Welcome to Indigo NCERT Solutions for Class 12 students! This comprehensive page-by-page solution is specifically designed to help you excel in your studies. Derived from the Flamingo book, the content presented here will prove immensely beneficial for your upcoming 2023-24 Board Exam and various other examinations.
Indigo NCERT Solutions
Table of Contents
Think as you Read Page 47 Indigo NCERT Solutions
1.Strike out what is not true in the following.
a. Rajkumar Shukla was
(i) a sharecropper.
(ii) a politician. (iii) delegate. (iv) a landlord.
b. Rajkumar Shukla was
2.Why is Rajkumar Shukla described as being ‘resolute’?
Ans : Rajkumar Shukla is described as being ‘resolute’ because of his unwavering determination and persistence in seeking help from Mahatma Gandhi. Despite being a poor and illiterate peasant from Champaran, he approached Gandhi during the Indian National Congress party convention and urged him to come to his district to address the issues faced by the indigo farmers.
The term ‘resolute’ suggests that Rajkumar Shukla was firm in his purpose and resolved to seek justice for the farmers. He displayed a strong determination and unwavering commitment in his efforts to bring attention to the struggles of the peasants in Champaran.
3.Why do you think the servants thought Gandhi to be another peasant?
Ans: The servants might have thought Gandhi to be another peasant because of his simple attire, humble behaviour, and the fact that he accompanied Rajkumar Shukla, who was perceived as a poor yeoman seeking help for the indigo sharecroppers. Gandhi’s appearance and behavior led the servants to assume that he was just another peasant like Shukla. The reference to concerns about untouchability and polluting the well further suggests that they did not recognize him as someone of higher social status.
Think-as-you-read Questions – Page 49 Chapter Indigo NCERT Solutions
1. List the places that Gandhi visited between his first meeting with Shukla and his arrival at Champaran.
Ans. Gandhi first met Shukla in Lucknow. Then he traveled to Cawnpore and other parts of India. He later returned to his ashram near Ahmedabad. After that, he visited Calcutta, Patna, and Muzaffarpur before reaching Champaran.
2. What did the peasants pay the British landlords as rent? What did the British now want instead and why? What would be the impact of synthetic indigo on the prices of natural indigo?
Ans. Peasants were forced to use 15% of their land to grow indigo and give the entire harvest as rent. When synthetic indigo was introduced, they asked tenants to compensate them for ending the 15% agreement. Since synthetic indigo was cheaper, the prices of natural indigo would also decrease.
Think-as-you-read Questions – Page 51 Indigo Chapter NCERT Solutions
1.The events in this part of the text illustrate Gandhi’s method of working. Can you identify some instances of this method and link them to his ideas of satyagraha and non-violence?
Answer in Short-
- He refuses to comply with a court order and stays in Champaran, displaying non-cooperation and civil disobedience.
- Gandhi protests against the delay in court proceedings, demonstrating his belief in non-violent resistance.
- He willingly pleads guilty in court, emphasizing the importance of truth and conscience over blind obedience.
- Gandhi’s politics focuses on everyday issues and opposing unjust laws.
- The famous Dandi March, where he broke the salt law, exemplifies his non-violent resistance and fight for truth and justice.
Answer in detail-
There are several instances that reflect Gandhi’s method of working and connect to his ideas of satyagraha and non-violence.
One example is when Gandhi refuses to obey a court order demanding him to leave Champaran immediately. This shows his belief in non-cooperation and civil disobedience as a means of protest.
Another instance is Gandhi’s protest against the delay in court proceedings. This demonstrates his commitment to non-violent resistance and his belief in challenging unjust systems.
Additionally, Gandhi’s willingness to plead guilty in court and explain the reasons behind his actions showcases his prioritization of truth and conscience over blind obedience to the law.
Overall, Gandhi’s approach to politics involved addressing the everyday issues faced by the Indian people and opposing unjust laws. His methods of non-cooperation, civil disobedience, and peaceful resistance, such as the Dandi March against the salt law, were directly linked to his principles of satyagraha and non-violence.
Think-as-you-read Questions – Page 53 Indigo Chapter NCERT Solutions
1. Why did Gandhi agree to a settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers?
Ans. Gandhiji believed that the amount of refund was less important than the fact that the landlords had been forced to return part of the money. With this refund, they were leaving some of their prestige. So, he agreed to a settlement of 25% refund.
2. How did the episode change the plight of the peasants?
Ans. The Champaran episode filled the peasants with courage and self-confidence. They realised their potential and strength.
Understanding the Text – Page 54 Indigo Chapter NCERT Solutions
1. Why do you think Gandhiji considered the Champaran episode to be a turning point in his life?
Ans. The Champaran episode was a turning point in Gandhiji’s life because it brought him his first victory of civil disobedience. Gandhiji went to Champaran to help the poor peasants. He got an opportunity to test the basic principle of his movement in India. It proved as a testimony for the success of his non-violent way to get freedom for India.
