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Chapter- 3 English Language and Literature
Discovering Tut the Saga Continues Extra Questions
By- A.R. Williams
Introduction of the lesson- Discovering Tut: the Saga continues
Egypt was once a cradle of civilization. The emperors of the country were better known as Pharaohs. They had a vast empire and enormous gold. They believed in life after death. So, they buried the kings in tombs as mummies. They put beside the dead a lot of treasure and even the things of everyday need. These were meant for use in the next life. These tombs were built up to 26 ft below, and the mummy was put in a gold case. Tut was the last of a ruling dynasty. He died young, only nine years after occupying the throne. His tomb was discovered and investigated in 1922 by a British archaeologist, Caner. He had trouble in taking the mummy out of the coffin of solid gold. The resins had hardened. The body was cut and removed in parts. It was reassembled, put in a case and put back at its resting place. But it was taken out again for CT scan to solve the mystery of how and at what age he had died. But thankfully, the body suffered no further harm.
Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- Discovering Tut: the Saga continues
Saga– long story of events or adventures,लम्बी कहान ी; heir–successor, उत्तराधिकारी; was laid to rest–died; eventually–finally,अंततः;speculated–guessed. अनुमान लगाय ा; clues–link, information, सूचना; precise–exact, accurate, सह ी; data–account; forensic–use of scientific methods in crime investigation, अपराध की जाँच –पड़ताल में वैज्ञानिक परीक्षण; pharaoh–the title of the ancient egyptian kings; stirredup–caused to rise, blew, चली; ancient–of very old times; cemetery–graveyard, burial– ground, कब्रिस्तान ; dark-bellied–bulging, फूले हुए ; scuddedacross–moved fast and smoothly,वेग से चलना;veiling–covering, hiding, आवरण डाल रहे ; casketgrey–ash or lead coloured coffin, धूसर शवपेटिका ; mummy–embalmed human body for burial, रक्षित शव; glided–moved, was pushed, अन्दर गया ; probe–examine closely, जाँच के लिए ; lingering–slow in motion; descended–arrived, climbed down into, आ गए थे; cramped–small in size, सिकुड़ा हुआ; murals–wall paintings,भित्तिचित्र; peered–looked intently,ध्यानपूर्वक देखा ; lid–cover, ढक्कन; pondering–thinking deeplyविचार करते हुए ; shiver–tremble; curse–bad luck, अभिशाप; antiquities–remains of ancient times; archaeologist–पुरातत्ववेत्ता ; futile–unsuccessful, असफल ; contents–treasure; hastily–swiftly: ransacked–looted; antiquity–long past years; legend–a myth, story; stunning–surprising, amazing, विस्मित कर देने वाले ; artefacts–things made by human hand, मानव कृतियाँ; eternal–everlasting,अमर; resurrection–recovered from grave,पुनरुत्थान; sensation–excitement. हलचल; afterlife–next life, life after death; bronze–mixture of brass and copper; linen–cotton; undergarments–under dress, अधोवस्त्र; cases–boxes, पेटियाँ; funerary–relating to burial,कब्र से प्राप्त; coffin–the chest in which a dead body is placed for burial. Shroud–sheet to wrap a dead body, कफन; adorned–decorated; celery–a kind of plant; petals–leaves,पत्ते; faded–not very sure or clear ;evidence–proof; ritual–ceremonial, विधिसंगत; resins–a kind of gum, राल; cementing–uniting,पक्का चिपका दिया ; legitimate–lawful, genuine, न्यायोचित; hammer–a tool for driving nails, हथौड़ा ; loosen–to soften the glue, ढीला करना l
Blazing–scorching, तपतीहुई; budged–moved; detachment–aloofness, objectivity, तटस्थता; consolidated–solidified, ठोस; chiselled away–cut with a tool,छेनी से छीलना पड़ा ; beneath–under,trunk–the main part of the body, शरीर का धड़ ; circumvented–cheated, befooled, धोखा दे देते ; ripped it apart–separated, torn, अलग कर देते; fabulously–excessively, अत्याधिक; lavished–gifted, restored greatly, युक्त किया गया ; glittering–shining, चमकदार; precious–valuable, बहुमूल्य; inlaid–fine material inserted, नगीने जड़े; bracelets–an ornament band for the wrist, कंगन ; amulets–magic chains, रक्षा यंत्र; sheaths–a covering, आवरण; iconic–pertaining to an image; mask–a covering to conceal the faceमुखौटा; adornments–ornaments,श्रृंगार वस्तुएँ ; severed–cut