Chapter-3 The Enemy- Extra Questions and NCERT Solution

By | July 6, 2020

The enemy is well explained through Introduction, Message, Theme, Title, Characters, the enemy Summary in English, Summary in Hindi, the enemy lyrics, the enemy quiz, Word meanings, Complete lesson in Hindi, Extracts , Long answers, Short answers, Very short Answers, MCQs and much more for free.

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 12th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 3 English Language and Literature

      The Enemy

                                                          By- Pearl S. Buck

 About the Author                                               

Pearl S. Buck  – A Short Biography

Author

Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (1892 — 1973), also known by her Chinese name Sai Zhenzhu, was an American writer and novelist. As the daughter of missionaries, Buck spent most of her life before 1934 in Zhenjiang, China. She wrote about Chinese people, their attitude and customs.

Her novel ‘The Good Earth’ won a Nobel Prize in literature for her. Buck had a humanistic attitude towards the problems of life.

She felt that while nations were at war, individuals were humans and they could feel for others. After returning to the United States in 1935, she continued writing prolifically and became a prominent advocate of the rights of women and minority groups.

Theme / Central Idea of the Lesson. Analysis of The Enemy

Theme

The Enemy deals with the conflict between Man’s humane feelings and the prejudices created by nations at war. It deals with the universal human values which must take precedence over narrow considerations like nationalism. The bond uniting all human beings must transcend the difference between nations.

Theme (2)

The story deals with the conflict between a man’s duty towards the state and towards his own conscience. In fact, the story raises questions about the ethics of a human being at the time of war. Dr Sadao has been brought up in a traditional and patriotic environment and he dislikes Americans. But, at the same time, he is a doctor and cannot let the American bleed to death. The story condemns racial discrimination and hails the superiority of humanity above any other thing.

The significance of the Title – The Enemy (Value Based)

Justify the title of The Enemy Appropriateness of the Title

‘The Enemy’ is an apt title that has the Second World War as the background. Dr Sadao, being a skilled surgeon saved the life of an escaped American prisoner of war, his enemy, who was wounded seriously and had been washed ashore. Torn between his duty and his integrity as a doctor, he chooses to save the enemy’s life first and then hand him over to the police. His inner conflict and professional ethics makes him choose the first option. His servants too, desert him for fear of getting into trouble. He is fully aware of the fact that harbouring a prisoner of war would endanger his own life as well.

 The doctor’s professional ethics urge him to treat the ‘enemy’as a patient. Neither Dr Sadao nor Hana, at any stage consider him their friend. Yet they treat him as a fellow human being should be treated. The title is therefore appropriate.

Moral/ Message of the lesson The Enemy Message

The theme of racism is reflected in the story in several ways. When Sadao recalls how he met Hana, he remembers that he didn’t become serious with her until he was sure that she “had been pure in her race” because otherwise, his father wouldn’t have approved. Yumi refused to touch the American, let alone wash him before the operation, and when he left she “cleaned the guest room thoroughly…to get the white man’s smell out of it.” Sadao has strong feelings about white people. He thinks that they are “repulsive” and that “it was a relief to be openly at war with them at last.” He also believed that Americans were full of prejudice, and it had been bitter to live there, knowing himself they’re superior. With the backdrop of the Second World War, the author highlights the horrors of war by portraying the helpless American sailor, who was tortured.

The author advocates universal brotherhood and highlights that service to the wounded is the best service to humanity. The story underlines the message that doctors have no nationality. They must rise above all petty issues like Sadao did and make all possible efforts to save human life.

Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in EnglishThe Enemy / Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson The Enemy

Summary

‘The Enemy’ tells the story of a Japanese doctor who hates Americans because of his patriotism as America and Japan were at war. One day an American prisoner of war is washed ashore in front of a Japanese doctor’s house. The soldier is wounded and has evidently escaped from prison.

Dr Sadao’s house was a solitary house on the sea-shore. Dr Sadao and Hana ran to help. The American sailor was bleeding. They thought of throwing him back into the sea. But they could not do so. Dr Sadao carried him home. Hana washes the soldier as Yumi, the servant, refused to do so.

 Sadao operates on the American. He returned with his surgeons’ emergency bag. He turned over the wounded soldier who lay unconscious. He washed his back and asked Hana to help him. He wanted her to give the patient the anaesthetic. Hana had never seen an operation and she felt like vomiting. Sadao saw the bullet in the wound. Hana observed that there were red scars on the soldier’s neck and realised that he had been tortured. Sadao removed the bullet from the wound and declared that the American would survive.

 Sadao and Hana look after the American. But the servants were becoming restless. The gardener felt the prisoner should have been allowed to bleed to death.

On the seventh day, the servants leave Sadao’s house. They did not work that morning. Hana paid them their wages.

They cried as they left. Hana held back her tears. The gardener was there since he was a boy. Yumi was attached to the children. Hana had to do all the household work on her own. Hana wanted Sadao to get rid of the American quickly. Sadao promised to do something about it. In the evening a messenger in uniform arrived. Hana was paralysed with fright. She felt the servants must have complained and the messenger had come to arrest Sadao. The fears were unfounded as the old general had been suffering from an ailment. Sadao had been treating him and the general was in pain and had sent for him.

The general trusted Sadao. He knew he might need to be operated upon. That is why Sadao was not sent away with the troops. Sadao told the general about the American. The general replied that Sadao was indispensable and could not be arrested.

Then the General suggested a way out. He would send two of his private assassins to his house to kill the American quietly and remove the body.

Sadao agreed to the plan. Sadao waited for three nights. No assassins arrived.

The American was getting better. He thanked Sadao. Sadao found it difficult to keep the American in his house any longer.

He was tired of waiting for the assassins to do away with the American prisoner. Dr Sadao decided to help him to escape. Sadao provided him with his boat. He put food water and a quilt in his boat. He also gave the American his flashlight. There was an uninhabited island very close to the shore.

He told the American to sail to the island. He could live there till he found a Korean fishing boat pass by the island.

Then he could seek help and escape to freedom. He warned the American not to make any fire. He could catch fish and eat it raw.

It was a moonless night when the American sailed away to the island. Sadao was again called by the general. He operated on the general. Sadao told the general that the prisoner had escaped. The general recalled that he had failed to send the assassins as he had forgotten to keep his promise.

 He added that it was not because of a lack of patriotism nor dereliction of duty. He was simply absorbed in his own affairs.

 Sadao realized that he was safe. But he assured the general that he would ever remain loyal to him.

As the American had left, all the servants returned. Things came back to normal. Sadao remembered the American and hated him. But did not know why he had saved the prisoner’s life.

