This page is all about Essays in English. These days essay education is very necessary which includes learning essay format and essay structure with university essay topics. This page gives essay meaning with essay introduction including essays for UPSC. Read this essays competition and try to make essay download. We have filled this page with essay English, university essay examples and essay paragraph. This includes essay questions to make your essay reading simple with essay samples. Read these essay topics to learn essay vocabulary, and essay writing format. Go through and find university essay writing tips and how to write an essay.
THE UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
INTRODUCTION: Development means more than providing assistance and infrastructure with the aim of raising per capita incites and the rate of growth of the economy. !t involves investment in human resources, building skills helping people to help themselves and promoting a self-sustaining momentum of development. The United Nations Development Programme was created in 1965, merging EPTA (Tile United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance) and UNSR (the United Nations Special Fund). It has since become the main channel of multilateral technical and development co-operation on a grant aid basis.
DEVELOPMENT OF THOUGHT: The economic and social work of the UN comprises a vast global network of more than 30 specialized UN organs, agencies, and other autonomous organizations. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) established in 1965 serves as the Central Planning, funding and coordinating agency for technical co-operation by the entire UN system and acts as a link between the donor community and the recipient country. The UNDP’s activities virtually touch every sector and it works in close co-operation with the government and people of a country to %resolve national development problems. The Human Development Reports of the UNDP published annually since 1990 have made a significant contribution to issues of human development. The UNDP has worked in close collaboration with India. India is one of the three largest recipients of UNDP assistance. The 1992-96 programme cycle of the UNDP assistance to India is committed to incorporate environmental concerns in the promotion of sustainable development, poverty alleviation and income generating projects.
CONCLUSION: To sum, up it promotes human development, placing people at the centre of decision making, involving them in the creative use of resources, offering them more options, and giving them, through education and training, the freedom to generate for themselves economic and social opportunities best suited to their needs.
The economic and social work of the UN comprises a vast global network of expertise and assistance which works day in and day out to improve the prospects of life for some four billion people in countries of the developing world.
This network consists of over 30 specialised UN organs, agencies and other autonomous organisations, under the overall guidance and control of the General Assembly and. the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), which has been established, at different!Dolt in the.UN is 47-year history, to work towards the achievement of the objectives enshrined in, the. UN Charter itself, calling for the employment of international, machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all, peoples.
Enabling the construction of bridges to truck food into famine-stricken areas; ‘marshalling the expertise to help a nation find a better way of collecting, taxes; harnessing international research to combat deadly tropical diseases; assisting children to survive through immunisation and to get a basic education; helping women acquire literacy, income-earning skills and knowledge of the basics of nutrition. health and hygiene: providing training at all levels in a host of technical and scientific fields; combating the scourge of HIV/AIDS worldwide; focussing on agricultural research to improve key food crops enhance soil fertility and find environmentally safe pest controls; launching a global effort to provide safe water and sanitation to millions of people- Who still have no access to these services: bridging technology gaps through the transfer of technology. the provision of expertise and equipment; planning international co-operation for safeguarding fragile ecosystems:’ working to ensure that social priority sectors are accorded the right emphasis in national policies and resources allocations—all these are just a few of the thousands of areas where 36 organisations of the UN system and the donor community, linked by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) are working to bring together the resources and know-how for world development.
Today, UNDP has created the world’s largest field level development service network, with 115 field offices and an international headquarters secretariat which coordinates country and inter-country activities. This network serves as the central planning, funding and coordinating agency for technical co-operation by the entire UN system.
UNDP works with the government and the people of a country to resolve national development problems. Its activities touch virtually every sector of the economy. Its work is geared to bridge technology gaps, helping formulate policies, training manpower, building institutions and stimulating investment to improve the standard of living and the quality of life in the developing countries.
UNDP operates in a three-way partnership. The largest role is played by the developing countries themselves who determine which of their priorities should be supported by UNDP funding and who provide all the local infrastructure inputs and staff. UNDP plays its major role in the project planning and design Stage, drawing on the expertise and strength of sonic 30 specialized and technical agencies of the UN.
UNDP resources are allocated to countries on the basis of need, according to an internationally agreed formula. The indicative planning figure or IPF is the projected amount that will be available for programme activities in a country over a the-year period. The calculations are made on the basis of population per capita Gross National Product (GNP) and additional criteria which weigh in favour of countries facing the greatest geographic disadvantages such as land-locked countries or economic difficulties.
The recipient governments provide a significant proportion of the total project cost in terms of personnel, facilities, buildings and supplies. UNDP assists in coordination and planning besides supplying sophisticated equipment and technological expertise, and providing training at all levels.
The Hzoncot Development Reports of the UNDP. published annually since 1990, have made a significant contribution to the exciting debate that has emerged worldwide over the past few years on issues of human development.
In 1990 on its 40th anniversary. UNDP launched the first annual ‘Human Development Report.’ The report defined progress not merely on the basis of economic indicators but on the extent of advance in meeting human needs. It reaffirmed what has always been central to UNDP, s concerns that if the development challenge is to be met, people must be at the heart of the process.
The 1990 report demonstrated that it is not only the income level of a society that matters but how well that income has been translated into human lives. It presented a new Human Development Index structured from three constituents of which per capita income (the traditional measure of successful development) is only one, the other two being the state of health and nutrition (longevity) and access to learning (literacy).
The 1991 report argued that even relatively poor countries can finance their essential human goals and invest in the social priority sectors if they have the political will to sensibly restructure their budget priorities. In fact, developing countries could fund as much as $ 50 billion more for meeting their human development aspirations, by this means.
