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The political system always dominates the entire social scene, and hence those who wield political power are generally able to control all the different social sub-systems and manipulate them to their own advantage. The social groups in power, therefore, have always manipulated the education systems, especially when these happen to depend upon the State for their very existence, to strengthen and perpetuate their own privileged position. But herein lies a contradiction. For the very realization of their selfish ends, the social groups in power are compelled to extend the benefits of these educational systems to the underprivileged groups also. The inevitable task is generally performed with three precautions abundantly taken care of :
A. the privileged groups continue to be the principal beneficiaries of the educational system, dominate the higher stages of education or the hardcore of prestigious and quality institutions or the most useful of courses, so as to safeguard their dominant position of leadership in all walks of life;
B. the system is so operated that underprivileged groups can utilize it only marginally in real terms and the bulk of them become either drop-outs or push-outs and get reconciled to their own inferior status in society; and
C. the few from the weaker sections that survive and succeed in spite of all the handicaps are generally co-opted within the system to prevent dissatisfaction. But education is essentially a liberating force so that, as time passes some under-privileged groups do manage to become aware of the reality, the number of the educated persons soon becomes too large to be fully co-opted, and many able individuals among them strive to organize and liberate the weak and the underprivileged. The resultant awareness of the people, combined with suitable organization necessary leads to an adjustment in the social structure and to an increase in vertical mobility so that new groups begin to share power. Eventually, other social changes also follow and the traditional, inegalitarian and hierarchical social structure tends to be replaced by another which is more modern, less hierarchical and more egalitarian. The educational system, therefore, is never politically neutral, and it always performs three functions simultaneously via, it helps the privileged to dominate, domesticates the underprivileged to their own status in society, and also tends to liberate the oppressed. Which of these functions shall dominate and to what extent, depends mostly on one crucial factor, via, the quality and quantity of the political education which the system provides or upon its ‘political content’.
The developments in Indian society, polity and education during the past 175 years should be viewed against the background of this broad philosophy. From N very ancient times, the Indian society has always been elitist and power, wealth and education were mostly confined to the upper castes of the society. What is important to note is that the system has an infinite capacity to adjust or to absorb and, for that very reason, it is extremely resistant to any radical transformation. The social system continued to exist almost unchanged until the British administrators began to lay the foundation of the modern system of education.
1. Which of the following statements is n true in the context of the passage?
(a) The privileged groups try to deprive, the ‘have not’s of the real benefits of education.
(b) The education system is never politically biased.
(c) The educational system tends to enlighten the minds of the underprivileged.
(d) The privileged class depends upon the Government for their survival.
(e) Credit for bringing the modern system of education goes to Bruisers.
2. According to the passage, the Indian society has always been
(a) politically neutral
(b) insensitive to the needs of elite groups
(c) conscious about the sufferings of the underprivileged
(d) less hierarchical
(e) None of these
3. Which of the following is the most opposite in meaning of the word ‘radical’ as used in the passage?
(a) superficial (b) simple
(c) slow (d) narrow
4. How does education work for ameliorating a lot of the underprivileged classes?
(a) It encourages them to domesticate the privileged people.
(b) It helps the underprivileged people to dominate others.
(c) Some educated persons from this class organize and liberate the weak people.
(d) It helps them to achieve higher goals in life.
5. In the context of the passage, which of the following statements is true regarding those who control political power?
(a) They facilitate the upward mobility of the underprivileged classes.
(b) They try to establish a just social order.
(c) They facilitate the upward mobility of the privileged classes.
(d) They try to control all the different social subsystems.
6. Sharing of power by new groups is an outcome of
(a) increase in the vertical mobility of the underprivileged groups
(b) a liberal democratic approach of the privileged class
(c) the total replacement of the traditional social structure by a modern one
( d ) a politically neutral educational system
7. According to the passage, why do the majority of underprivileged groups become drop-outs?
(a) They constantly suffer from the feeling of inferiority.
(b) The system is so manipulated that they cannot utilize it meaningfully.
(c) They do not possess the required intellectual potential to survive in the educational system.
(d) The privileged class continues to be the major beneficiary of the system.
8. according to the passage, the social groups in power have manipulated the educational system because
(a) they wanted to make it politically neutral.
(b) they wanted to benefits to the and
(c) they wanted to changes through the system.
(d) they wanted to preserve their special status.
(e) None of these
9. The Indian social system is resistant to the major changes because
(a) it is basically elitist.
(b) it can absorb social changes without changing its basic framework.
(c) it is extremely traditional and conservative.
(d) power, wealth and education are mostly confined to the upper classes.
10. According to the passage, social groups in power extend the benefits of education to the underprivileged groups because
(a) they want to achieve their selfish objectives.
(b) they want to create an egalitarian society.
(c) they have realized that the growth of a nation depends upon the spread of education.
(d) they want to abdicate their dominant position of leadership in all walks of life.
1. (b) 2. (e)
3. (a) 4. (c)
5. (d) 6. (a)
7. (b) 8. (d)
9. (b) 10. (a)