off; reassembled– joined again. पुनः जोड़ दिया ; padding–fill out, भराव ; concealed–hid,छिपा दिया ; damage–harm done, क्षति ; archaeology–the science of ancient ruins; substantially–greatly; intervening–lying between, बीच में; decades–ten years, दशक ; focussing–giving attention to; fascinating–interesting; intriguing–secret mysterious, रहस्यमय; sophisticated–advanced: anatomy–the science of body- structure, शरीर –रचना शास्त्र ; startling–shock giving,चौंका देने वाली ;cakes–covers; diagnostic–ascertain disease by symptoms; imaging–taking the pictures of the inside of body: slices–pieces. टुकड़े ; virtual–almost real; reveal–show; lingering–remaining unsolved; demise–death, अंत , मृत्यु; royal standards–criterion, शाही तौर –तरीके या स्तर ; death rattle–death knell, मौत की घंटी ;dynasty–succession of kings of the same family, राज कुल ; particulars–details,सही विवरण ; aftermath–what followed thereafter. बाद की घटनाए ँ; four decades–forty years; succeeded–came to the throne, सिंहासन रूढ़ हुआ; initiated–began, प्रारम्भ किया I
Promoted–encouraged, बढ़ावा दिया; shocked–caused disgust, आघात पहुँचाया; smashing–breaking down, तोड़ दिया ; images–statues, मूर्तियाँ; horrific–causing fear, horrifying, डरावना; site–location, स्थान ; wacky–crazy.सनकी ; exited–departed, बाहर निकल गया ; trace–sign, चिह्न; living image of Amun–life- like idol.सूर्य देवता की जीवंत मूर्ति ;restoration–reestablishment, पुनरुद्धार ; reigned–ruled; regardless–in spite of. ignoring; speculation–guess, supposition, अनुमान; inventory–preparing a detailed list. सूची; phase–step; scanning–examining scientifically, वैज्ञानिक परीक्षण; portable–light enough to be carried, हल्की; images–pictures, photos,छायाचित्र; slices–bits, pieces. टुकड़ े; intricate–complex, जटिल; structures–forms. ढाँच े; detail–detail exciting fear, डरावनी; anatomy–science of the structure of the human body; probe–investigate, examine; gilded–coated with gold, सोने का पानी चढ़ा हुआ; pallbearers–those who carry a dead body. शव उठाने वाल ा; ramp–the slope.ढलान; flight of stairs–a series of steps, सीढ़ियाँ; swirling–moving in a circular motion. अधिक चक्कर खाती; hydraulic–moving with the pressure of water. जलशक्ति से चलने वाल ा; trailer–a vehicle drawn by another; held–contained; emerged–came out; sprinted–ran fast, तेज दौड़ े; quit–left, went out: nervously–in fear, घबराहट के साथ I
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Eventually–finally, अंततः; substitute–alternative, another, प्रतिस्थापित; procedure–work; data–details; funerary–relating to the funeral or burial; astonishing–amazing, विस्मयकारी; Images–pictures,प्रतिमा ; scattering–spread out, small-sized, बिखरे हुए ; pixels–small areas of light which make up an image on a screen; tilted–bent.झुकाया ; revealed–showed; transaction–a part, भाग ;visibly–clearly;relieved–at ease; descending–climbing down, नीचे उतरते ; departed–long last or dead kings. Of Egypt; constellation– a number of stars grouped together, तारामंडलI
Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English- Discovering Tut: the Saga continues/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – Discovering Tut: the Saga continues
Tutor Tutankhamun was a teenaged heir to the royal throne of Egypt. The family had ruled Egypt for centuries. But Tut died young. He was the last of the family line. His funeral marked the end of a dynasty. But the details of his passing away are unclear.
Tut’s father or grandfather Amenhotep III was a powerful Pharaoh who ruled for almost 40 years. His son Amenhotep IV succeeded him. The new king promoted the worship of the Aten, the sun-disc. He changed his name to Akhenaten or the servant of the Sun-god. He also shifted the religious capital from the old city of Thebes to the new city, Amarna. He also shocked the country further by attacking Amun, a major god, breaking down his images and closing his temples. He was succeeded by another mysterious ruler who died soon. Then, a very young Tutankhaten sat on the throne. He is widely known today as Tut. He restored the old ways, the worship of god Amun. He also changed his name to Tutankhamun. He ruled for about nine years and then died unexpectedly.
