — imply?

(c) Which experience of oppression is referred to here?

(d) What is this beautiful land the speaker refers to?

Ans. (a) To remain free for ever and no oppressor to rule on them.

(b) That the sun of liberty shall never set and their country should enjoy freedom.

(c) The black is being oppressed by the white people.

(d) South Africa

6. A few moments later we all lifted our eyes in awe as a spectacular array of South African jets, helicopters and troop carriers roared in perfect formation over the Union Buildings.

(a) What does the expression — ‘a spectacular array’ mean?

(b) Why did the spectators lift their eyes in awe?

(c) What was the occasion of display?

(d) Why did the inauguration ceremony take place in the amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings?

Ans. (a) A colourful, attractive and impressive display of series (of aircraft).

(b) The display was difficult but perfect.

(c) This was the inaugural ceremony of oath taking by the newly elected non-racial South African democratic government.

(d) For decades, this had been the seat of white supremacy. Black people were never allowed in that area.

PASSAGES FOR COMPREHENSION

Passage-1: (Page 17)

Tenth May dawned bright and clear. For the past few days, I had been pleasantly besieged by dignitaries and world leaders who were coming to pay their respects before the inauguration. The inauguration would be the largest gathering ever of international leaders on South African soil.

Word-Meaning: Dawned(here) presented itself, began, Pleasantly—in a pleasant way, Besieged(here) surrounded closely by, Dignitaries—persons of high ranks, high officials their respect—express their honour/respect, Inauguration(here) opening ceremony,

Questions:

(a) What was the special importance of 10 May?

(b) Why had the narrator been busy for the past few days?

(c) What was to be inaugurated on that day?

(d) How was the size of the gathering there?

Answers:

(a) The 10th of May was important because on that day the first democratically elected government of South Africa was to be established.

(b) For the past few days the narrator was busy, in making; the arrangements of receiving world leaders and dignitaries who were coming there.

(c) The first democratic, non-racial government of South Africa was to be installed on that day.

(d) It was the largest ever gathering of international leaders on South African soil.

Passage-2: (Page 17)

The ceremonies took place in the lovely sandstone amphitheatre frowned by the Union Buildings in Pretoria. For decades this had been the seat of wilier supremacy, and now it was the site of a rainbow gathering of different colours and nations for the Installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government.

Word-Meaning: Ceremonies—rituals, ceremonial activities Amphitheatre—around unroofed building,   Decades—a period of ten years, troika—capital of South Africa, Seat—place, White—white people, Supremacy—superiority, Rainbow gathering—gathering of people of different colours, Installation—putting in a new position of authority Non-racial government—government that did not believe in any racial discrimination

Questions:

(a) Where did the ceremonies take place?

(b) What had the place been so far?

(c) What change was brought now?

(d) How was this government different from the previous one?

Answers:

(a) The ceremonies took place in the amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria.

(b) For decades the place had been the seat of white supremacy.

(c) Now a democratic government headed by a black, Nelson Mandela, was going to be sworn in.

 (d) The previous government was run only by the white people following the apartheid policy of racial segregation. The new government was a democratically elected non-racial government.

Passage-3: (Page 18)

Today, all of us do, by our presence here…confer glory and hope to newborn liberty. Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud.

Word-Meaning: Confer—give, Glory—dignity, greatness, Liberty-freedom,

Questions:

(a) What were the people present in the amphitheatre doing?

(b) What was an extraordinary human disaster?

(c) What was the nature of the new society that was taking its birth that day?  

(d) Who are the speaker and the writer of these lines?

Answers:

(a) All of those who were present there were conferring glory and hope to newborn liberty.

(b) The apartheid regime based on racial discrimination and segregation was an extraordinary human disaster.

(c) A new democratic and non-racial society was going to take its birth that day.

(d) Nelson Mandela is the speaker as well as the writer of these lines.

Passage-4: (Page 18)

We, who were outlaws not so long ago, have today been given the rare privilege to be host to the nations of the world on our own soil. We thank all of our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity.

Word-Meaning: Outlaws-bandits, Privilege—special rights, Host—an innkeeper, Distinguished(here) honoured, wain Possession—ownership, Dignity—grace, glory,

Questions:     

(a) Who were outlaws not so long ago?

(b) What privilege have they been given?

(c) Whom does the speaker thank?

(d) What is a common victory for all?

Answers:

(a) The blacks in South Africa were considered as outlaws not so long ago.

 (b) Now, the same blacks have been given the privilege of hosting the nations of the world on their soil.

(c) Nelson Mandela thanks all the international leaders and dignitaries who have come to this inauguration ceremony.

 (d) Getting rid of a racial government and the establishment of a democratically elected non-racial government is a common victory for all the people of the world.

