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Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
GSLV is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was developed to enable India to launch its satellites without dependence on foreign rockets and providers.
GSLV has attempted eight launches to date, since its first launch in 2001 through its most recent launch in 2014. It Was initiated in 1990 with the objective of acquiring an Indian government launch capability for geosynchronous satellites. India has depended on the United States and Europe for the launch of INSAT class of satellites. GSLV-D5, launched on January 5, 2014, was the first successful flight of the GSLV Mark.II using the indigenously developed cryogenic engine, the CE-7.5. All GSLV launches have been conducted from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota. The GSLV using the Russian Cryogenic Stage (CS) are designated as the GSLV Mk-I and the GSLV using the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS) are designated the GSLV Mk-II.
On 15 April 2010, first flight test of the ISRO designed and built Cryogenic Upper Stage failed to reach orbit due to malfunction of the Fuel Booster Turbo Pump (FBTP) of the cryogenic upper stage. GSLV has attempted eight launches to date, since its first launch in 2001 through its most recent launch in 2014.
GSLV-D5 launched on January 5, 2014, can place 2,200 kg (4,9001b) into an 18° geostationary transfer orbit. The GSLV Mk.II uses an indigenous cryogenic engine, the-7.5 in the third stage instead of the Russian cryogenic engine. The second flight of GSLV with indigenous cryogenic upper stage (CUS) developed by ISRO’s Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) was launched successfully on 5 January 2014. It was a launch with a precision of 40 metres (130 ft). All three stages performed successfully. This was the first successful flight of the cryogenic stage which was developed indigenously in India.
The GSLV project was initiated way back in the 1990s when India determined that it needed its own launch capability for Geosynchronous Satellite to become independent from other launch providers. At that time India was relying on Russian/Soviet launch vehicles for heavy satellite launches. With the emergence of commercial launch providers, such as Arianespace, India shifted its GSO satellites to those while GSLV was being developed.