Egypt is full of mummies, almost 600. These are the embalmed bodies of Egyptian kings, called Pharaohs. Tut’s mummy was discovered in 1922. Perhaps he was murdered. But he was laid to rest with a lot of gold and with everyday things like games, a bronze razor, clothes and cases of food and wine. It was believed that the dead Pharaoh would need those things in the afterlife.
Howard Carter was a British archaeologist who in 1922 discovered Tut’s tomb after years of searching. Much of the treasure buried in the tomb had already been looted. Even then, it was the richest royal collection ever found in any tomb. The rock-cut tomb was some 26 feet underground. The walls had paintings. Tut’s gilded face was there on the outer coffin lid. After months of recording the treasures, Carter began investigating the three coffins in the tomb. In the first one, he found the garlands of olive leaves, lotus petals and cornflowers. The burial it seemed, was done in March or April.
When Carter finally reached Tut’s mummy. He faced trouble. Resins used for cementing Tut to the bottom of his solid gold coffin had become very hard. It was impossible to free the body (tom the resins. Even the burning sun failed to melt it. The resins had to be removed, using a chisel and hammer from beneath the limbs of the body. Carter really had little choice. If he had not cut the mummy limb by limb, the thieves would have taken all the gold away. Carter’s men first removed the mummy’s head, then cut off every major point. Once the body removed in parts, it was reassembled on a layer of sand in a wooden box. And put at the original place.
The mystery of Tut’s death, however, remained unsolved. Archaeology has changed a lot after 1922. In 1968, an anatomy professor X-rayed the mummy and revealed a new fact. He said that the breastbone and front ribs of Tut’s body were missing.
Today CT (Computed Tomography) takes hundreds of X-rays and creates a three-dimensional image of a body. It was on 5 January 2005 that the world’s most famous mummy of Tut was put into a CT scanner to answer two questions—how did Tut die, and how old was he at the time of death?
The CT machine was donated by its manufacturer – Siemens. King Tut had died some 3,300 years ago. On the night of the scan, the workmen carried Tut from the tomb in his box. They put it on a trailer that held the scanner. The process took less than three hours. The Pharaoh was carried back in the tomb again. The CT scan dispelled all doubts. Nothing had gone seriously wrong. Tut is resting in peace in his tomb in the valley of the departed kings of Egypt.
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Summary in Hindi – Discovering Tut: the Saga continues
Tut अथवा Tutankhamun मिस्त्र के शाही परिवार का किशोर उत्तराधिकारी था I इस परिवार ने मिस्त्र पर सदियों तक शासन किया थाIपर Tut की मृत्यु छोटी आयु में ही हो गईI उसने केवल 9 वर्ष शासन किया वह अपने वंश का अंतिम व्यक्ति था Iउसकी अंत्येष्टि क्रिया नेएक राजवंश का अंत कर दिया Iपर उसकी मृत्यु किस प्रकार से हुई, यह एक अनबूझी पहेली बनी हुई हैI