Summary (2)

 The story is set in the times of World War II. Dr Sadao is a Japanese doctor who is an expert surgeon and scientist. He found an American prisoner of war, at his threshold, who is bleeding and is in a dying state. Initially, Dr Sadao and his wife Hana thought of throwing the unconscious man back into the sea but could not do so. Finally, they brought him home. Dr Sadao operated upon him with the help of his wife. They both had to face the protest of the servants as they refused to clean the man and left in protest.

The man starts recovering slowly. One day, Dr Sadao had to go to see the General. Dr Sadao while treating the General, tells him about the American in his house. The General promised to send his personal assassins to quietly kill the American. Dr Sadao does not tell his wife about this plan and keeps on waiting for the assassins for three nights. But they do not turn up.

By this time, the American has recovered. Now Dr Sadao decides to send him to an unguarded island in the sea. He gives him a boat, a torch, lots of food and water and a flashlight. He instructs him to stay on that island and wait for a Korean boat. He also tells him to signal him two flashes if runs out of food before he takes a boat.

Dr Sadao is again called by General and this time, he has to be operated. Now Dr Sadao tells the General that the American has escaped. The General keeps quiet about all this. Finally, Dr Sadao does not see any !ash of light and realises that the prisoner has escaped safely.

Main Characters of the Story

Characters

Dr Sadao: Dr Sadao is a Japanese surgeon and Scientist. He was brought up by his father who was a staunch Japanese, devoted to his culture. Dr Sadao became a skilful doctor and scientist to fulfil his father’s wishes. His father sent him to America to study medicine. He wanted him to study for the benefit of his country. Dr Sadao didn’t even marry Hana without his father’s approval. He was so skilled that the General was totally dependent on him. The General has blind faith in him which exemplifies him as a skilful and expert surgeon.

Dr Sadao was a loving husband and a good father. He consults and respects his wife. He is worried ant the future of his kids in case he is arrested. He is meticulous and finally finds out a middle path. He feels happy to save the life of an American and to secure his and his family’s future too.

Hana: Hana is an ideal wife, mother and a true Japanese, She is patriotic and humanitarian with a compassionate heart. She supports her husband in his each and every decision. Though she does not like the idea of saving the enemy, i.e. the American prisoner of war, she cannot neglect that before being an enemy, he was a human being first. She is a dignified lady who carries herself in a very controlled way without sacrificing her dignity when the servants refused to continue their services and defy her orders. Like any caring mother, she is worried about the future of her children in case Dr Sadao is arrested for keeping the American in his house. Despite being worried, tensed and scared, she never loses her cool amid critical situations.

Tom—The American POW: Tom was the American prisoner of war, who was shot and had escaped. Dr Sadao found him on the shore outside his house in a wretched condition. He had bled a lot and had a deep wound. He might have to face tortures and pain and suffering. Dr Sadao saved his life by operating upon him and taking out the bullet. Tom displayed a fighting spirit which was evident from his speedy recovery. He is surprised and overwhelmed by the generosity of Dr Sadao and Hana. He didn’t want to leave their house as he felt secure there. Finally, with the help of Dr Sadao, he is able to escape.

The General: The General is Japan’s Army General. He is Dr Sadao’s patient. He was old and ailing and had faith only in Dr Sadao for treatment. That is one of the reasons that Dr Sadao was not sent abroad with the Japanese army. The General himself was educated at Princeton and had more faith in the doctor trained in America than in Germany as according to him Americans had sentiments but Germans were cruel. He assured Dr Sadao of help in getting rid of the American soldier but due to his self-absorption in his ailment, he forgot. When Dr Sadao told him about the escape of the white man, he took the blame on himself and saved Dr Sadao. The General knew the worth of Dr Sadao as a surgeon and as a scientist didn’t want to lose him so protected him till the end.

Dream of Sadao’s Father

 Took him to the islands and said they were ‘stepping stones’ to the future of Japan. Sadao realized education is important. At 22 went to America to study surgery and medicine. Returned at 30, as a famous surgeon and scientist.

Trusted by general-so not sent with troops.

 Meeting between Hana and Sadao

By chance. At professorHarley’s house in America. Professor and wife kind helped foreign students. Sadao met Hana there. Married after completion of studies. Marriage finalised in the traditional way after his father had seen her. Happy together.

The appearance of the American Soldier

Hana and Sadao leaning on the railing, one foggy evening, saw a man crawling on hands and knees. Fell on the face. Rushed thinking — fisherman. Saw a white man with the reopenedgunshot wound, badly hurt. US Navy insignia on the tattered uniform- realised he was a prisoner of war.

Dilemma of Sadao

As a doctor, he should attend to a dying man and stop the bleeding.

As a patriotic person, he should put him back in the sea or hand him over to the authorities.

Decided not to be callous and took him in.

Risks

Would be arrested for sheltering an enemy- a white man, would endanger the lives of their children.

Reaction of Servants

Frightened. Felt they should not heal him — gardener felt he should die or he’d take revenge. Cook felt pride in his skill made him save the American soldier. Felt their years in America had made forget to think of their country first. Left on the seventh day.

Hana’s Role

Washed him. Helped Sadao operate. Gave anaesthesia. Felt nauseated but continued.

General Takima-Cruel Man

Known to beat his wife mercilessly. Hana feared how he would deal with an enemy. Retained Sadao in Japan as he could need an operation.

Reaction to Information about the Fugitive

Felt reassured Sadao had the capability to save. Wanted to save doctor as he would need his services. Suggested he would send two private assassins at night-capable men, familiar with the trick of inward bleeding, would take the soldier’s body away too. Sadao waited three nights, realised General had forgotten.

General party to guilt

Sadao gets to hold on him. Convinces Sadao- not lack of patriotism or dereliction of duty —was self-absorbed as he was suffering. Promised to reward Sadao.

Sadao helps American Escape

Put his boat on the shore at night, with food, bottled water, extra quilts and extra clothing. Told him to row to an island near the coast. He instructed him to stay there till a Korean fishing boat was seen passing by. Gave him a flashlight- Instructed him to signal with two flashes before sunset, if he ran out of food. Warned him to eat fish raw, as cooking over the fire would be noticed. Wrapped a black cloth about his blond head and dressed him in Japanese clothes.

 Sadao’s Recollection of Americans

 Recalled other white faces:

(i)professor at whose house he met Hana.

 (ii) his teacher of anatomy.

(iii) his fat landlady. Recalled how difficult it was to find a place to live in as Americans were prejudiced-had been difficult to live amidst such feelings. As a Japanese, he felt he was superior. Hated the ignorant, dirty woman who rented him a room and looked after him when he was sick. He despised her and could not feel grateful to her. He felt he found all white faces, disgusting and wondered why he could not kill the prisoner.

 Humanitarian considerations override man-made barriers of culture and nationality.