Passage-5: (Page 18)

We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination. Never, never, and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another. The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement. Let freedom reign. God bless Africa!

Word-Meaning: Achieved—got, Emancipation—freedom, fetal Pledge—vow, Liberate–free, Bondage–binding, Deprivation—not getting a thing, Gender—sex, Oppression—cruelty, exploitation Glorious—grand,

Questions:

(a) What have the blacks of South Africa achieve at last?

(b) What do they pledge themselves?

(c) What will this beautiful land never experience again?

 (d) What is a remarkable achievement for the people of South Africa?

Answers:

(a) At last, the blacks of South Africa achieved their political freedom.

(b) They have pledged themselves to liberate the people from poverty, sufferings and other discriminations.

(c) South Africa will never have a racial government again.

(d) The installation of a democratic non-racial government in South Africa is a glorious human achievement.

Passage-6: (Page 19)

On the day of the inauguration, I was overwhelmed with a sense of history. In the first decade of the twentieth century, a few years after the bitter Anglo-Boer war and before my own birth, the white-skinned peoples of South Africa patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination against the dark-skinned peoples of their own land. The structure they created formed the basis of one of the harshest, most inhumane, societies the world has ever known.

Word-Meaning: Overwhelmed(here) filled with emotions, Bitter—sour, White skinned—people of white race, Patched-up—repaired, Erect—built, System—way, Racial domination—domination of one race over the other, Structure—formation, Basis—base, Harshest—most unpleasant, Inhumane—anti-human,

Questions:

(a) Why was Mandela overwhelmed?

(b) What did the white-skinned peoples of South Africa patch up?

(c) What was the structure that they created?

(d) Could Mandela and his people succeed in breaking that structure?

Answers:

(a) Nelson Mandela was overwhelmed as he achieved success in installing a democratic non-racial government in South Africa.

(b) The white skinned people of South Africa patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination against the blacks of their own land.

(c) The system of apartheid or racial segregation was the harshest and most inhumane system in the world.

(d) Yes, the blacks were able to demolish the apartheid regime and succeeded in installing a democratic non-racial government headed by Nelson Mandela.

Passage-7: (Page 20)

That day had come about through the unimaginable sacrifices of thousands of my people, people whose suffering and courage can never be counted or repaid. I felt that day, as I have on so many other days, that I was simply the sum of all those African patriots who had gone before me. That long and the noble line ended and now began again with me. I was pained that I was not able to thank them and that they were not able to see what their sacrifices had wrought.

Word-Meaning: Unimaginable—beyond imagination, Sacrifices—voluntarily laying down of life, Counted—to count numbers, Repaid—to pay the debt, Patriots—loyal to the nation, Noble—a very good person, Wrought—resulted,

Questions:

(a) How did that glorious day come about?

(b) Can their sufferings be repaid?

(c) Why does Mandela consider himself to be the sum of all African patriots?

(d) Could they see the fruit of their sacrifices?

Answers:

(a) The glorious day of the installation of a non-racial government in South Africa come about through the struggles and sacrifices of thousands of people. – – –

 (b) No, their struggles, sacrifices and sufferings can never be counted or repaid.

(c) Mandela acknowledges the struggles and sacrifices of thousands of black patriots against the apartheid. He himself only carried forward the batons.

(d) No, many of those great patriots who struggled and sacrificed died before seeing the fruit of their sacrifices.

Passage-8: (Pages 20 & 21)

The policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound in my country and my people. All of us will spend many years, if not generations, recovering from that profound hurt. But the decades of oppression and brutality had another, unintended effect, and that was that it produced the Oliver Tambos, the Walter Sisulu, the Chief Luthuli’s, the Yusuf Dadoos, the Bram Fishers, the Robert Sobukwes of our time — men of such extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity that their like may never be known again.

Word-Meaning: Apartheid—the policy of segregation based on race and colour, Generations—people of the same period, Recovering(here) healing, Profound—deep, Hurt—wound, Brutality—cruelty, Unintended—not contemplated, Generosity—kindness,

Questions:

(a) What did the policy of apartheid create?

(b) What was the effect of decades of oppression and brutality?

(c) What kind of men were they?

(d) What do these lines show about Mandela’s character?

Answers:

(a) The policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound in the blacks of South Africa.

(b) The decades of oppression and brutality produced many brave and fearless patriots like Tambos, Sisulus, Dadoos, Fishers and Sobukwes of their time.

(c) They were men of extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity.

(d) These lines show that Mandela was grateful to those patriots and heroes who fought against the apartheid in the past.

Passage-9: (Page 21)

Perhaps it requires such depths of oppression to create such heights of character. My country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil, but I have always known that its greatest wealth is its people, finer and truer than the purest diamonds.