Tut का पिता अथवा दादा Amenhotep III एक बलशाली शासक था जिसने लगभग 40 वर्षों तक शासन किया Iउसका बेटा गद्दी पर बैठाI नये राजा ने आतेन की पूजा को बढ़ावा दिया,आतेन जो सूर्य देवता माने जाते थेI उसने अपना नाम ही बदलकरAkhenaten,सूर्य देवता कर रख लिया Iवह अपनी धार्मिक राजधानी भी Thebes के पुराने नगर से आगे नए नगर Amarna में ले गया Iउसने लोगों को भारी चोट पहुँचाई I जब उसने एक बड़े देवता Amun पर कटाक्ष किए, उसकी मूर्तियाँ तोड़ दी तथा उसके मन्दिर भी बंद कर दिए Iउसके पश्चात एक अन्य अज्ञात शासक आया जिसकी मृत्यु भी शीघ्र हो गई Iफिर सिंहासनारूढ़ हुआ युवा Tutankhaten, उसी को आज Tut के नाम से जाना जाता हैIउसने पुरानी परम्परां को पुनर्जीवित कर दिया,Amun देवता की पूजा कीI उसने अपना नाम भी बदलकर Tutankhamun रख लिया I उसने कोई 9 वर्षों तक शासन किया और फिर अचानक गुजर गयाI
मिस्र में अनेक ममी पाई गई है, लगभग 600 Iये मिस्त्र के राजाओं की रसायनों की लेप द्वारा सुरक्षित रखे गए शव है, इन्हें उन दिनों Pharaoh कहा जाता था ITut का शव1922 में खोजा गयाI शायद उसकी हत्या कर दी गई थी Iपर उसे ढेर-सा स्वर्णतथा दैनिक काम की चीजें जैसे खेल खिलौने,काँसे का रेज़र ,वस्त्र तथा भोजन
एवं मदिरा की पेटियों के साथ समाधिस्थ किया गया थाI ऐसी मान्यता की मृतक राजाओं को दूसरे जीवन में इन चीजों की जरूरत पड़ेगीI
Howard Carter ने जो एक अंग्रेज पुरातत्ववेत्ता था,1922 में Tut की समाधि को खोज निकाला Iसमाधि में रखे गए बहुत से खजाने को लोग पहले ही लूट ले गए थे Iफिर भी वह किसी की समाधि में अब तक पाए गए घनागार से अधिक थी Iचट्टान काटकर 26 फुट नीचे समाधि बनाई गई थी I उसकी दीवारों पर चित्र बनेथे ITut का सोने का नकली चेहरा ताबूत के बाहर ढक्कन पर बना हुआ था महीनों उस खजाने की सूची तैयार करने में लग गएI फिर Carter ने तीन ताबूतों की जाँच शुरू की Iपहले के अंदर उसे जैतून की पत्तियाँ कमल की पँखुड़ियाँ तथा मक्की के फूल मिले I शायद Tut को मार्च – अप्रैल में दफनाया गया थाI
जब Carter अंततः Tut के शव तक पहुँचे , उन्हें एक समस्या का सामना करना पड़ाI जिस राल से Tutके शव को ठोस सोने से बनी ताबूत में चिपकाया गया था वह बहुत सख्त हो गया थाIशव को उस राल से अलग कर पाना असंभव सा दिखा Iतपती धूप में भी वह राल पिघला नहींI उसे तो छेनी, हथौड़े से छील-छील कर अलग किया गयाIतब कहीं Tut के शव को छुड़ाया गया I Carter के सामने कोई दूसरा चारा भी ना था Iयदि वह शव को एक-एक अवयव काट कर न निकालते तो चोर सारा सोना ही लूट ले गए होते ICarter के कर्मचारियों ने शव का सिर अलग किया I उसके हर जोड़ को काट-काट कर अलग कियाIएक बार फिर शव के टुकड़ों को पुनः जोड़ा गया Iएक लकड़ी के ताबूत में नीचे रेत बिछाकर उन टुकड़ों से पूर्ववत शव का आकार बना दियाI
Tut के निधन का रहस्य पहेली बना रहा Iपुरातत्व विज्ञान 1922 के बाद बहुत परिवर्तित हो गया हैI1968 में शरीर रचना विज्ञान की एक प्रोफेसर ने ममी का एक्स-रे किया तथा एक नया तथ्य उजागर कियाI उसने बताया कि शव की हड्डी तथा सामने की पसलियाँ गायब हैI
आज C.T. सैकड़ों एक्स –रे लेकर शरीर का त्रि-आयामी आकार तैयार कर देती हैI5 जनवरी 2005 कोविश्व की सुप्रसिद्ध Tut ममी की C.T. द्वारा जाँच की गई ताकि दो प्रश्नों के उत्तर मिल जाए-Tut की मृत्यु किस प्रकार से हुई और मृत्यु के समय उसकी आयु क्या थीI
C.T. मशीन तो उसकी निर्माता Siemens के द्वारा प्रदान की गई थी Iराजा Tut की मृत्यु कोई 3,300 वर्ष पूर्व हुई थीI स्केन की रात को कर्मी Tut के शव को समाधि से लकड़ी के ताबूत समेत बाहर निकाल लाएIउन्होंने उसे एक ट्रेलर में रख दिया जिस पर स्केन यंत्र रखा था Iइस प्रक्रिया में 3 घंटे से कम समय लगा Iराजा को वापिस समाधिस्थल में पहुँचा दिया गयाI इस जाँच ने सारे शक दूर कर दिएIशव में कोई गंभीर चोट वाली बात नहीं मिली ITut अपनी समाधि में मिस्श्र के दिवंगत शासको को जहाँ दफनाया जाता था, उस घाटी में सुरक्षित विश्राम कर रहे हैंI
Following is the complete question bank for Discovering Tut: the Saga continues
Short Answer questions – Discovering Tut: the Saga continues
1.Who was Tut? What new name did he take on and why?