The peasants of Champaran suffered exploitation, injustice and atrocities at the hands of British landlords. First, they compelled them to grow indigo on 15% of the land and give it to them as rent but later with the invention of synthetic indigo in Germany they obtained agreement from them to pay them compensation. Peasants were badly exploited. Gandhi, first of all, united them and then took out the fear out of their hearts and made them fearless to fight for their right. His victory, at Champaran, gave Gandhi strength and courage to fight for the freedom of the nation.
2. How was Gandhi able to influence the lawyers? Give instances.
Ans. Certainly! Here are the complete answers with points:
1. Gandhi influenced the lawyers through his earnestness and conviction.
– He expressed his sincere beliefs and unwavering commitment, which had a profound impact on the lawyers.
2. Gandhi criticized the lawyers for charging a heavy fee from peasants to fight their cases.
– He pointed out the injustice of burdening already struggling peasants with high legal fees.
3. Gandhi urged the lawyers not to abandon their own people if he were to get arrested.
– He made them realize the importance of staying united and supporting their community during difficult times.
4. Gandhi emphasized the moral duty of the lawyers towards their own people.
– He reminded them that it would be unfortunate and disrespectful to turn their backs on their own community while a stranger (Gandhi) was willing to go to jail for them.
5. Gandhi provided the lawyers with a powerful example of selfless service.
– He showed them the value of putting the needs of their community before personal gain or comfort.
6. As a result, the lawyers recognized their responsibility and decided to accompany Gandhi to prison if he were to be arrested.
– They were inspired by Gandhi’s principles and committed themselves to stand by him in solidarity.
7. Gandhi’s actions evoked a sense of belongingness and duty in the lawyers towards the people of their area.
– His selfless service and moral guidance instilled a deeper connection and commitment to their local community.
3. What was the attitude of the average Indian in smaller localities towards advocates of ‘home’ rule?
Ans. Advocates of ‘home rule’ were considered the enemies of the British government. Anyone who would show sympathy towards them was treated badly by the British. In smaller localities, the average Indian was afraid to show sympathy to the advocates of ‘home’ rule due to the fear of dire consequences. But there was a surprising drastic change that Gandhiji experienced in Muzzafarpur. Here he was welcomed at the station by J.B. Kriplani, who was a British employee, along with a large group of students. Not only this but his host was a government schoolteacher.
4.How do we know that ordinary people too contributed to the freedom movement?
Ans : The chapter shows that ordinary people, like Rajkumar Shukla and the peasants from Champaran, actively contributed to the freedom movement. They expressed their concerns, supported Gandhi, and participated in protests and demonstrations, highlighting their involvement in the fight for freedom.
Talking about the text Page 55 Indigo Chapter NCERT Solutions
Discuss the following.
1.“Freedom from fear is more important than legal justice for the poor.” Do you think that the poor of India are free from fear after Independence?
Answer- : 1- The statement suggests that it is more important to ensure that the poor feel safe and secure rather than just focusing on providing them with legal justice. It recognizes that addressing their fears and insecurities is crucial for their well-being.
As for whether the poor in India are free from fear after Independence, it’s important to note that the situation can vary. While Independence provided political freedom and rights to many, not all poor individuals may feel completely free from fear. Factors such as poverty, inequality, and various challenges can still impact their sense of security. Efforts are being made to address these issues and improve the lives of the poor, but there is still work to be done to ensure that all individuals feel safe and free from fear.
Suggested Answer- 2
In the story, Gandhi helps the sharecroppers in Champaran overcome their fear of British landlords, emphasizing that freedom from fear is crucial for self-reliance. However, it is unfortunate that even after decades of independence, the poor in India continue to live in fear. They face pressure and bureaucracy, with their actions and work still under scrutiny. Additionally, they often experience mistreatment from the police instead of protection. Factors like globalization and the pursuit of foreign products further contribute to the fear of worsening poverty. Therefore, it can be observed that the poor in India are not entirely free from fear, despite the efforts made towards independence.
2.The qualities of a good leader.
Ans: The qualities of a good leader can vary, but here are some commonly recognized traits:
- Vision: A good leader has a clear vision and can articulate it to others. They have a sense of purpose and inspire others to work towards a shared goal.
- Integrity: A leader with integrity earns the trust and respect of their followers. They demonstrate honesty, ethical behavior, and consistency in their actions and decisions.
- Communication: Effective communication is crucial for a leader. They should be able to convey their ideas, listen actively to others, and provide clear instructions. Open and transparent communication fosters trust and collaboration.
- Empathy: Good leaders understand and empathize with the needs, concerns, and perspectives of their team members. They show genuine care and consideration, fostering a supportive and inclusive environment.
- Decisiveness: Leaders must make informed and timely decisions. They gather relevant information, analyze options, and have the confidence to take decisive action.
- Adaptability: In a dynamic and changing world, a good leader is adaptable. They embrace new ideas, seek innovation, and are open to feedback. They can navigate challenges and adjust their approach as needed.