Word-Meaning: Minerals—elements dug from the earth,

Questions:

 (a) What does it require to produce men of such high characters?

(b) What is South Africa rich in?

(c) What has Mandela always known?

(d) What trait of Mandela’s character is reflected here?

Answers:

(a) Only great depths of oppression and torture can create patriots of such high characters.

(b) South Africa is rich in minerals and gems.

 (c) Mandela has always known that the greatest wealth of a nation is its people and not its diamonds.

(d) Mandela values patriotism and love for its people higher even than the diamonds.

Passage-10: (Page 21)

It is from these comrades in the struggle that I learned the meaning of courage. Time and again, I have seen men and women risk and give their lives for an idea. I have seen men stand up to attacks and torture without breaking, showing strength and resilience that defies the imagination. I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumphs over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.

Word-Meaning: Comrades—friends/associates, Risk—put to danger, Stand up—face, Torture—bodily pain, Resilience—ability to recover, Defies—disobeys, Triumphs—victory, Conquer—to win,

Questions:

(a) Who does ‘these comrades’ refer to here?

(b) What defines the imagination?

(c) Is courage the absence of fear?

(d) Who is a real brave man?     

Answers:

(a) ‘These comrades’ refers to the men of extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity like Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu, Chief Luthuli, Yusuf Dodoo and so on.

(b) It defies the imagination of how those patriots could withstand so much oppression and brutality without being broken.

(c) No, courage is not the absence of fear but the triumph over it.

(d) A real brave man is he who conquers his fear.

 Passage-11: (Page 21)

No one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite. Even in the grimmest times in prison, when my comrades and I were pushed to our limits, I would see a glimmer of humanity in one of the guards, perhaps just for a second, but it was enough to reassure me and keep me going. Man’s goodness is a flame that can be hidden but never extinguished.

Word-Meaning: Background(here) life-history, Grimmest(here) darkest, cruellest Pushed to our limits—forced to face limitless tortures, Glimmer—a faint light, Reassure—to give assurance, Flame—a blaze of fire, Extinguished—blown out,

Questions:

(a) Is hating another person because of his colour, background or religion instinctive nature of humans?

(b) What can people learn if they can learn to hate?

(c) What comes naturally to the human heart: love or hate?

(d) How does the guard show a sign of humanity to Mandela when he was in prison?

Answers:

(a) No, no one is born hating another person because of his colour, background or religion.

(b) If people can learn to hate, they can also learn to love one another.

(c) Love comes naturally to the human heart than hatred.

(d) When Mandela was in prison, one of the guards encouraged him to keep on his struggle and one day he would achieve success.

Passage-12: (Pages 21 & 22)

In life, every man has twin obligations — obligations to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children; and he has an obligation to his people, his community, his country. In a civil and humane society, each man is able to fulfil those obligations according to his own inclinations and abilities. But in a country like South Africa, it was almost impossible for a man of my birth and colour to fulfil both of those obligations. In South Africa, a man of colour who attempted to live as a human being was punished and isolated.

Word-Meaning: Twin—two Obligations—duty, Community—society (local), Inclinations—liking, Attempted—tried,

Questions:

(a) What are the twin obligations of every man?

(b) Is it possible in South Africa for a man of Nelson Mandela’s colour and birth to fulfil both the obligations?

(c) Why do you think Mandela was not living in a humane society?

(d) Why were the blacks treated so badly in South Africa?

Answers:

(a) Every man has to fulfil two obligations. He has to do his duty to his family and children and he has a duty to his people and country.

(b) No, it is not possible for a man of Nelson Mandela’s birth and colour to live as a human being.

(c) Mandela was living in a society where the Blacks were treated badly.

(d) The blacks were treated so badly in South Africa because it was ruled by the apartheid regime based on racial discrimination.

Passage-13: (Page 22)

I was not born with a hunger to be free. I was born free — free in every way that I could know. Free to run in the fields near my mother’s hut, free to swim in the clear stream that ran through my village, free to roast mealiest under the stars and ride the broad backs of slow-moving bulls. As long as I obeyed my father and abided by the customs of my tribe, I was not troubled by the laws of man or God.

Word-Meaning: Roast—roast on fire, Mealiest—maze corn, Abide by—obeyed, Customs—rituals,

Questions:

(a) Was Mandela indeed ‘free in every way’ in his childhood?

(b) How was he free in his childhood?

(c) Was he troubled by the laws of man or God when he was a child?

 (d) Did his concept of freedom remain the same when he grew up?

Answers:

(a) No, Nelson Mandela was not free in every way even in his childhood. He had to abide by the custom of his tribe.

(b) He was free to run in the fields, free to swim and free to ride on the backs of slow-moving bulls.

