72. Reading Skills Comprehension: Medicine


Read the passages given below and answer the questions that follow them:         

Medicine, however, is not the only application for Expert Systems. The oil-exploration company Schlumberger uses these computers for predicting drilling conditions, and Stanford University, USA, a leader in Expert Systems, has programs such as DENDRAL to build models of molecules from chemical data.

A. By this method, a computer merely performs sequentially, a series of arithmetic operations. All its advantages are due to the fact that it works extremely quickly, but its achievements are governed entirely by its program. A small programming error, no matter how trivial, results in the program crashing –failing to run – because the machine cannot deduce what the programmer meant to write.

One exciting aspect of these parallel computers is that they can possess artificial intelligence. Such machines will have the ability to make decisions, to use deductive logic, to criticise constructively and to advise. In Japan, for example, the newly formed Institute for New Generation Computer Technology has been developing a machine to mimic human thought patterns, respond to spoken commands, translate languages and make intelligent robots possible. One particular type of AI system already finding widespread use is the Expert System. This is a computer that contains the facts that a human expert would use to solve problems.

Thirdly, the new generation of computers will process data in an entirely different way. Rather than operating sequentially, the machines will contain many (perhaps a million) of CPUs each in two-way electronic communication with others. This parallel method of operation enables many different tasks to be handled simultaneously by processes thought to be similar to those in a human brain.

At the University of Pittsburgh, USA, there is a computer that can diagnose illnesses by a program called INTERNIST. The machine contains information on over 500 different diseases, each linked to an average of 60 probable symptoms. The doctor tells the computer the symptoms of the patient and the machine lists a set of likely diseases, then narrows its selection by asking the patient a set of questions about the ailment. Within a decade, computer-aided diagnosis may become commonplace in the consulting room.

Word-Meaning: Application— practical use, प्रयोग Predicting—foretelling भाव्स्य्वारी करना  Sequentially— according to a sequence, क्रमबद्द Trivial— insignificant, उपेचाड़ीय Deduce— decide, फैसला करना Aspect—side,पच्छ  Logic— reasoning, तर्क  Deductive— logical assessment तर्विक अनुमान  Entirely— completely, पूर्ण रूप से Symptoms— characteristics,रोग के लचर्ण Diagnose— to find out the cause of a disease,रोग का पता लगाना  Ailment— disease, बिमारी


  1. What controls all achievements of computers?
  2. What will happen if there is any small programming error?
  3. How can different jobs be handled?
  4. What does INTERNIST help in?
  5. Write the noun form of `perform’.


  1. All achievements of computers are controlled by their programmes.
  2. The machine will fail to function.
  3. Different jobs may be handled by the parallel method of operation.
  4. An INTERNIST helps in doing jobs simultaneously.
  5. Performance.

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