Ans. Tutor Tutankhamun was the last heir/ruler of a powerful family that had ruled the Egyptian empire for centuries. His life and death—both are wrapped in mystery. He took on a new name, i.e. Tutankhamun—living Image of Amun because he again started the worship of ‘Amur’—The ancient God.
2. When did Tut die? Where was he laid to rest? When was his mummy discovered?
Ans. Tut died more than 3,300 years ago. He was a young ruler who was perhaps done to death only after nine years of reign. He was laid to rest 26 feet below in a tomb in the valley of the king’s in Thebes. His mummy was discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter.
3. When was Tut’s dead body subjected to CT scrutiny? Why?
Ans. Tut’s dead body was buried 26 feet down in the desert along with golden treasures. The mummy was discovered and freed from the hardened resins in 1922. Since the king had Died young and unexpectedly, his body was subjected to X-rays and CT scan in 2005 to ascertain the cause of his death.
4. Who were called Pharaohs? Where were they laid to rest? How many of their embalmed dead bodies have been counted so far?
Ans. The rulers of Egypt in ancient times were called Pharaohs. After their death, they were buried deep down into the earth along with treasures in the Valley of the departed kings. The Egyptian Mummy Project has recorded almost 600 so far. The counting is still going on.
5. What has been the role of Howard Carter in the discovery of Tut?
Ans. Howard Carter was the British archaeologist, who, in 1922, discovered Tut’s tomb after years of searching. He took out the richest royal collection along with everyday things like razor, clothes, food and wine. Since Tut was buried in a solid gold coffin, he freed Tut’s mummy part by pan from solidified resins, reassembled it, put it in a wooden case and buried it in the tomb.
6. What things formed a part of the funerary treasure recovered from Tut’s tomb?
Ans. Tut’s treasure included necklaces and bracelets, rings, sandals, the inner coffin and mask—all of pure gold.
7. What did Carter have to do to detach Tut’s mummy from the coffin?
Ans. Carter had no choice. Tut’s mummy was cemented to the bottom of his solid gold coffin. The resin had become solid. The hot sun could not melt it. So chisels were used to cut away the resins beneath the limbs. Tut’s head and almost all the joints had to be severed to free them from the resins.
8. Why were Egypt’s ancient pharaohs buried along with treasures?
Ans. The Emperors of Egypt in ancient times were called pharaohs. They were very wealthy. They thought they must take their riches with them for use in the afterlife. So, they were buried along with gold ornaments and even everyday things.
9. What startling facts were revealed when a professor X-rayed Tut’s mummy?
Ans. An anatomy professor X-rayed Tut’s mummy in 1968 and revealed that the king’s breast-bone and front ribs were missing.
10. What does CT scanning do? When was it used in the case of Tut and why?
Ans. A CT machine takes hundreds of X-rays in cross section. These are then put together to create a three-dimensional body. Such scanning became necessary to know the age of Tut at the time of his death and also the cause of his death. This diagnostic method was used in 2005 on Tut.
11. King Tut’s death was a big event even by royal standards. Why?
Ans. Tut was the last of the family line. His death marked the end of a dynasty. So, it was a great event. But how he passed away and what followed his death is still a mystery for historians.
12. Akhenaten went a little wacky. What did he do to earn such censure?
Ans. Akhenaten was a crazy king. He promoted the worship of Aten, the Sun-god. So, he changed his name. He moved the religious capital from Thebes to the new city of Akhetaten. He attacked Amun, a major god. He broke Amun’s images and closed his temples. All this shocked the people.
13. How did Tut undo all the whimsical activities of Akhenaten?
Ans. Tut, the boy king, soon changed his name to Tutankhamun, because he restored the old tradition of worshipping Amun. He reigned for about nine years and then died unexpectedly.