(c) No, as a child he was not troubled by the laws of man or God as long as he obeyed his father and followed the customs of his tribe.

(d) No, Nelson Mandela’s concept of personal freedom was broadened into the freedom of his people and race.

Passage-14: (Page 22)

It was only when I began to learn that my boyhood freedom was an illusion when I discovered as a young man that my freedom had already been taken from me, that I began to hunger for it. At first, as a student, I wanted freedom only for myself, the transitory freedoms of being able to stay out at night, read what I pleased and go where I chose. Later, as a young man in Johannesburg, I yearned for the basic and honourable freedoms of achieving my potential, of earning my keep, of marrying and having a family — the freedom not to be obstructed in a lawful life.

Word-Meaning: Illusion—false idea or belief, Transitory(here) temporary, Potential—capacity, Obstructed—restricted,

Questions:

 (a) How was his childhood freedom only an illusion?

(b) When did Mandela begin to hunger for freedom?

(c) What were transitory freedoms?

(d) What did he yearn for as a young man in Johannesburg?

Answers:

(a) In his childhood he could move in the fields near his huts, free to swim in the clear stream, etc. but all their activities were restricted ones by his parents as per the existing law and order.

(b) Only when he realised that his freedom had already been taken from him, he began to hunger for freedom.

(c) Transitory freedoms consisted of being able to stay out at night, read as pleased or go anywhere.

(d) As a young man in Johannesburg, he yearned for freedom of achieving his freedom, earning, marrying and having a family.

Passage-15: (Pages 22 & 23)

But then I slowly saw that not only was I not free, but my brothers and sisters were also not free. I saw that it was not just my freedom that was curtailed, but the freedom of everyone who looked like I did. That is when I joined the African National Congress, and that is when the hunger for my own freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom of my people. It was this desire for the freedom of my people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect that animated my life, that transformed a frightened young man into a bold one, that drove a law-abiding attorney to become a criminal, that turned a family-loving husband into a man without a home, that forced a life-loving man to live like a monk.

Word-Meaning: Curtailed—limited, cut shot Animated(here) inspired, Transformed—changed, Frightened—full of fear, Bold—brave, fearless, Drove—took, Attorney—a lawyer, Criminal—one who commits crimes, Monk—one who lives like a saint,

Questions:

 (a) What were the Blacks discriminated against?

(b) When did Mandela’s hunger for freedom become the greater hunger for the freedom of his people?

(c) What transformed the life of a frightened young lawyer to become a bold criminal?

(d) Did Mandela want to live like a monk?

 Answers:

 (a) The Blacks were discriminated against in political and economic freedom.

(b) When he joined the African National Congress then Mandela’s hunger for freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom of his people.

(c) The strong desire for the freedom of his people to live their lives with dignity and self -respect transformed a frightened young lawyer to become a bold criminal.

(d) No, Mandela wanted to be a family loving husband.

Passage-16: (Page 23)

I am no more virtuous or self-sacrificing than the next man, but I found that I could not even enjoy the poor and limited freedoms I was allowed when I knew my people were not free. Freedom is indivisible; the chains on any one of my people were the chains on all of them, the chains on all of my people were the chains on me.

Word-Meaning: Virtuous – a sacred person, Indivisible—which can’t be divided, Chains- bondage,

Questions:

(a) Does Mandela think of himself more virtuous than others?

(b) Why couldn’t he enjoy even the limited freedoms he was allowed?

(c) Is freedom divisible?

(d) What did the chains on all of his people mean to Mandela?

Answers:

(a) No, Mandela didn’t think himself more virtuous or self-sacrificing than any of his people.

(b) He couldn’t enjoy the limited freedoms he was allowed because he felt that his people were not free.

(c) No, freedom is not divisible.

(d) The chains on all of his people meant chains on himself for Nelson Mandela.

Passage-17: (Page 23)

I knew that the oppressor must be liberated just as surely as the oppressed. A man who takes away another man’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred; he is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrow-mindedness. I am not truly free I am taking away someone else’s freedom, just as surely as I am not free when my freedom is taken from me. The oppressed and the oppressor alike are robbed of their humanity.

Word-Meaning: Oppressor-one who oppresses, Liberated—freed from, Bars(here) prison bars,  Prejudice—ill-feeling Robbed—stolen,

Questions:

(a) Should the oppressor be liberated?

(b) Who is a prisoner of hatred?

 (c) When are we not truly free?

 (d) How are the oppressed and the oppressor robbed alike?

Answers:

(a) Yes, even the oppressor should be liberated like the oppressed.

(b) A person who takes away another man’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred.

(c) We are not truly free if we are taking away someone else’s freedom.

(d) The oppressed and the oppressor both are robbed of their humanity alike.