The difference in the reaction of Sadao, Hana and the Servants

Servants — simple, superstitious, patriotic-consider harbouring an enemy to be a crime. Fear for lives, insular. Do not understand the higher level of reasoning, humanitarian considerations.

 Sadao and Hana- Had been exposed to other nationalities, more tolerant. Feel it is unethical for a doctor to let a person die if he can be saved. Even an enemy is a human being first.

Following is the complete question bank for – The Enemy

The Enemy  Extra Questions and Answers

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (MCQ — TEST) (1 Mark Each)

1.The name of the main character in ‘The Enemy’ is

(a) Dr Huen Tsang                    (b) Dr Sadao Hoki

(c) Dr Chung Wa                     (d) Dr Hao Chi

2.’Those islands yonder, they are the stepping stones to the future for Japanese words were spoken by Sadao’s

(a) father                    (b) mother                      (c) nephew                   (d) wife

3.The chief concern for Sadao’s father was

 (a) Sadao’s wedding                        (b) Sadao’s education

(c) Sadao’s migration                        (d) Sadao’s treatment

4.Sadao went to America when he was

(a) 42 years old                         (b) 22 years old             (c) 50 years old                 (d) 18 years old

5.Sadao went to America to learn

(a) psychiatry                            (b) surgery and medicine

(c) music                                  (d) fine arts

6.Sadao became not only a surgeon but also

(a) an astronomer                   (b) a scientist

(c) a pianist                              (d) a vocalist

7.He was not sent abroad with the troops because

(a) the General needed an operation (b) his wife did not let him go

(c) he wanted to stay back                 (d) his father did not allow him to go

8.Sadao’s wife’s name was

(a) Mary                 (b) Hana                      (c) Christine                    (d),Judy

9.Sadao met his wife in

(a) Japan             (b) China                         (c) America                   (d) India

10.Sadao had met Hana at the house of

(a) a friend                                    (b) a student

(c) his American professor        (d) a cousin

11.Sadao and his wife had

 (a) two children                         (b) one child

(c) three children                      (d)no children

12.When the body of the soldier was washed ashore, Sadao was with

(a) his servants                            (b) his guard

(c) his wife                                 (d) his kids

13.At first, Sadao thought, he was an

(a) fisherman          (b) a criminal                 (c) a politician               (d) a singer

14.The man found by Sadao and Hana was

(a) a white man           (b) a black               (c) a Japanese               (d) an Anglo-Indian

15.The soldier had been

 (a) stabbed                 (b) shot                     (c) beaten up                  (d) slapped hard

16.Sadao at first decided to

(a) treat the soldier                                     (b) throw him back in the sea

(c) hand him over to the police                  (d) make him unconscious

17.The wounded soldier belonged to

(a) The Russian army                         (b) U.S. Navy

(c) The British army                         (d) The Japanese army

18. Sadao and Hana decided to take the soldier

(a) inside their house                      (b) to the police station

 (c) to the movie theatre                  (d) to the park

19.Both Sadao and Hana thought that keeping the wounded soldier in their house would

 (a) win them a reward                       (b) endanger all of them

(c) arouse police suspicion                 (d) make the servants angry

20.The soldier was kept in

(a) Sadao’s guestroom                  (b) Sadao’s father’s room

(c) Sadao’s servant quarter          (d) Sadao’s study room

21.The first treatment Sadao gave the wounded soldier was

(a) his wounds were washed          (b) he was operated upon

(c) he was fed                                 (d) his wounds were dressed

22.Hans wanted the soldier to be washed by

(a) the servant Yumi                  (b) the grandfather

 (c) the policeman                     (d) the security guard

23.The reaction of the servants, when told about the injured person, was

(a) they got angry                       (b) they were frightened

 (c) they were willing to help    (d) they ran away

24.The servants wanted the master

(a) to operate upon the soldier            (b) to heal the wounds

 (c) to throw him in the sea                 (d) to let him just die

25.When Yumi, the servant refused to help Hana told her that

(a) she could get out of the house

(b) go back to the baby’s room

(c) go and cook food

(d) she and Sadao would hand him over as a prisoner after making him conscious

26.Sadao was assisted during the operation by

(a) Yumi                           (b) Hana

 (c) his gardener            (d) his driver

27.While Sadao operating upon the wounded soldier, Liana had to rush out to

(a) drink water                     (b) rest for a while

(c) to vomit (retch)            (d) to check on the babies

28. liana assisted Sadao in giving the soldier

(a) anaesthetic

(b) artificial respiration

 (c) dressing the wound

(d) removing the bullet from the body

29.Sadao removed the bullet from close to soldiers

(a) heart                    (b) liver lungs

(c)Kidney                   (d)lungs

30.Sadao kept addressing the soldier as

(a) my enemy            (b) my comrade

 (c) my buddy           (d) my friend

31.The recovering soldier was fed by

(a) Sadao                (b) Sadao’s servant

(c) Yumi                   (d) Hana

32.Sadao had to shout at the soldier of the third day because

 (a) he had gone out of the room

(b) he was sitting up

(c) he was reading a newspaper

(d) he was talking to Yumi

33.All the servants in Sadao’s household

(a) were happy with their master

(b) felt that he deserved a reward

 (c) were very critical of him

(d) wanted him to let the soldier die

34. The name of the prisoner as told to Hana was

(a) Tom                          (b) Dick                 (c) Harry                (d) John

35.The day Sadao opened the soldier’s stitches, he

 (a) called the police

(b) typed out a letter to the Chief of Police

(c) made him run away

(d) tied him up

36.On the seventh day after the operation

(a) all the servants of Sadao left together

(b) the police raided the house

(c) the prisoner ran away

(d) Sadao told the General about the prisoner

37.’Why are we different from other Japanese?’, this was said by

(a) the servant                    (b) the General                         (c) Sadao                       (d) Hana

38. The messenger had come to Sadao’s house

(a) to arrest him

(b) to arrest the prisoner

(c) to arrest Hana

(d) to call Sadao to the old General’s house

39.The General only wanted Sadao to operate upon him because

(a) Sadao was very skilled

(b) General did not like any other doctor

(c) General was his close friend

(d) General did not want to go abroad for surgery

40.The General wanted to send his private assassins to Sadao’s house to

(a) kill Hana                             (b) kill Sadao

 (c) kill the prisoner                (d) kill the gardener

41.When the assassins did not come, Sadao decided to

(a) kill the prisoner himself

(b) help him to escape

(c) hand him over to the police

(d) send him to America

42.The escape for Sadao would be in

 (a) a Korean fishing boat

(b) a Russian fishing boat

(c) a Chinese fishing boat

(d) a Japanese fishing boat

43.The young prisoner was asked to flash the light if food ran out

 (a) twice                  (b) thrice                        (c) once                          (d) not at all