The 1992 report took the development dialogue a step further and put people in a global setting. Its central thesis was that the search for equitable access to market opportunities must extend beyond national borders to the global system as well; otherwise economic disparities between the richest and poorest people are likely to explode.
The 1992 report suggested a two-pronged strategy to get out of this dilemma. First, making massive investments in their people and strengthening national technological capacity can enable developing countries to acquire a strong competitive edge in international markets, as has been the experience of the East Asian industrialising “tigers”. Second, there should be basic international reforms, including restructuring the Bretton Woods institutions setting tip a Development Security Council within the United Nations, and convening A World Summit on Social Development to consider a global compact to all nations and all peoples.
So, the first three Human Development Reports have concentrated on arguing that human development is the development of the people for the people. Development of the people means investing in human capabilities, whether in educator or health or skills so that people can work productively and creatively Development for the people means ensuring that the economic growth they generated is distributed widely and fairly.
The 1993 Human Development Report advanced the argument by concentrating on development by the people—on giving everyone a chance to participate.
The relationship between UNDP and India is one of strong mutual collaboration for development. India is one of the three largest recipients of UNDP assistance. It is also an important contributor of funds, technical expertise, training facilities and equipment for UNDP programmes in other developing countries.
UNDP plays a significant role in the Government’s development activity through its effort to foster technical co-operation. In relation to the enormous size and need of the Indian economy. UNDP assistance is necessarily limited. But it is crucial because it provides specialized inputs into those sectors and thrust areas where technical collaboration from abroad can produce a far-reaching, catalytic effect.
India’s association with the UN systems started in 1949. It made its first contribution and started receiving technical assistance in 1951. The assistance has grown from $150,000 to about $50 million estimated to have been spent by UNDP in 1992, covering a range of operational UNDP-assisted projects all over the country.
India was among, the first countries to submit a Comprehensive Country Programme in 1972. It recognized the importance of UNDP’s assistance in bridging technology gaps in core sectors of the Indian economy such as agriculture, industry, energy, education, telecommunications, health and employment generation.
The First UNDP Country Programme for India ran from 1 April 1972 to 31 March 1979 covering two years of the 4th Five-Year Plan and the full duration of the 5th Five Year Plan. The Second and Third Country Programmes coincided with the 6th and 7th Five-Yeas Plans. During these three Country Programmes,
UNDP resources were utilized largely for institution building and the adaptation of expertise and high technology from abroad. Several centres of technical excellence were established. The Fourth Country Programme, (April 1990-March 1995) was planned to run concurrently with the eighth Five-Year Plan and is focussing on consolidating the gains achieved in the past with greater approaches.
The nature of UNDP assistance to India has matured over the years. It began with the provision of international expertise and training in basic sectors of the economy. Later, as the programme expanded and diversified, the emphasis changed to helping government bridge technological gaps over a broad spectrum of the economy.
Unlike most countries, India’s advanced level of sophistication in many areas demanded innovative inputs. Instead of the long-term resident experts normally needed, India’s requirements now call for short-term, high-level consultants to provide specialized knowledge to complement what is available in the country. And, in place of fellowship grants for in-depth education in a discipline. Short-duration study tours for technology up gradation and familiarization are arranged for highly qualified senior scientists and decision-makers,
With the increasingly advanced levels of India’s technical, managerial and scientific manpower, the management of UNDP assisted projects has also undergone a change. National project directors have replaced international managers and technical advisers, unifying the supervision and administration of both the UNDP and government resources in each project. This concept is now being extended to full-fledged national execution of an increasing number of UNDP projects and programmes.
India is at the forefront of UNDP’s programme for Technical Cooperation between Developing Countries (TCDC), providing a large number of Indian experts to work on projects in other developing countries. It has helped train technicians from third world countries in a wide variety of fields, and it provides host facilities for several UNDP assisted Regional Projects which has benefitted the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region.
The provision of high-tech equipment, together with manpower development, has enabled India to adapt, absorb and harness the latest scientific and engineering advances in its drive for development and self-sustainability. UNDP assistance has yielded significant benefits, providing ‘neutral’ access to technical knowledge and skills on a global basis and to the latest advances worldwide in science and technology.
In addition to its traditional strengths in helping bridge technology gaps in crucial sectors, the 1992-96 programme cycle of UNDP assistance to India (with an indicative Planning Figure allocation amounting to $ 156.12 million) was committed to incorporating environmental concerns in the promotion of sustainable agriculture; to support poverty alleviation and income-generating projects, especially for women; to pursue a Human Development Country Initiative in India in collaboration with the Planning Commission and the Ministry of Finance; and giving priority to all integrated programmes geared to improve the standard of living and quality of life of the least privileged members of society. In pursuing these goals, UNDP in India will increasingly address itself to concomitant issues such as harnessing the potential of the private sector as a partner in the development and enhancing the management capabilities of public administrators.
The UNDP’s Human Development Report 2004 titled. ‘Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse World’ rejects the claims that cultural differences necessarily lead to so-called social, economic and political conflicts or that inherent cultural right should supersede political and economic ones. Instead, it provides a powerful argument for finding ways to “delight in our differences”. as Archbishop Desmond Truth has put it. It gives three key messages- (i) Cultural freedom, (ii) Multiple and Complementary identities and (iii) multicultural policies that allow multiple identities to flourish, are the best way to make diversity work. (The UNDP’s HDR 2005).
UNDP is thus committed to its search for development approaches that are ecologically sound, self-sustaining, and equitable in its distribution of resources and opportunities.