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WIFI — Wireless Fidelity
WIFI Full-Form refers to Wireless Fidelity. Wi Fi is a technology that is used for connecting electronic devices to WLAN or wireless LAN network. This technology usually uses UHF or Ultra High Frequency of twelve centimetres or two gigahertz, and SHE or Super High Frequency of six centimetres or five gigahertz radio bands. A wireless LAN is generally protected by a password. It may be used as an open network (that is, not protected by any password). This password, when entered, allows the devices present within the network’s range to access the network’s WLAN resources.
Devices like digital audio players, digital cameras, video game consoles, modern printers, tablet computers, smart phones and personal computers. Devices that are compatible with WiFi can be connected to the internet through a WAP or wireless access point and a WLAN network. The wireless access points are called hotspots and have an indoor range of sixty-six feet or twenty meters. Its outdoor range is greater.
The devices that come within a wireless network’s range can be used for providing access to the internet by using the technology of WiFi. The coverage of hotspots that are connected with each other can range from a small room to multiple square kilometres. For covering a large area, multiple hotspots that have overlapping coverage may be needed, The WiFi technology used in public outdoors has been utilized successfully in WMN or Wireless Mesh Network in the UK.
The internet services using WiFi can be provided in business, private homes and public places at the hotspots that are made either commercially or free of charge. The hotspots that are made commercially frequently utilize a web page for accessing the WiFi. Businesses and organizations like restaurant, hotels, and airports also set up hotspots for attracting more customers.
During the early years of the 2000s, numerous cities throughout the globe declared their plans for constructing WiFi networks that cover the entire city. In the year 2004, Mysore is the first city in India to enable city-wide WiFi. The WiFiyNet, a WiFi company, has established numerous access points that cover not only the entire city but also some nearby communities and villages.
Sunnyvale and St. Cloud in the year 2005 were the first cities in the US that offered free WiFi that covered the entire city. Nearly one million dollars has been generated by Minneapolis in profit yearly for its WiFi provider. The officials in the capital of South Korea are making tremendous progress towards providing free access to the internet at over ten thousand locations all over the city. These locations include residential areas that are densely populated, major streets and outdoor public places.
In various developed nations, the campuses of the majority of the traditional universities offer partial coverage of WiFi. The first WiFi that covered the entire campus was built at Carnegie Mellon University. It was known as Wireless Andrew and was provided in the year 1993 at the university’s Pittsburg campus. The WiFi zone of the CMU became completely operational by the year 199. Currently, its access is provided to staff and students by the collaboration of many universities through the infrastructure of eduroam global authentication.
WiFi, as compared to wired connections, is less secure. This is because the intruder does not require a physical connection. The security of web pages that utilize TLS is good, but the intruders can detect encrypted access to the internet very easily. Hence, various encryption techniques have been adopted. The first encryption technique, called WEP can be broken easily. Later, WPA2 and WPA were added. The WPS or WiFi Protected setup was added in the year 2007. The test plan has since been updated by the WiFi alliance. It has also updated the certification program for ensuring that all devices that newly certified are capable of resisting attacks.