44.He told the prisoner to eat only

(a) raw fish             (b) ripe fruit                   (c) cooked food                     (d) raw vegetables

45.Sadao made the prisoner dress up in

(a) Korean clothes                     (b) Chinese clothes

(c) Indian clothes                      (d) Japanese clothes

48.The General, in not sending the assassins, had been

(a) unpatriotic                          (b) patriotic

(c) selfish for himself             (d) helpful towards Sadao

47.Sadao got his reward when

(a) the prisoner could escape

(b) when he got an award from the government

 (c) when his servants returned

(d) when his wife appreciated him

48.Sadao had been a victim in America, of

(a) racial prejudice                    (b) unruly mob

 (c) impartial teachers               (d) unfriendly classmates

49.The American landlady had once helped Sadao when

(a) she nursed him through influenza (b) she gave him food for a month

(c) she had mended his clothes          (d) had not taken rent for a month

ANSWERS

1.(b) Dr Sadao Hold               2. (a), father

3.(b) Sadao’s education          4. (b) 22 years old

5.(b) surgery and medicine  6. (b) A scientist

7.(a) the General who needed an operation 8. (b) Hana

9.(c) America                     10. (c) his American professor.

11.(a) Two children         12. (c) his wife

13. (a) fisherman          14. (a) A white man

15.(b) Shot                    16. (b) throw him back in the sea

17.(b) U.S Navy             18. (a) inside their house

19. (b) endanger all of them   20.(b) Sadao’s father’s room

21.(a) his wounds were washed 22. (a) the servant Yumi

23.(b) they were frightened 24. (d) to let him just die

25.(d) she and Sadao would hand him over as a prisoner after making him conscious

26.(b) Hana 27. (c) to vomit (retch)

28.(a) Anaesthetic 29. (c) kidney

30.(d) my friend 31. (d) Hana

32.(b) he was sitting up 33. (c) were very critical of him

34.(a) Tom 35. (b) he typed out a letter to the Chief of Police

36.(a) all the servants of Sadao left together37. (d) Hana

38.(d) to call Sadao to the old General’s house39. (a) Sadao was very skilled

40.(c) kill the prisoner 41. (b) help him to escape

42.(a) a Korean fishing boat 43. (a) twice

44.(a) raw fish 45. (d) Japanese clothes

46.(c) selfish for himself 47. (a) the prisoner could escape

48.(a) racial prejudice 49. (a) she nursed him through influenza

 Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (3 Marks Each)

Q1. Why did the author say that Dr Sadao was also famous as a scientist?

Ans. Dr Sadao was also famous as a scientist because he had perfected a discovery which could render wounds entirely clean.

 Q2. Why was Dr Sadao not sent abroad with the troops?

Ans.He was not sent abroad for two reasons. He had perfected a discovery which would render wounds entirely clean. Moreover, the General was in some sort of danger and might have needed an operation and Dr Sadao was the most skilled doctor available.

Q3. How did Hana come into the life of Sadao?

Ans. Sadao had met Hana at his professor’s house in America. She had also gone there to study. He had liked her but they had both fallen in love with each other after making sure that they belonged to the same background and that they were ‘pure’ Japanese. Sadao married her with the approval of his father.

 Q4. Who was the person they saw while standing in the verandah? What had happened to him?

Ans. Sadao and his wife were standing in the verandah when they saw a man who had been flung up out of the ocean by a wave. At first, they thought him to be a fisherman but on looking closely they realised that it was a white man with. long yellow hair. His young face had a rough yellow beard. He was an American prisoner of war who had escaped. He was injured badly, was unconscious and was bleeding profusely.

 Q5. What did the doctor do on seeing him in the dreadful state?

Ans. Sadao tried to staunch the fearful bleeding. He packed the wound with the sea moss that was lying nearby on the beach. After seeing the miserable condition of the injured man, he in consultation with his wife decided to take him home.

Q6. What was the dilemma for them?

Ans.The dilemma they faced was that if they sheltered the white man, they would be arrested and if they turned him over as a prisoner he would certainly die. He had lost a lot of blood due to a bullet injury. He required immediate surgery. The man belonged to the enemy’s army and they were contemplating whether to save him.

 Q7. How did they come to know him as an American?

Ans.They examined his battered cap closely and realized that he was a sailor from an American warship. The words `U.S Navy’ was written on the cap in almost faint lettering. They realized that he was an escaped prisoner of war.

Q8. Why did they not put him back into the sea?

Ans.They were not able to bring themselves to drop him back into the sea because of their compassionate and humane nature. Moreover, Sadao, being a doctor himself knew how to save lives and thought it unethical to let the soldier die if he could prevent it.

 Q9. Why were they afraid of taking him to their house?

 Ans. Dr Sadao and his wife Hana were afraid of taking him to their house because of the servants who would refuse to work for them for the fear of getting into trouble themselves. They were afraid of harbouring a prisoner of war and knew that the servants would talk.

Q10. How did Yumi react when Hana asked her to obey the command of her master?

 Ans. Yumi had refused to wash the white man saying that she had never done such a thing before and would not do it now especially for this man who was so dirty. But when Hana asked her to obey the master, there was a fierce look of resistance upon her face. She said she would have nothing to do with him and that it was not her business to clean him.

Q11. Why did Hana remember such men as General Takima?

Ans. Hana was looking at the recovering young soldier when she remembered General Takima whose triumphs on the battlefield were not worth remembering in comparison to the cruel treatment he gave to his wife. If a man like the General could be cruel to his wife, he would be very harsh to an escaped soldier like this American.

Q12. What did Dr Sadao say when the soldier asked him what he was going to do with him?

Ans. Dr Sadao answered by confessing that he himself didn’t know what he would do with him. He thought perhaps he would hand him over to the police as he was a prisoner of war.

 Q13. Why were, according to the servants, Dr Sadao and his wife saving the American?

Ans.The cook of Dr Sadao declared that the young master was so proud of his skill as a doctor that he would save any life. Yumi even told Hana that they would not stay if they would continue to hide the man. She accused Sadao and Hana of having a soft corner for Americans after staying in America and having forgotten to think their own country first.

 Q14. What did the gardener say about his master?

Ans.The gardener who had worked with flowers in Sadao’s house all his life said that the old master’s son knew very well what he ought to do. He said that the master shouldn’t have saved the enemy but let him bleed when the young man was so near death.

 Q15. What did the cook say about his master?

Ans.The cook said with some contempt that the young master was so proud of his skill to save lives that he saves any life even if it was an enemy in this case.

 Q16. What did the letter of Dr Sadao mean?

Ans. Dr.Sadao had led the prisoner on the road to recovery. One day he went to his office and typed a letter to the chief of police reporting the whole matter. He just mentioned that he had found the escaped prisoner in front of his house on the 21″ of February. He could not bring himself to complete this confession and so, left it in his drawer. He was a law-abiding citizen.