Main Characters of the Story- Nelson  Mandela

Character Sketch

Nelson Mandela: Nelson Mandela was the tallest of all the black heroes who waged a relentless fight against the racial-regime in South Africa. He suffered untold sufferings and tortures in prison but led the country to install the first democratically elected government in South Africa.

He is grateful in acknowledging the unimaginable sacrifices of thousands of black heroes for the freedom of their people.

He had a wider vision of humanity. For him, freedom was comprehensive and couldn’t be divided.

Short Answer Type Important Questions

Answer the following questions in 30-40 words:

1. What unintended effect was produced by decades of oppression?

Ans. The decades of oppression made him a strong person. He set out the goal to liberate the people of South Africa from continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering and other discrimination. He decided to have freedom and justice for all.

2. What pained Nelson Mandela on becoming the President of South Africa?

Ans. Nelson Mandela was sad for not able to thank those African patriots who had fought for independence and sacrificed their lives for it. This pained him that they were not able to see what their sacrifices had brought.

3. When did Mandela’s hunger for self-turn into a hunger for freedom for all his people?

Ans. Mandela gradually realized that freedom was curtailed for those people who looked like he did, but not for the whites. Consequently, he joined the African National Congress, and that was when his “hunger for freedom” became a “greater hunger.”

4. Why is 10th May 1994 important for South Africa?

Ans. 10th May 1994 is important for South Africa because first democratic non-racial government elections were held on this day in the country. Nelson Mandela became the first black president of the country.

5. What ideals does Mandela set out for the future of South Africa in his speech?

Ans. The ideal Mandela set out for the future of South Africa in his speech was to liberate the people of South Africa from continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discriminations.

6. What did Nelson Mandela pledge when he was sworn in as President?

Ans. Nelson Mandela pledged to uphold the Constitution of his country and devote him to liberate his people from the bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discriminations. There would be freedom and justice for all.

7. What did Nelson Mandela remember on the day of the Inaugural Ceremony?

Ans. He remembered the history — the birth Apartheid, its effect on his people and long fight for freedom. He remembered the freedom fighters that suffered and sacrificed for freedom. He also remembered what freedom meant to him at different stages of life and his hunger for freedom.

  1. Why was the 10th of May, 1994 a red letter day in the history of South Africa?

Ans. 10th of May, 1994 was a red-letter day in the history of South Africa. It was the day when the hated regime of apartheid came to an end. A new democratically elected non-racial government under Nelson Mandela was to be sworn in. Many international leaders and dignities came to pay their respect to the new government.

  1. Where did the ceremonies take place? What had it been for decades?

Ans. The ceremonies of the inauguration of the new government took place at the lovely sandstone amphitheatre in the Union Buildings in Pretoria. The same place had remained the seat of white supremacy for decades.

  1. How was that site a rainbow gathering of different colours and nations?

Ans. The end of the apartheid regime was a common victory for peace, justice and human dignity. Leaders and dignitaries of all nations irrespective of their colour, race and religion had gathered there to celebrate that victory. So, the site presented a rainbow gathering of different colours and nations.

  1. Who were the persons sworn in on the 10th of May? What did Mandela pledge to obey?

Ans. Mr. de Klerk was first sworn in as second Deputy President. Then Thabo Mbeki was sworn in as first Deputy President. Then, in the end, Mr Nelson Mandela was sworn in as the President of the Republic of South Africa. He pledged to obey and uphold the constitution and devote himself to the well being of the Republic and its people.

  1. What was born out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster? Why should humanity be proud of it?

Ans. The apartheid regime was an extraordinary human disaster for the blacks of South Africa. The end of the apartheid laid down the foundation of a non-racial democratic regime in South Africa. This government based on human equality and dignity would be an ideal one of which all humanity would be proud.

13. Who was given the rare privilege to be host to the nations of the world on their own soil?

Ans. Those who were outlaws not so long ago were given the rare privilege. They had the privilege of hosting and welcoming nations of the world on their soul. The blacks were no more outlaws now but enjoyed equality and human dignity.

  1. After achieving political emancipation what does Mandela want to do in South Africa?

Ans. South Africa and the blacks have achieved their political emancipation. Mandela pledges to liberate all his people from the bondage of poverty, want, suffering, gender and other discriminations. South Africa will never ever experience the oppression of one by another. He wishes the reign of freedom will never die in South Africa.

  1. What did the display of jets and military salute symbolise?

Ans. There was a spectacular show of South African jets and troop carriers over the Union Buildings. The highest generals of the military and police saluted President Mandela. It was a clear demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a free and fairly elected government.

