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Read the passage given below.
The presence of a pollutant in the air is not necessarily life-threatening. It becomes a killer only after concentration breaches safety limits. As many as 4000 Londoners died of air pollution when the Smog hit the UK capital in 1952. This was mainly due to PM 2.5 and SO2 levels crossing all limits. safety. What makes matters scarier is a newfound pollutant ultrafine particulate matter (PMI). haven’t yet defined a safety limit for this.
Natural air consists of different gases, including PM 2.5 and PM1. The problem arises when the le of some of the more dangerous gases elements breaches safety levels. Human activity is usually to be for such a rise, although the weather can also play a role.
The more lethal PM1 penetrates the lungs and enters the bloodstream. A study on it clarifies that CO, ozone, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, and volatile compounds are just as life-threatening if their concentration jumps alarmingly.
Toxic air pollutants such as dioxins, benzene, arsenic, beryllium, mercury and vinyl chloride are also strongly linked to cancer and birth defects. Air toxins are found in trace amounts and are extremely toxic even in very small quantities. That is why they are measured in nanograms, not micrograms. Thus measures to check air pollution, according to the experts, should be measured based on which pollutants are dominant in an area and how toxic they are.
Historically, it has been found that SO2 and CO2 levels are not rising as significantly as PM 2.5 and NO2 in the capital which has serious cardiovascular and respiratory impacts. Similarly, pollutants generated from combustion are more toxic than those from natural sources such as road, or windblown dust. While ambient air data may be easier to measure but they do not always represent human exposure. Dose, a measure to measure the change in the body due to exposure to pollutants, can be an accurate measure of impact but is not available for many important pollutants. Ambient monitoring is especially useful for providing a long-term record of the overall level of pollution and how that changes with respect to policies. But people don’t breathe ambient air. They breathe the air wherever they happen to be. Exposure assessment takes the process of measuring air pollution to where people spend most of their time.
Fine particulate components have recently been classified as a cause of lung cancer along with diesel combustion and the burning of coal, the two main causes of household and ambient pollution as sources of carcinogenic. Around 30% of all lung cancer deaths can be attributed to the combined effects of household and ambient air pollution.
In order to quantify air exposures, one can measure air quality in indoor and outdoor environments in which people spend time.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — a minimum of four) and a format you consider suitable. Also, supply an appropriate title to it.
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.
Ans. (a) Life-threatening levels of air pollutants
I. Air pollutants become killers
(i) when concentration breaches safety levels
(ii) At Great Smog (London) death from dangerous levels
(iii) PM level 2.5 and SO2 levels beyond safety norms
(iv) the newest threat from PMI-extra fine particulate matter
(v) danger levels of it not calculated
II. Dangers to natural air
(i)comp of natural air, including PM and PMI
(ii) a breach in safety levels, particularly
(iii) A. CO
B. sulphur dioxide
C. nitrogen oxide
D. volatile compounds
(iv) domestic activity, besides the weather
III. Links bet toxic air and diseases
(i)PMI enters the lungs and penetrates the bloodstream
(ii) trace elements are
(iii) dioxins, benzene, arsenic, beryllium, mercury, vinyl chloride cause cancer and birth `i defects tit (iv) pollutant check based on which pollutants are present in an area
V. The character of a seeing-eye dog
(i) usually a German shepherd dog
(ii) training methodology
(iii) A. initial ‘setting up ex’
B. fitted with U-shaped harness
C. walks left of the man
1. 4-week man-and-dog training
2. back home as a team
|Key to Abbreviations|
When mammoth creatures roamed the densely forested earth, dogs became man’s best company They sought companionship with man, was fed on scraps after the hunt and trained to hunt becoming man’s fireside companion. Dogs are believed to be the offspring of a jackal and two, parents or separate offspring from them. Others believe all modern dogs have a common ancestor. Dogs were loved by ancient Egyptians and seeing-eye dogs are German Shepherds trained to work smoothly as a team with his owner.
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