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A great deal of discussion continues as to the real extent of global environmental degradation and its implications. What few people challenge, however, is that the renewable natural resources of developing countries are today subject to stresses of unprecedented magnitude. These pressures are brought about, in part, by increased population and the quest for an ever-expanding food supply. Because the health, nutrition and general well- being of the poor majority are directly dependent on the integrity and productivity of their natural resources, the capability of governments to manage them effectively over the long term becomes of paramount importance.
Developing countries are becoming more aware of the ways in which present and future economic development must build upon a sound and sustainable natural resource base. Some are looking at our long tradition in environmental protection and are receptive to US assistance which recognizes the uniqueness of the social and ecological systems in these tropical countries. Developing countries recognize the need to improve their capability to analyze issues and their own natural resource management. In February 1981, for example, AID-funded a National Academy of Sciences panel to advise Nepal on their severe natural resource degradation problems. Some countries such as Senegal, India, Indonesia and Thailand, are now including conservation concerns in their economic development planning process.
Because so many governments of developing nations have recognized the importance of these issues, the need today is not merely one of raising additional consciousness, but for carefully designed and sharply focused activities aimed at the establishment of effective resource management regimes that are essential to the achievement of sustained development.
1. Some of the developing countries of Asia and Africa have
(a) formulated very ambitious plans of protecting habitat in the region
(b) laid great stress on the conservation of natural resources in their educational Endeavour
(c) carefully dovetailed environmental conservation with the overall strategy of planned economic development
(d) sought the help of US experts in solving the problem of environmental degradation
2. Technical know-how developed in the USA
(a) cannot be easily assimilated by the technocrats of the developing countries
(b) can be properly utilized on the basis of developing countries being able to launch an in-depth study of their specific problems
(c) can be easily borrowed by the developing countries to solve the problem of environmental degradation
(d) can be very effective in solving the problem of resource management in tropical countries
3. There has been a pronounced deterioration of habitat all over the globe because of
(a) rigorous operation of the Malthusian principle
(b) unprecedented urbanization and dislocation of self-contained rural communities
(c) the optimum degree of industrialization in the developing countries
(d) large-scale deforestation and desertification
4. The poor people of the developing world can lead a happy and contented life if
(a) there are a North-South dialogue and aid flows freely to the developing world.
(b) industries based on agriculture are widely developed.
(c) economic development takes place within the ambit of the conservation of natural resources.
(d) there is an assured supply of food and medical care.
5. How much environmental pollution has taken place in the developing and the developed world?
(a) There has been marginal pollution of the environment in the developed world and extensive damage in the developing world.
(b) There has been considerable pollution of the environment all over the globe.
(c) There has been extensive environmental degradation both in the developed and the developing world.
(d) The environmental pollution that has taken place all over the globe continues to be a matter of speculation and enquiry.