  1. Why did the same generals salute Mandela who would have arrested him not so many years ago?

Ans. In the apartheid regime, Nelson Mandela was a rebel and was in prison for many years. After the end of the apartheid, he was the head of the non-racial democratically elected government of South Africa. The same generals who would have put him in prison not so long ago were obliged to salute the president of the new Republic of South Africa.

  1. What did the playing of two national anthems symbolise?

Ans. On the historic day of the inauguration ceremony of the Republic of South Africa, two national anthems were played. The whites song `Nkosi Sikelel-i-Africa’ and the black sang ‘Die Stem’. Neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem they once despised. They would soon know the words by heart.

  1. Why was Mandela overwhelmed with a sense of history and what bad thing happened in the first decade of the 10th century?

Ans. Mandela is overwhelmed with a sense of history and remembers when the hated apartheid policy was introduced in South Africa. After the Boer war, the white people of South Africa patched up their differences. They set up a system of racial domination against the black people of their own race.

19. Why was the apartheid regime in South Africa was one of the harshest and most inhuman systems in the world?

Ans. The apartheid regime was based on the racial discrimination and exploitation of blacks in South Africa. The basic or fundamental rights were only for the whites and the blacks were deprived of these freedoms. Oppression, torture and exploitation of the blacks were common features of the apartheid regime.

  1. Why does Nelson Mandela call himself simply the sum of those African patriots who had gone before him?

Ans. Nelson Mandela gratefully acknowledges the sacrifices of thousands of his people who fought against the apartheid regime. Their suffering and courage can never be cemented or repaid. Mandela humbly believes that he was simply the sum of all those African patriots who had gone before him.

  1. How did the policy of apartheid create a deep and lasting wound in South African blacks?

Ans. No doubt, the policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound in South Africa and the blacks. It would take many years to recover from that profound hurt. The racial discrimination unleashed a reign of terror, oppression and brutality on the blacks of South Africa.

22. How did the policy of apartheid and deep oppression produce patriots of extraordinary, courage, wisdom and generosity?

Ans. The policy of apartheid unleashed a reign of terror and oppression on the black people but they could not break their resolution and determination. The deep oppression produced patriot of extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity. It produced thousands of Tambos, Sisulus, Sadoos, Fischer’s and Sobukwes of their time.

Q23. What is the greatest wealth of a country according to Nelson Mandela?

Ans. South Africa is rich in the minerals and gems. But minerals and gems are not the greatest wealth of a nation. Mandela thinks that the greatest and real wealth of a nation is its people. They are finer and truer than the purest diamonds.

24. How does Mandela define courage and from where did he learn the meaning of courage?

Ans. Nelson Mandela learnt the meaning of courage from great patriots and comrades in the struggle. They risked their lives and stood up to attacks and tortures of the apartheid regime. He learned that courage was not the absence of fear but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who doesn’t feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.

  1. How can people be taught to love? Which comes naturally to human heart — love or hate?

Ans. No one is born hating another person because of his colour or race. People are taught to hate. And if they learn to hate, they can be taught to love. Love comes more naturally to the human heart than hatred.

26. What are the twin obligations every man has in life?

Ans. Mandela thinks that every man has twin obligations in life. The first is his obligation to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children. The second duty is his duty to his people, his community and his country. Each man has to fulfil these two obligations according to his position and abilities.

27. Why was it impossible for a man of Mandela’s birth and colour to fulfil the twin obligations?

Ans. In South Africa, no black could fulfil the twin obligations. If a black who tried to live as a human being was punished and isolated. A person who tried to fulfil his duty to his people was separated from his family and was forced to live in secrecy and rebellion.

28. Was Mandela born with a hunger to be free? What did freedom mean to him in childhood?

Ans. Nelson Mandela was not born with a hunger to be free. In childhood, freedom has a very limited concept. He felt that he was free to run in the fields, free to swim in the stream near his village and ride the broad backs of slow-moving bulls. As long as he obeyed his father and the customs of his life, he was a free man.

  1. What were the transitory freedoms that Nelson Mandela yearned for as a young man? Why did he feel that his boyhood freedom was an illusion?

Ans. Nelson Mandela felt that his boyhood freedom was an illusion. His freedom had already been taken from him. Then he began to hunger for it. At first, he wished the transitory freedoms of staying out. Later on, he yearned for basic needs of earning, marrying and having a family.

  1. When and how did Mandela’s hunger for his own freedom become the greater hunger for the freedom of his people?

Ans. Mandela realised that not only was he not free, but his people were not free. When he joined the African National Congress, then his hunger for his own freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom of his people.

  1. What, according to Mandela, is ‘true freedom’?

Ans. When Mandela was a boy, freedom for him meant to run freely in the fields and to swim in the streams. As a young man, he wanted basic and honourable freedoms, e.g. to earn his living, too many and to have a family. According to Mandela, true freedom means freedom not to be obstructed in leading a lawful life.