Q17. What happened on the seventh day after Dr Sadao had typed the letter?

Ans.Two things happened on the day the letter was typed. The cook, the gardener and Yumi had packed up their belongings and left together. Though the servants cried, Hana put up a brave front. The second thing that happened was the arrival of a messenger to tell Sadao that he had been called to the palace as the general was in pain again.

Q18. How did Hana feel when she saw a messenger in official uniform?

Ans.Her hands went weak and she could not draw her breath. She thought the servants had already told the police about the young prisoner they were harbouring. She ran to Sadao gasping and unable to utter a word. They were relieved to know that the messenger had come to deliver a message from the general.

 Q19. Why was the general not in favour of Sadao’s arrest?

 Ans.Sadao’s skill at operating on the prisoner with success, made the general believe only more firmly that he was indispensable to him. He did not want to have him arrested because Sadao was the only person who could save him if he had another of his attacks and required an operation.

Q20. What were the two foreign elements the general wanted Dr Sadao to combine?

Ans.The general wanted Dr Sadao to combine the German ruthlessness with the American sentimentality. Then only he would be able to turn over the prisoner for execution and yet not murder the general while he was being operated. His unusual sense of humour made him say this to Sadao.

 Q21. What did the general suggest to get rid of the American?

Ans.The general suggested that the prisoner could be quietly killed by his own private assassins. He would send two of them to Sadao’s house and all he had to do was to leave the outer partition of the white man’s room open while he was sleeping. He even offered to have the body removed quietly.

Q22. Did the plan to kill the American succeed? Why or why not?

Ans.For three consecutive nights, Sadao kept awake, feeling a little disturbed but all the three nights no assassins came and the young prisoner was still there. Later the general confessed to Sadao that he had forgotten his promise of having the prisoner killed because he was preoccupied with his own sufferings. The plan did not succeed.

 Q23. Did Dr Sadao take Hana into confidence in the matter of the plan? Why or why not?

 Ans. Dr Sadao did not tell Hana about the plan of the General to send his private assassins to kill the young prisoner and dispose of his body. He did this because he knew she was timid and would feel very frightened while the plan was being executed.

 Q24. What did Sadao do to get rid of the American soldier?

 Ans. Sadao decided to help the American soldier to escape to safety. He told him to go to an island nearby and wait for a Korean fishing boat to pass by. He even gave him a boat, some food and bottled water. He kept two quilts for him and gave him clear instructions so that this plan would not fail.

 Q25. What measures did Sadao take for the safety of the American?

Ans.He gave the American a stout boat, put food, bottled water and two quilts in it. He returned to the prisoner’s room, checked his temperature, the condition of his wound, his heart and his pulse. He decided to even give him his flashlight after a bit of hesitation. He told him how to catch fish and then use the flashlight to signal to him if he needed food etc.

 Q26. Why was Sadao not able to ask the General about the assassins?

Ans. Sadao did not ask the General about the assassins because he knew that they had never come. He had operated upon the General and had not been sure if he would live. But the General himself confessed that he was so pre-occupied with his own health that he had forgotten his promise to have the prisoner killed by assassins.

 Q27. How did the American behave while departing?

Ans. The young man first tried to understand all the instructions given to him by Sadao and then dressed in the Japanese clothes Sadao had given him, he shook his hand warmly and left for the island from which he had to escape.

 Q28. The General wanted to reward Sadao. But Sadao had another reward. What was that reward?

Ans. The General had wanted to reward Sadao for his loyalty but at the same time, Sadao knew that he had the general in the palm of his hand, for the latter too, had shown dereliction of duty. Sadao was rewarded in a different way by destiny. His prisoner was able to escape to safety on the very first night. All his efforts had borne fruit.

 Q29. How does the writer indicate that Dr Sadao’s father was a very traditional and conventional man?

Ans. Even though Sadao’s father had sent his son to America at the age of twenty-two to learn all that could be learned in surgery and medicine, he loved the Japanese race, customs and manners. Sadao married Hana only after confirming that she was a Japanese, as his father would not have received her unless she had been pure in her race.

 Q30. Hana told Yumi to wash the soldier. How did Yumi react? What did Hana do?

 Ans. Hana told Yumi to fetch hot water. Yumi put down the wooden bucket but refused to wash the dirty white man. Yumi said that she had never washed a white man and she would not wash a dirty one. Yumi added that she was a poor person and did not want to associate with the man. The fierce look of resistance upon Yumi’s dull face made Hana afraid. Under these circumstances, Hana had no option but to wash the white man herself.

Q31. How did Hana wash the wounded man?

Ans. First, Hana untied the knotted rugs that kept the young American covered. She dipped a small clean towel into the steaming hot water and washed his face. She continued washing him until the upper body was clean. She cleaned him but refrained from turning him over for fear of the wound.

Q32. What did Sadao learn about the white man’s wound?

Ans. The young prisoner of war was unconscious. There was a gun-wound that had been reopened on the right side of his lower back. The flesh was blackened with powder. The man had been shot recently and in his attempt to escape, a rock had struck the wound and reopened it. Later Sadao felt the bullet in the wound. The bleeding was not superficial and the young man had a lot a lot of blood. The bullet was near the kidney.

Q33. What forced Dr Sadao to be impatient and irritable with his patient?

Ans. Hana had never seen an operation and went outside to throw up. Sado heard Hana retching in the garden and said that it would be better for her to empty her stomach. Her distress and his inability to go to her at once made him impatient and irritable with the American prisoner of war.

Q34. How did Hana help Sadao during the operation?

Ans. As the young American began to stir he had to be administered the anaesthetic. She took the bottle and some cotton in her hand. Sadao instructed her to saturate the cotton with anaesthetic and hold it near the man’s nostrils. She had to move it away a little when he breathed badly.

Q35. What did Sadao’s old American professor of Anatomy tell him?

Ans. Sadao’s old American professor of Anatomy told his students that ignorance of the human body was the surgeon’s cardinal sin. He would impress upon them to have as complete knowledge of the body as if they had made it. To operate with anything less than that meant murder.

Q36. Why does Sadao wonder why he could not kill the young enemy?

Ans. Sadao found it strange that he had spared his enemy. The Americans were full of prejudice and he found it bitter to live there. The white people were repulsive even in their kindness. Yet he had operated upon the enemy and let him escape. As a trained medical practitioner, Sadao had risen above narrow prejudices to save the enemy’s life.

37. Did Hana think that the Japanese tortured their prisoners of war? Why?

 Ms Hana had heard rumours that the Japanese torture the prisoners of war. She also remembered that people like General Takima often beat their wives. She was convinced that if these people could beat their wives and be cruel to them, then they would certainly torture their enemies. This became evident when she saw scars on the body of the American soldier.

