Adjectives in English have a special place. There is a vast study of Adjectives. Understanding adjective meaning is not difficult with edumantra. Here we provide all adjective rules and adjective words that are used in the adjective exercise. With the help of some adjective examples, we will provide adjectives worksheets and adjectives quiz that will explain how to use adjectives in a sentence and how some examples of adjectives into adverbs. To study adjectives grammar learn the adjectives definition and find the adjectives kinds and adjective and be full of knowledge-
Adjectives + infinitive/that-clause/preposition constructions
(A) due, due to, owing to, certain, sure, bound, confident
due, used of time, can take an infinitive:
- The race is due to start in ten minutes.
But it can also be used alone:
- The plane was due (in) at six. It is an hour overdue.
due to (preposition) means ‘a result of’:
- The accident was due to carelessness.
owing to means ‘because of’:
- Owing to his carelessness we had an accident.
due to should be preceded by a subject + verb, but English people are careless about this and often begin a sentence with due to instead of with owing to.
certain and sure take infinitives to express the speaker’s opinion.
bound is also possible here:
- Tom is certain/sure/bound to win. (The speaker is confident of this.)
But subject + certain/sure + that-clause expresses the subject’s opinion:
Tom is sure that he will win. (Tom is confident of victory.)
confident that could replace certain/sure that above, but
confident cannot be followed by an infinitive.
sure, certain, confident can be followed by of + noun/pronoun or gerund:
Unless you’re early you can’t be sure of getting a seat.
bound can take an infinitive, as shown above, but not a that-clause.
the bound + infinitive can also mean ‘under an obligation’:
According to the contract we are bound to supply the materials.
(B) afraid (of), ashamed (of), sorry (for or about)
afraid of, ashamed of, sorry for/about + noun/pronoun or gerund:
- She is afraid of heights/of falling.
- He was ashamed of himself (for behaving so badly)ashamed of behaving so badly.
- I’m sorry for breaking your window. (apology)
- I’m sorry about your window. (apology/regret)
- I’m sorry for Peter. (pity)
afraid, ashamed, sorry can be followed by an infinitive.
- She was afraid to speak. (She didn’t speak.)
- I’d be ashamed to take his money. (I don’t/won’t take it.)
- I’m sorry to say that we have no news.
or by a that-clause:
- I’m ashamed that I’ve nothing better to offer you.
- She’s afraid (that) he won’t believe her. (fear)
- I’m afraid (that) we have no news. (regret)
- I’m sorry (that) you can’t come.
(C) anxious (about), anxious + infinitive, anxious that
anxious (+ about + noun/pronoun) means worried:
- I’m anxious (about Tom). His plane is overdue.
be anxious (+ for + noun/pronoun) + infinitive = ‘to desire/to wish’:
- I’m very anxious (for him) to see the Carnival.
anxious + that . . . + should is possible in very formal English:
- The committee is anxious that this matter should be kept secret.
(D) fortunate and lucky can take either a that-clause or an infinitive, but there is usually a difference of meaning.
It is fortunate/lucky that usually means ‘It’s a good thing that’:
- It’s lucky that Tom has a car.
- It’s lucky that he passed his test. (Now he can drive himself to the station/take the children to the seaside etc.)
- It’s lucky for us that he has a car. (He can give us a lift etc.)
Subject + be + fortunate/lucky + infinitive, however, emphasizes the subject’s good fortune:
- He’s lucky to have a car. (Many people haven’t got one.)
- He was lucky to pass his test. (He wasn’t really up to the standard.)
is/are + fortunate/lucky + present infinitive is used mainly with static verbs. With was/were or the continuous or perfect infinitive there is a wider choice:
- You were fortunate to escape unharmed.
- You are lucky to be going by air.
- He is lucky to have sold his house before they decided to build the new airport.
It is lucky/unlucky can, however, be followed by the infinitive of any verb:
- It is unlucky to break a mirror. (It brings misfortune.)
fortunate and unfortunate are not used here but can be used in the other constructions. They are chiefly found in more formal English.
These adjectives can also be used alone or with a noun:
- I wasn’t lucky. He’s fortunate.
- Thirteen’s my lucky number. He’s a fortunate man.
(E) Possible, probable and likely can take a that-clause introduced by it. likely can also be used with a subject + infinitive
(a) It’s possible that he’ll come today =
(b) Perhaps he’ll come/He may come today.
(a) It’s probable that he’ll come today =
(b) He’ll probably come today.
In each case, the (b) form is more usual than the (a) but the that-clause is convenient when we want to modify the adjectives:
It’s just/quite possible that.
It’s not very probable that…
With likely both forms are equally useful:
- It’s quite likely that he’ll come today =
- He’s quite likely to come today.
is/are + subject + likely + infinitive is very useful as it supplies an interrogative form for may (= be possible):
- Is he likely to ring today?
possible, probable, likely can be used without a that-clause when it is quite clear what this would be:
- Do you think he’ll sell his house? — It’s quite possible/probable/likely (that he’ll sell it).
(F) aware and conscious take a that-clause-or of + noun/pronoun or gerund:
- It’ll be dangerous. — I’m aware that it’ll be dangerous/I’m aware of that.
- I was conscious of being watched = I felt that someone was watching me.
conscious used by itself has a physical meaning:
- I had only a local anaesthetic, I was conscious the whole time.