14. What was considered to be the curse of the Pharaoh when Tut’s mummy was being scanned?
Ans. Tut’s mummy was believed to be protected by the winged.goddess. So, when it was being scanned, dark clouds raced across the sky and strong winds started blowing stirring up the sand of the desert. The machine would not work for 20 minutes because of sand in a cooling fan. A guard said jokingly that it was the ‘curse of the Pharaohs’.
Long Answer questions – Discovering Tut: the Saga continues
1. Who was Tut? Why is his life as well as death wrapped in mystery?
Ans. Tut was a teenager when he ascended the throne. He was the last heir of a powerful royal family. He was laid to rest 26 ft below the earth’s surface in a tomb. His mummy was discovered in 1922 by a British archaeologist, Howard Carter. He found a fabulous treasure in the tomb. The casket in which Tut’s body was laid, was made of pure gold. Tut’s body was X-rayed and scanned to find out Tut’s age at the time of death and how he died. His life remained as great a mystery as his death. In 1968, the X-rays of the mummy showed a broken breastbone and some missing ribs. Tut’s untimely death at a young age is still a matter of research. How he died—whether under natural circumstances or unnatural ones—is still not confirmed.
2. What problems did Howard Carter face with regard to Tut’s mummy? How did he solve them?
Ans. Howard Carter, a British archaeologist, discovered King Tut’s tomb in 1922, after years of searching. He found fabulous treasures in the tomb, even though it had been ransacked earlier. The treasure consisted of a golden coffin, gold ornaments and even petty things of everyday need.
Carter found three coffins. In the first, he found the garlands of leaves and flowers. But when he reached the mummy, he ran into trouble. The resins used to embalm Tut’s body had hardened. The coffin was of solid gold. Neither human force nor the scorching sun could loosen the body. So Carter used chisel and hammer to remove the resins. He had little choice. Tut’s mummy also had to be removed part by part. Having taken out the gold coffin, the body parts were reassembled, put in a wooden box and placed in the tomb again.
3. How did science help collect information about King Tut’s mummy, his life and death in mysterious circumstances?
Ans. King Tut’s mummy was first discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter. The embalmed of the boy king was buried in the tomb along with lots of gold ornaments, sandals masks and coffin—all of pure gold. His death was a big event. He was the last of powerful ruling family. But he died in mysterious circumstances at an early age, just nine years after his coming to the throne. In 1968, Tut’s body was X-rayed. The anatomy professor’ found Tut’s breastbone and front ribs missing. But the researchers sought the help of advanced technology to solve the mystery. On January 2005, Tut’s head was pushed into a CT scanner. (The boy king had died 3,300 years ago) The operation took less than three hours. The pharaoh was rested in peace again. The mystery has not been resolved so far.
Value Based Questions and Answers of Discovering Tut: the Saga continues
1. In 1922 Tut’s tomb was discovered. Much of the treasure buried in the tomb had already been plundered. The materialistic attitude of a man does not allow even the dead to sleep in peace. Will there be any end to this attitude? Discuss.
Ans. For a handful of gold, man can go to any extent. Tut’s mummy was buried deep in the desert with a lot of gold and other things believing that the dead Pharaoh would need those things in the afterlife. It was a matter of faith. When Tut’s tomb was discovered, much of the treasure had already been looted. The thieves did it being driven by the mad force of materialism. Materialistic attitude attaches no importance to beliefs, religious sentiments and social rites and rituals. But when Carter finally succeeded in discovering Tut’s tomb, he found the richest royal collection—all made of solid gold—in the tomb. Even the coffin was made of gold. In order to remove Tut from his coffin, Carter had to cut the body from its joints. So, man doesn’t allow even the dead to sleep in peace.
2. The lesson ‘Discovering Tut’ allows us a peep into the past or history. For many, history is a dry subject but its study does make us wiser. What do you think?
Ans. Real history is the objective portrayal of events and facts that depicts development and destruction. True history is never coloured in the hues of politics. It reflects the myriad facets of society. Modern technology has made its portrayal objective. History puts forward lessons for us and provides us with chances to improve. So, itis true that those who do not pick up these lessons are condemned to repent.
Shrewd people have used history to rouse mass hysteria to grind their own axe. Distortion of history causes havoc in society. To the intelligent people, history is a window through which they peep into the past to collect facts and interpret them in an objective manner.
By and large, history is the study of past events, political, economic and social development of a country and many a time we feel belittled knowing that our forefathers were better than us in many respects. We can learn a lesson from them and refrain from making the same mistakes.