32. What animated Mandela’s life and transformed a frightened young lawyer into a bold criminal?

Ans. It was the desire for the freedom of his people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect that animated his life. It transformed a frightened young man into a bold one. It drove a law-abiding attorney to be a criminal. It turned a family loving husband to live like a monk.

33. Freedom is “indivisible”, said Mandela. How were the chains on anyone were the chains on all of his people?

 Ans. Mandela thought that he is not more virtuous than the others. He thought that “freedom is indivisible”. The chains on any one of his people were chains on all of them. The chains on all of his people were the chains on him.

  1. Why did Nelson Mandela feel that both the oppressor and the oppressed are robbed of their humanity and hence, both of them must be liberated?

Ans. Nelson Mandela rightly believes that both the oppressor and the oppressed are robbed of their humanity. A man who takes away another’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred. He is locked behind the bars of prejudice and hate. A person can never be free if his freedom is taken away. Hence, the oppressed and the oppressor alike are robbed of their humanity.

Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each

Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:

1. Nelson Mandela in his inaugural speech used these two words ‘an extraordinary human disaster’ and so ‘glorious a human achievement’. What did he mean by that?

Ans. The extraordinary disaster was the rule of Apartheid in South Africa. This disaster of racial discrimination brought oppression, deprivation, cruelty and suffering for the black people of South Africa. Blacks were not allowed to visit the places reserved for the whites. They led a life of humiliation.

At last on 10 May 1994, after more than three centuries of white rule, Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress Party won the elections. Nelson Mandela became the first black President of South Africa. The coming into power of non-racial government was a glorious human achievement.

2. What were the difficulties faced by Nelson Mandela in achieving freedom for his people?

Ans. In his endeavour to get freedom for his countrymen from the rule of Apartheid, Nelson Mandela had to undergo many hardships and suffered a lot. This great patriot had to sacrifice the comfort of his home and loving family. He was declared an outlaw for demanding equality for all his fellow black Africans. He was punished, isolated and put into jail. He and his comrades were oppressed and tortured beyond tolerance. He suffered hunger, oppression and injustice but kept the flame of independence burning in his heart. His undaunted courage, persistent struggle and unparallel sacrifice bore fruit and South Africa got freedom from the rule of Apartheid on 10 May 1994.

3. Give the character-sketch of Nelson Mandela.

Ans. Nelson Mandela is a great patriot. He loves his country and countrymen. For him, the greatest wealth of South Africa is her people.

He has a sacrificing nature. He sacrificed his life of comfort, family and home and plunged into the struggle for freedom. He believes in equality for all. He opposed the rule of Apartheid for which he was declared an outlaw. He was oppressed and tortured in jail for several years but he never broke. It shows his traits of tolerance, courage and perseverance.

4. What different concepts of freedom did Mandela have at different stages of his life?

Or

 How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?

Ans. Mandela had different concepts of freedom at different stages of life. As a boy, he had an illusion about freedom. He thought he was born free. As long he obeyed his elders he had the freedom to run in the fields swim in the stream and ride on the back of bulls.

As a student he cared for transitory freedom — freedom to stay out at night, read the books of his choice and go where he liked.

When he became a young man he yearned for basic and honourable freedoms of achieving his potential, earning his keep, marrying, having a family and living a lawful life.

Slowly his concept of freedom widened especially when he joined the African National Congress. He realized that true freedom is not individual freedom but freedom for all.

  1. The inauguration ceremony symbolised a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity against the most hated apartheid regime based on racial discrimination. Comment.

Ans. The inauguration ceremony of the installation of a democratically elected government in South Africa was of great historical importance. After the Boer war, the white ‘peoples’, patched up their differences. They imposed the domination of the whites through the apartheid based on racial discrimination. The inauguration ceremony attracted worldwide recognition. International leaders and dignitaries from more than 140 countries assembled at the amphitheatre in the Union Buildings in Pretoria. The whole world hailed it as a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity. The grand struggle of the black patriots against the most hated regime of apartheid succeeded. There was a spectacular display of jets and the salute by the bedecked generals with ribbons to President Mandela. It showed the military’s loyalty to democracy. The playing of the two national anthems symbolised a new regime based on equality irrespective of race and colour.

  1. Why was Nelson Mandela overwhelmed with a sense of history? Give the birth and finally the burial of the apartheid regime in South Africa.