38. Why had Hana to wash the wounded man herself?

Ans. Hana had ordered her maid Yumi to wash the American soldier. But Yumi bluntly refused to do so and said that she had nothing to do with a white man. She even threatened to leave the job if forced to wash the American. So Hana had to wash the wounded man herself.

39. What help did Dr Sadao seek from Hana while operating on the wounded man?

Ans. Dr Sadao needed the assistance of Hana while operating. The wound was so deep that the man was to be given anaesthesia. Dr Sadao asked Hana to help him by giving anaesthesia to the man during the operation. Though Hana had never done this before even then she managed to help Dr Sadao in his operation.

40. How nearly had Dr Sadao missed marrying Hans?

 Ans. Dr Sadao met Hana at a party at Professor Harley’s house in America. The Professor and his wife had invited their foreign students home. Students used to get bored there. Dr Sadao was not in a mood to go to the Professor’s house that night because the rooms were very small and the food was very bad. Moreover, Professor’s wife was voluble. But he had gone and there he met Hana. Had he not gone to the Professor’s house that night, he would have missed the meeting and finally marrying Hana.

41. What made a cool surgeon like Dr Sadao speak sharply to his wife and what was her reaction?

Ans. When Dr Sadao asked his wife to help him in operating the man by giving him an anaesthetic, Hana turned pale out of nervousness. She had never seen an operation before. When Dr Sadao saw her he sharply said, ‘Don’t faint’. It was his dedication to his work as a surgeon. He wanted to save the life of the man and at this point of time, the only concern in his mind was the success of the operation. Hana knew him well so didn’t react rather got ready to give an anaesthetic to the patient.

42. In what context Hana remembers the cruel nature of General Takima?

Ans. While Hana was helping Dr Sadao in operating upon the American, she noticed a red scar. She wondered if this man had been tortured by the Japanese army. She also remembered that people like General Takima beat their wives and were cruel to them. She was convinced that if these people were cruel to their wives, they would certainly be cruel to their enemies.

43.  What solution did Hana offer to resolve Dr Sadao’s predicament?

Ans. When Dr Sadao and Hana saw the wounded American soldier, at first they thought of throwing him back into the sea. But they could not do so. Finally, Hana resolved the problem by saying that they should carry him into the house. She suggested that the man should be treated and then given to the poke.

44. How did Hana react when she saw a messenger at the door in official uniform?

 Ans. Hana got nervous and scared when she saw a messenger at the door in official uniform. Her hands went weak and she could not draw her breath. She thought that the servants must have told about the American man and the man had come to arrest Dr Sadao.

45. Why did the General not order immediate arrest of Dr Sadao who had sheltered a white man?

Ans. The General was very worried about his own health as he was suffering a lot. He desperately wanted Dr Sadao beside him and trusted only him for his medical treatment. If Dr Sadao was arrested, then Et there was no one else who could have operated upon him and saved his life. So he didn’t order for the immediate arrest of Dr Sadao.

46. Why did Dr Sadao treat the American soldier even though it was an unpatriotic act on his part?

Ans. Dr Sadao was an expert Surgeon. He was devoted to his work. When he saw the wounded soldier, his professional ethics compelled him to give the man medical treatment and save his life. Though he was a loyal and patriotic citizen, humanity and compassion are the supreme emotions which compelled Dr Sadao to treat the American soldier.

47. In what conditions did Dr Sadao find the American soldier at the seashore?

Ans. When Dr Sadao saw the man at the seashore, he was unconscious and bleeding profusely. He was in wet rags, had yellow, long hair which was not cut for many weeks and sported a rough yellow beard.

48. What role did the American professor play in bringing Hana and Dr Sadao together?

Ans. It was at the American professor’s house that Dr Sadao met Hana for the first time. The professor and his wife, in order to show their kindness to the foreign students, had called them to their house. Though Dr Sadao didn’t want to go there, he went and there he met Hana who was a first-year student.

49. Who did Dr Sadao think the survivor from the sea was when he first saw him?

Ans. When Dr Sadao saw the man on the seashore, he thought him to be a fisherman from a nearby village who had been washed from his boat. There were fishing villages, a mile or two away on either side.

50. Why did Dr Sadao seek Hana’s help to treat the US soldier?

 Ans. The US Soldier was badly wounded. He had a deep wound which was to be operated immediately. Dr Sadao needed some assistance at the time of operation. The most important task was to give anaesthesia to the patient at the time of operation so as to stop his movement. Dr Sadao could not call anyone from outside as he had to keep the presence of the US Soldier in his house a secret. So he asked Hana to help him during the operation and give anaesthesia to the patient.

51. On the seventh day, after the American soldier was found by Dr Sadao two things happened. Why did Hana feel scared of the second?

Ans. The second thing that happened on the seventh day was that a messenger came in official uniform to call on Dr Sadao. When Hana saw the official, she got scared. She thought that the servants might have complained to the police about the white man and so the officers had come to arrest Dr Sadao.

52. Give two reasons why Dr. Sadao was not sent abroad with the Japanse soldiers.

Ans. The General was very ill and he was being treated by Dr Sadao. He needed an operation and for that, he trusted only Dr Sadao. Moreover, Dr Sadao was doing research to render ‘the wounds entirely clean’. That is why he was not sent abroad with the Japanese soldiers.

53. Give a character sketch of Dr Sadao’s father.

Ans. Dr Sadao’s father was a traditional man. He was a serious and stern man and a very concerned father. He never played with Dr Sadao but had been very keen on providing the best to him. He was mainly concerned about Dr Sadao’s education, that is why he sent Dr Sadao to America to study. But at the same time, he wanted him to come back to his country and serve his people. He had great respect for his culture and traditions.

54. How did the General offer to help Dr Sadao in getting rid of the American?

 Ans. The General offered to send his private assassins to help Dr Sadao in getting rid of the American. These assassins would kill the white man noiselessly and also dispose of his body.

55. What was the dilemma faced by Dr Sadao and Hana after encountering the injured American soldier?

Ans. When Hana and Dr Sadao saw the American soldier, they were in a dilemma. They were very loyal to their country and didn’t want to save the enemy. They wanted to hand him over to the police. gut the man was wounded and in a pitiable state. Thus, the doctor inside Dr Sadao urged him to save his life. Humanity rose above patriotism and they thought of first treating him and then handing him over to the police.

56. Why does the General not want to be treated by doctors trained in Germany?

Ans. The General trusted Dr Sadao deeply. He didn’t want to be operated upon by anyone other than Dr Sadao. The General believed that Germans were ruthless and quite cruel. So he was afraid of being operated upon by them. He believed that the Americans valued life and had sentiments attached to it. So he wanted to be treated by Dr Sadao who was trained in America.

Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value-based questions-

ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS (6 Marks Each)

 Q1. Dr Sadao’s character is an amalgamation of right and wrong. Discuss.

Ans. ‘The Enemy’, by Pearl S. Buck portrays the character of an American trained Japanese surgeon, Dr Sadao Hold. Through his character, the author has shown a conflict of ethics between duty towards the country and compassion towards mankind.

Dr Sadao, being a skilled surgeon saved the life of an escaped American prisoners duty war who was wounded seriously and had been washed ashore. Torn between his integrity as a doctor, he chooses to save his life first and then hand him over to the police. His inner conflict and professional ethics makes him choose the first option. His servants too, desert him for fear of getting into trouble. He is fully aware of the fact that harbouring a prisoner of war would endanger his own life as well.

Dr Sadao had been a victim of racial prejudice during his stay in America. He was well-known for his skill as a surgeon, in his own country so much so, that he had not been sent with the troops during the war. His character, as the story unfolds, depicts an amalgamation of right and wrong. He ignores the ‘wrong’ but assumes the role of a compassionate human being and takes the ‘right’ decision of saving the soldier’s life. All through his effort; he has the undaunted support of his wife Hana.

The General gave him assurance to get rid of the prisoner but forgot his promise. Eventually, Sadao helps him to escape. He goes to the extent of calling him ‘my friend’. He rose above narrow prejudices and political enmity, disregarded the lurking dangers and open defiance of his loyal servants to help the ‘enemy’ escape. He has transcended racial/ political hatred and had heard the voice of his conscience.

 Q2. While hatred against a member of the enemy race is justifiable, especially during wartime, what makes a human being rise above narrow prejudices?

 Ans. The Enemy’ by Pearl S. Buck raises a few important issues. Call of duty towards nation versus call of duty towards one’s profession is the major issue in the story. Dr Sadao rescued a wounded prisoner of war who was washed ashore. The prisoner, in a dying state, according to his call of duty, should have been handed over to the police yet his profession and his humanitarianism prevented him from doing so. He resolved to treat him first and then hand him over. However, the patient needed immediate surgery and despite all odds against him, Dr Sadao went ahead and operated upon him, thus saving his life yet being a traitor to his own country.

His domestic servants deserted him out of fear but he rose above narrow prejudices to save the wounded American soldier. Not only that, he helped the soldier to escape to freedom after having nurtured him to good health. He proved, in the end, that emotions, prejudices and hatred are man-made but love, compassion for human beings was instinctive. One needs to do one’s duty towards fellow human beings before anything else.

 Q3. What did Dr Sadao do to get rid of his enemy?

Ans. Sadao’s first reaction on seeing the young wounded prisoner of war was to search for the wound and pack it with sea moss. He then told Hana that the best thing that they could do was to put him back in the sea. But since he was wounded, Sadao felt they could do was to put him back in the sea. But since he was wounded, Sadao felt they should not throw him back to the sea. He operated on the man successfully. During his meeting with the General, Dr Sadao told him about the prisoner of war. The General promised to send his private assassins to kill the man silently and would even remove the body. Sadao had left the outer partition of the white man’s room open. He waited for three nights and then Sadao grew restless.

 He devised the plan of letting the man escape to the nearest uninhabited island. He first made sure that the young man, Tom, was completely healed. He offered to put his boat on the shore that night. It would have food and extra clothing in it. Tom might be able to row to the island not far from the coast. He could live there till he saw a Korean fishing boat pass by. The island was not fortified. He gave the man his flashlight. He helped the enemy escape from Japan and also got rid of him.

Q4. Good human values are far above any other value system. How did Dr Sadao succeed as a doctor as well as a patriot? (Word limit 120-150) (NCERT) [Delhi 2017]

 Ans. Fate put Sadao in a trying situation—to uphold his duty to his country or prove his professional loyalty. With his intelligence and dedication, he managed to prove that he could uphold both. Dr Sadao had given a new lease of life to the American prisoner of war. He didn’t want to throw him into the jaws of death again. He asked the young soldier to take his private boat at night. He should row in the cover of darkness to a little-deserted island nearby. The young American could live there until he saw a Korean fishing boat pass by. Food, bottled water and two quilts were put inside the boat. If the food ran out, he could signal two flashes.

 He had apprised the General of his harbouring the enemy at his home. The General chose to overlook it. But we shouldn’t forget that Sadao was a doctor. And for a doctor saving a dying man is the foremost priority. It doesn’t matter if the dying man is an enemy.

 Q5. To choose between professional loyalty and patriotism was a dilemma for Dr Sadao. How did he succeed in betraying neither? (Word limit 120-150) [All India 2017]

Ans. Fate put Sadao in a trying situation- to uphold his duty to his country or prove his professional loyalty. With his intelligence and dedication, he managed to prove that he could upload both. Dr Sadao had given a new lease of life to the American prisoner of war. He didn’t want to throw him into the jaws of death again. He asked the young soldier to take his private boat at night. He should row in the cover of darkness to a little-deserted island nearby. The young American could live there until he saw a Korean fishing boat pass by. Food, bottled water and two quilts were put inside the boat. Moreover, if the food ran out, he could signal two flashes.

 He had apprised the General of his harbouring the enemy at his home. The general chose to overlook it but we shouldn’t forget that Sadao was a doctor. And for a doctor saving a dying man is the foremost priority. It doesn’t matter if the dying man is an enemy.

 6. Why did Dr Sadao Hold go to America? Narrate his experience there.

 Ans. Dr Sadao Hold was a skilled surgeon and a scientist who was working on his discovery to ‘render the wounds clean’. Dr Sadao was brought up by his father who was a staunch Japanese. His chief concern was Dr Sadao’s education. He was sent to America at the age of twenty-two to learn all that could be learnt of surgery and medicine. He returned at the age of thirty and by that time had become famous not only as a surgeon but also as a scientist. Dr Sadao had a tough time adjusting at America as he remembered that Americans were full of prejudice. It had been bitter for him to live there. He had an ignorant and dirty old woman as his landlady. The best thing at America was to meet Hana, his wife at one of his professor’s house who was a dull man and his wife a silly talkative woman. Her experience at America had not been so good as he had to adjust a lot there being a Japanese.

7. What impression do you form about Dr Sadao as a man and a surgeon on your reading the chapter `The Enemy’?

Ans. Dr Sadao was a skilled surgeon and a famous scientist. His excellence in his professional field was evident from the fact that the General had full faith in him as regards his health. Dr Sadao was devoted to his work and to the cause of the needy. When he saw the American soldier in a wounded condition, he was torn between the natural human instinct to save his life and treat him or as a patriot hand him over to the police.

