Memories of Childhood- About the Author

By | September 9, 2023
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Memories of Childhood

                                                                                 By- Zitkala-Sa and Bama 

Zitkala-Sa and Bama- A Short Biography

About the Author      

Zitkala Sa (1876-1938) pronounced zitkala-sa, which translates to “Red Bird” also known by the missionary-given name Gertrude Dakota) writer, editor, musician, teacher and political Simmons Bonnin, was a Sioux(Yankton r political activist. She wrote several works chronicling her youthful struggles with identity and conflict between the majority culture and her Native American heritage.

Zitkala-Sa’s articles in the Atlantic Monthly included “Impressions of an Indian Childhood” and “School Days of an Indian Girl”. All these works were autobiographical in nature, describing in great detail her early experiences with the dominant American culture. In her well-known American Indian Stories, she expresses a  literary account of her tension between wanting to follow the traditions of theYank ton Dakota while being excited about learning to read and write and being tempted by assimilation.

Bama was born in 1958 as Faustina Mary Fatima Rani in a Roman Catholic family from Puthupatti in the then Madras State. Bama’s grandfather had converted from Hinduism to Christianity. Bama’s ancestors were from the Dalit community and worked as agricultural labourers. Bama had her early education in her village. She wrote on her childhood experiences which formed the basis for her first novel, Karukku published in 1992. When the novel was published; Bama was ostracised from her village for portraying it in poor light and was not allowed to enter it for the next seven months. Bama’s novels focus on caste and gender discrimination. They portray caste-discrimination practised in Christianity and Hinduism. Bama’s works are seen as embodying Dalit feminism and are famed for celebrating the inner strength of a woman.

About the Author (2) :

 Born Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, (Zitkala-Sa) (1876-1938) was a Sioux writer, editor, musician, teacher and political activist. She was the co-founder of the National Council of American Indians in 1926. Her articles were published in the Atlantic Monthly from 1900 to 1902 and in ‘Harper’s Monthly’. Most of her work is focused on salons between tradition and assimilation and literature and politics. She was also an active member of the Society of American Indians which published the American Indian’ Magazine. She worked for the recognition of olive American culture and traditions but at the same time also advocated US citizenship rights for American Indians to bring them into the mainstream.

Bama (Born: 1958) is a Tamil novelist. Her autobiographical novel ‘Karukku’ (1992) brought her fame. After this, she wrote two novels Sangati and Vanaman along with two collections of short stories. Kusumbukkaran and Oru Tattvum Erumaiyum. She was born into a Roman Catholic family in Madras.

Most of her novels focus on caste and gender discrimination and that prevailing in Christians and Hindus. Her works embody the Dalit feminism and celebrate the inner strength of the subaltern woman.

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Memories of Childhood- About the Author

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Memories of Childhood- Nutshell of the Chapter

Memories of Childhood- Short & Detailed Summary

Memories of Childhood- Main Characters of the Story

Memories of Childhood- Multiple Choice Questions in Quiz

Memories of Childhood- Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Memories of Childhood- Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type