Ans. On the day of the inauguration of the Republic, Nelson Mandela was overwhelmed with a sense of history. It was quite natural for a man who taught against the hated regime for decades. After the Boer war, the white groups patched up their differences. They imposed the domination of the whites over the majority population of South Africa. The birth of the apartheid was the birth of one of the harshest and inhumane regimes in the world. It was based on racial discrimination and oppression. Deep oppression and atrocities produced thousands of black patriots who were ready to sacrifice their lives for the freedom of their fellow men. The determined struggle of these black heroes ended in their victory. A democratically elected government headed by President Nelson Mandela was installed on the 10th of May, 1994.

7. The apartheid regime, the whites created in South Africa, was one of the harshest and most inhumane societies the world has ever known. Elucidate.

Ans. The apartheid regime symbolised oppression, exploitation and an extraordinary human disaster. The white regime was based on racial discrimination. The blacks in South Africa were deprived of their rights, equality and human dignity. After the Boer war, the white groups in South Africa patched up their differences. They imposed a system of racial discrimination against the black people of their own land. It was one of the harshest and most inhumane regimes the world has ever known. The policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound in South Africa and its people. Thousands of black patriots sacrificed their lives fighting for the rights and freedom of their people. Thousands of Tambos, Sisulus, Dads, Fishers and Sobukwes suffered deep oppression and tortures but never gave up their cause. Ultimately, their struggles and sacrifices led the blacks to victory under Nelson Mandela. Their victory was a common victory of humanity, for peace, for justice and for human dignity.

  1. Which twin obligations does Nelson Mandela mention in the lesson? Why were he and the rest of blacks able to fulfil those obligations?

Ans. Nelson Mandela that every man has twin obligations in life. The first obligation of a man is to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children. He has another obligation also. He has an obligation to his people, his community and his country. Every man is to do his duty according to his situation and strength. But in South Africa, it was impossible for a man like Mandela or other blacks to fulfil those obligations. If a man tried to live as a human being, he was punished and isolated. If any person in South Africa tried to do his duty to his people, he was forcefully separated from his family and his home. He was forced to lead a life of secrecy and rebellion. Nelson Mandela placed his people above his family. In attempting to serve his people, he was prevented from fulfilling his obligations as a son, a brother, a father and a husband.

  1. How was Mandela’s concept of freedom was different in boyhood and youth than what it was in his mature age? How were ‘transitory freedoms’ changed into his hunger for the freedom of his people?

Ans. Nelson Mandela was not born with a hunger to be free. In his boyhood, he felt free until he obeyed his father and tribe. The concept of freedom was limited only to run in fields, swim in the local stream and ride on the slow-moving bulls. When he was a youth, he realised that his boyhood freedom was an illusion. His freedom had already taken away from him. He yearned to enjoy ‘transitory freedoms’ like staying out at night, reading and going anywhere as he pleased. When he joined the African National Congress, only then his own freedom became the greater hunger for his people. He desired that his people should live their lives with dignity and self-respect. This hunger for freedom forced him to be a rebel and live in secrecy away from his family.

  1. Why does Mandela say that freedom is indivisible? How are the oppressed and the oppressor alike are robbed of their humanity?

Ans. Nelson Mandela believes that freedom is indivisible. His hunger for his own freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom of his people. He couldn’t live his life with dignity and self-respect if his own people were bound in chains. The chains on any one of his people were the chains on all of them. The chains on all of his people were the chains on him. Mandela realised that the oppressor must be liberated as surely as the oppressed. A man who takes away another’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred, prejudice and narrow mindedness. He is not truly free if he is taking away someone else’s freedom. Surely, he is not free when his freedom is taken away from him. Thus the oppressed and the oppressor alike are robbed of their humanity.

  1. Describe the contribution of Nelson Mandela in the struggle for independence of the blacks of his country against the hated apartheid regime.

OR

Draw a character-sketch of Nelson Mandela highlighting his struggle against the apartheid regime for the human rights of his people.

Ans. Nelson Mandela was the tallest of all the black heroes who waged a relentless fight against the racial-regime in South Africa. He suffered untold sufferings and tortures in prison but led the country to install the first democratically elected government in South Africa. Nelson Mandela was not born with a hunger to be free. Later on, he realised that his boyhood freedom was an illusion. He also realised his concept of freedom in his youth was also ‘transitory’ and was limited to his personal freedom. Only when he joined the African National Congress, his own freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom of his people. Only then, a frightened young lawyer was transformed into a bold `criminal’. A family-loving husband was forced to lead the life of a monk in secrecy. Nelson Mandela is grateful in acknowledging the unimaginable sacrifices of thousands of black heroes for the freedom of their people. Modestly, he realises that freedom is indivisible. He realised that he could not lead a free and honourable life if his people were in chains.

Nelson Mandela had a wider vision of humanity. For him, freedom was comprehensive and couldn’t be divided. It shows his greatness that both the oppressor and the oppressed should be liberated. Both of them alike are robbed of their humanity.

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