- Accountability: A leader takes responsibility for their actions and the outcomes of their team. They hold themselves and others accountable, promoting a culture of responsibility and continuous improvement.
- Inspirational: Leaders inspire and motivate others. They lead by example, displaying enthusiasm, passion, and a positive attitude. They encourage their team to reach their full potential and achieve collective success.
These qualities, among others, contribute to effective leadership and inspire others to follow and work towards shared goals.
Working with words Page 55 Indigo Chapter NCERT Solutions
•List the words used in the text that are related to legal procedures.
For example: deposition
Ans: Here is a list of the words used in the text related to the legal procedure. These are arranged dictionary wise-
List other words that you know that fall into this category.
Thinking about language Page 55 Indigo Chapter NCERT Solutions
1.Notice the sentences in the text which are in ‘direct speech’. Why does the author use quotations in his narration?
Ans: The author uses direct speech to indicate the exact words spoken by the individuals involved in the events described. By using quotation marks, the author distinguishes these statements as the direct words of the individuals, maintaining their authenticity and preserving the originality of the dialogue. Here are the examples of the direct dialogues from the chapter Indigo-
- “I will tell you how it happened that I decided to urge the departure of the British. It was in 1917.”
- ‘I am Rajkumar Shukla. I am from Champaran, and I want you to come to my district’!’’
- “Speak to Gandhi.”
- “Fix a date,”
- ‘‘I have to be in Calcutta on such-and-such a date. Come and meet me and take me from there.”
- ‘‘It was an extraordinary thing … for a government professor to harbour a man like me”.
- ‘‘The commissioner … to bully me and advised me forthwith to leave Tirhut.’’
- “conflict of duties”
- “humanitarian and national service”
- “for a government professor to harbour a man like me”
- “not for want of respect for lawful authority, but in obedience to the higher law of our being, the voice of conscience”
- “They thought, amongst themselves, that Gandhi was totally a stranger, and yet he was prepared to go to prison for the sake of the peasants; if they, on the other hand, being not only residents of the adjoining districts but also those who claimed to have served these peasants, should go home, it would be shameful desertion.”
- “The battle of Champaran is won.”
- “But how much must we pay?”
- ‘‘Look, there is no box or cupboard here for clothes. The sari I am wearing is the only one I have.”
- ‘‘What I did,” he explained, “was a very ordinary thing. I declared that the British could not order me about in my own country.”
- ‘‘He had read our minds correctly,’’ Rajendra Prasad comments, “and we had no reply… Gandhi in this way taught us a lesson in self-reliance’’.
2.Notice the use or non-use of the comma in the following sentences.
(a)When I first visited Gandhi in 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram, he told me what happened in Champaran.
Ans: The comma is used correctly in this sentence. It separates the introductory phrase “When I first visited Gandhi in 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram” from the main clause “he told me what happened in Champaran.”
(b)He had not proceeded far when the police superintendent’s messenger overtook him.
Ans: There is no need for a comma in this sentence. It is a simple sentence with no introductory or dependent clauses.
(c)When the court reconvened, the judge said he would not deliver the judgment for several days.
Ans: The comma is used correctly in this sentence. It separates the introductory phrase “When the court reconvened” from the main clause “the judge said he would not deliver the judgment for several days.”
Things to do Page 55 Indigo Chapter NCERT Solutions
1.Choose an issue that has provoked a controversy like the Bhopal Gas Tragedy or the Narmada Dam Project in which the lives of the poor have been affected.
Ans: One issue that has caused controversy and affected the lives of the poor is the Land Acquisition Act in India. It allows the government and private companies to take land for development projects, often displacing poor farmers and laborers. The concerns include loss of homes and livelihoods, inadequate compensation, and insufficient support for those affected. Efforts are being made to address these issues and protect the rights of affected communities.
2.Find out the facts of the case.
Ans : Facts of the case:
- The controversy revolves around the proposed bauxite mining project on the sacred Niyamgiri Hills in Odisha, India.
- The hills are home to the indigenous Dongria Kondh tribe, who depend on them for their livelihoods and cultural practices.
- Concerns have been raised regarding the violation of tribal rights, environmental degradation, and loss of biodiversity due to the mining project.
3.Present your arguments.
- Proponents of the mining project argue that it would bring economic development, job opportunities, and revenue to the region.
- Opponents argue that the project would lead to the displacement of the Dongria Kondh tribe, loss of their traditional lands, and destruction of their way of life.
- Environmentalists argue that the mining project would result in irreversible damage to the ecological balance of the Niyamgiri Hills, impacting the local flora, fauna, and water sources.
4.Suggest a possible settlement.
Ans : Possible settlement:
One possible settlement could involve alternative forms of sustainable development that respect the rights and culture of the Dongria Kondh tribe.
This could include promoting eco-tourism, sustainable agriculture, and other livelihood options that ensure the well-being of the community while preserving the ecological integrity of the hills.
Consultations and negotiations should be held with the Dongria Kondh community and relevant stakeholders to determine their aspirations and find a mutually agreeable solution.