 Dr Sadao saved the life of the man as per his professional ethics as he could not leave a person to die. It was his duty to save the life of a person as a doctor. At this point of time, when Dr Sadao saw this dying man, his spirit of humanity surpassed everything else and so he saved one life irrespective of any colour, caste or creed.

8. Do you think Dr Sadao’s final decision was the best possible one in the circumstances? Why/Why not? Explain with reference to the story, ‘The Enemy’.             

Ans. Dr Sadao had saved the life of an American war prisoner as his professional and humanitarian duty. But he was very loyal to his country too. He told the General about the white man and the Genera; promised to send his private assassins to kill him. But due to his self-absorption in his illness, the General forget to send them. Thus, finally, Dr Sadao decided to help the American soldier escape from there. He gave him a boat, flashlight, food and water and asked him to go to a nearby unguarded island. He could look for a Korean boat and escape.

This could be the best solution in the prevailing circumstances. Dr Sadao was in danger of being caught for harbouring a POW. In that case, he would be questioned for the reason to give this enemy a shelter in his house. So in order to save his reputation and the life of the white man, there could be no better way than what Dr Sadao had decided.

9. Explain the reaction of the servants in Dr Sadao’s house when he decided to give shelter to an enemy in the house.

 Ans. The servants didn’t like the idea of giving shelter to an enemy in the house. Yumi, the governess of the children, stubbornly refused to wash the white man and threatened to leave the job if she was forced. When Dr Sadao told his gardener about the wounded white man, he got upset and even frightened. He opposed Dr Sadao for treating his enemy. In fact, all the servants in the house were critical of Dr Sadao’s sheltering the enemy. They refused to help him. They were superstitious and fearful of the wrath of nature. They tried their level best to send the white man away. Finally, when Dr Sadao didn’t listen to them and decided to give shelter to the white man in his house, they left the house.

10. What conflicting ideas arise in Dr Sadao’s mind after he has brought the wounded American soldier home? How is the conflict resolved?

 Ans. When Dr Sadao brought the wounded American soldier home, he was wondering whether what he was doing was right. The conflict was between his duty as a doctor and as a loyal citizen. As a doctor, it was his professional ethics to help and save a dying man. But as a patriot and a loyal citizen of his country, he was supposed to hand over this man to the police as he was a POW, an enemy. The moment Dr Sadao felt his wound and found that the man needed to be operated upon immediately, he forgot about everything else and his humanitarian virtues to save a man’s life as a doctor superseded and he operated the man and saved his life.

11. How did Dr Sadao help the American POW to escape? What humanitarian values do you find in his act? 

 Ans. Dr Sadao gave the American prisoner of war a boat, a flashlight, food and water. He told him to go to a nearby unguarded island. He should stay there till a Korean boat passed by and the escaped taking refuge in it. He dressed him in Japanese clothes and wrapped a black cloth on his head. He asked him to signal him two flashes at the same instant the sun drops over the horizon. He asked him to signal him once if he was all right till the time he escaped in a Korean boat. He helped the American soldier to escape and save his life.

This act of Dr Sadao was an act of humanism and compassion. As a doctor, he had saved the life of a man irrespective of any prejudice.Dr. Sadao had displayed himself as a man, full of compassion and humanity by this act.

12. Dr Sadao was a patriotic Japanese as well as a dedicated surgeon. How could he honour both the values?

Ans. No doubt, Dr Sadao was a patriotic Japanese as well as a dedicated surgeon. He had honoured both the values excellently. As a surgeon, his duty was torn save the life of a man irrespective of caste, colour or creed. For a doctor, his patient is beyond any prejudice. When Dr Sadao saw the white man, he realised that the man would die if he was not immediately operated upon. So he took the man to his house and treated him and saved his life. That was his duty as a dedicated surgeon. Dr Sadao was a loyal citizen of Japan and was a true patriot. So when he went to the General, he told him everything and sought his help. Dr Sadao had no pity for the white man and considered him his enemy. The General assured to send his assassins but forgot. So in the end, Dr Sadao had to help the prisoner of war to escape from there.

13. Dr Sadao used his skills as a doctor not only to keep the prisoner alive but also to safeguard himself. Discuss.

Ans. Dr Sadao was an expert surgeon. He saved the life of the enemy by operating upon him. But he was in danger of being caught as a traitor for sheltering an enemy. Very intelligently, he used his skills as a doctor to protect himself. He knew very well that the General relied on him for his health and would never let him have any harm. So he told the General everything and got an assurance from him to get rid of the white man. But when General forgot to do so, Dr Sadao helped the white man to escape. Knowing that General would never take any action against him he told him that the man had escaped. It was only due to his professional skills as a doctor that he could save himself.

14. At what point did Dr Sadao decide that it was time to get the enemy out of his house?

Ans. The General had assured Dr Sadao of sending his assassins to kill the white man. Dr Sadao waited for three nights for those assassins but they didn’t come. Every night was full of stress and anxiety for him. Hana was overburdened with the household work as all the servants had left. They were in constant danger of being caught for giving shelter to an American. At this point of time, Dr Sadao decided that it was time to get the enemy out of his house. He decided to arrange for an escape of the white man in order to save himself. So he arranged a boat, extra clothing, food and water. He gave a flashlight to the American and asked him to go to a nearby unguarded island and from there wait for a Korean fishing boat and escape.

Value Based Questions and Answers of The Enemy

Value-based Questions

1. Write an article on the topic ‘Humanity is the essence of our existence’.

Ans. We all are human beings—the most superior species on the earth. What makes us superior is the emotions like empathy, humanity, compassion, love and devotion. Every human heart breathes these emotions. Humanity, i.e. the concern for the other fellow beings is the most important trait in our personality. Humanity is beyond territories, caste, creed and colour. Though we are divided into various countries, continents, states, etc. we must remember that these territories are constituted on the basis of ethnicity, formed by the people of some race and creed. All these are governed by the law that we have made. But for nature, there is no such discrimination. For the sea, the sun, the rain, the air we all are the same. We all must remember the fact that it is humanity the oneness with each other, which is the essence of our existence.

2. Which, according to you, is higher — humanity or patriotism? Write a paragraph on the topic: Humanity vs Patriotism.

Ans. Humanity is beyond any boundary or prejudice, whereas patriotism is the loyalty to one particular country or place where we live. Both values are essential for human beings. We should be loyal and devoted to our country and full of patriotic fervour. Humanity is boundless. It is above any caste, creed or race. It includes love for others. Humanity makes one compassionate, humble and loving. Humanity is a virtue which unites the entire human race as one, whereas patriotism is segmented. It is a set of strengths focused on tending others. Thus, it is humanity which acquires the highest place among all the virtues.

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