What are Conjunctions?
Sentence connectors or linkers are those words or phrases which help us in linking sentences. These linkers are used for combining words, phrases or clauses. For example-
- Suman and Kusum are sisters.
- Work hard or you will fail.
- I know that he is a wise man.
- The thief ran away when he saw the policeman.
- In the above sentences and, or, that and when are. Sentence characters.
KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS
Conjunctions are of three types:
2. Subordinating Conjunctions
3. Correlative Conjunctions
1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions (linkers)
दो समान या बराबर के दर्जे बाले शब्दो या phrases (शब्द-समूहों) को जोड़ने बाले conjunctions को co-ordinating conjunctions कहत े है: जैसे-
- He is rich but miserly.
- I met Mohan and he helped me.
- Mohan or Sohan will go there.
Some important Co-ordinating conjunction is: and, or, but, only, while, so, for, then, both………. and, as well as, not only ………. but also, either ………. or, neither ……….. nor, otherwise, else, still (or yet), nevertheless, therefore etc.
2. Subordinating Conjunctions (linkers)
जो conjunctions किसी subordinate clause को main clause से जोड़ने के लिए प्रयुक्त हो उन्हें subordinating conjunctions कहते है: जैसे-
- Wait here till he comes back.
- You will fail if you do not work hard.
- He sat down after he had delivered the speech.
- I met him while I was going to college.
Some important subordinating conjunctions are : because, as, since, so that, lest, that, in order that, if, provided, as if, unless, otherwise, so………… that, such ……….. that, as …. as, as much as, more than, no less than, though, although, however, as far as, when, before, after, while, till, until, as soon as, no sooner than, as long as etc.
3. Correlative Conjunctions (linkers)
जिन conjunctions को जोड़ो (pairs) के रूप में प्रयोग किया जाये उन्हें correlative conjunctions कहत े है ये आपस में एक दूसरे से या अन्य व्यक्ति या वस्तु से संबंध दर्शाती है
Some important correlative conjunctions are :
either …………or, neither………… nor, such …. as, though… Yet, such …. that, both and, as ……….. as, as… so, so….. that, no sooner……. than, scarcely/hardly ….when, not only but also, rather than.
For example :
- Either Ram or Sham has stolen the pen.
- He is not such a man as you can hate.
- He is both handsome and intelligent.
- No sooner had I reached the station than the train started.
- Hardly did the teacher leave the class when the students started making a noise.
USES OF VARIOUS CONJUNCTIONS
(a)It is used to show ‘because.
- It is raining. I shall not go to the office. As it is raining, I shall not go to the office.
- I was tired. I sat down to rest. As I was tired, I sat down to rest.
(b) इसका प्रयोग “जब” को बताने के लिए होता है
- I reached the railway station. The train started.
- As I reached the station, the train started.
(c)When two works continue together.
- She worked. She sang.
- She sang as she worked. He stammers as he speaks.
(d)To show something happening gradually
- The sun rises. The fog disappears.
- As the sun rises, the fog disappears.
(e)To express ‘the time when’.
- He was going to the office. I saw him.
- I saw him as he was going to the office.
(f)To show manner.
- He ordered me. I did the work likewise.
- I did the work as he ordered me.
- Sita is tall, Gita is equally tall.
- Gila is as tall as Sita is.
(a)It is used to show a reason
- I was busy. I could not meet him.
- Since I was busy, I could not meet him.
(b) To show the length of time for some fixed point
- Mohan went to Delhi. He has not written to me after that.
- Mohan has not written to me since he went to Delhi.
(a)To show the duration of time:
- He was waltzing in the garden. During that time, his sister was working.
- While he was playing in the garden, his sister was working.
(b)To say ‘but’:
- He likes tea. But his brother likes coffee.
- He likes tea while his brother likes coffee.
(a)For comparison with the comparative degree :
- Ram is intelligent. Sham is more intelligent.
- Sham is more intelligent than Ram.
(b)It is also used with would, rather and no sooner :
- I would die. I will not beg.
- I would rather die than beg.
- We reached the station. The train started. No sooner had I reached the station than the train started.
5. JUST THEN
‘Just then’ is used to denote some action which takes place suddenly when some other action has already been going on.
- He prayed to God to send rain. Suddenly clouds appeared in the sky.
- He prayed to God to send rain, just then clouds appeared in the sky.
- The students were making a lot of noise. The principal came there.
- The students were making a lot of noise, just then the principal came there.
6. JUST BECAUSE
‘Just because’ tells the reason for something. This shows that often the reason for something is trivial and not very important.
- He did not lend you money. You should not hate him for that.
- You should not hate him just because he did not lend you money.
7. UNTIL (तक नहीं)
‘Until’ means up to the time when. For example the sentence “Let’s wait until the rain stops” means that we should wait up to the time when the rain stops.
- They waited for the police. They didn’t move anything up to that time.
- They did not move anything until the police came.
8. TILL (तक)
‘Till’ is used to tell about some time limit.
- We stayed there till 5 o’ clock.
- Please wait here till I return.
Future Tense बाले वाक्यों में ‘यदि नहीं ‘ को व्यक्त करने के लिए (unless के साथ, not का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता )
- You will fail if you do not work hard.
- The match shall be cancelled if it rains today.
- Unless you work hard you will fail.
- I shall not attend the meeting unless I am personally invited.
SOME OTHER CONJUNCTIONS
इसका अर्थ है ‘कहीं ऐसा न हो’ जैसे :
- You should work hard. If you don’t, you may fail.
- Work hard lest you should fail.
- I ran fast. I feared that I might miss the train.
- I ran fast lest I should miss the train.
इसका अर्थ है ‘जब या उस समय ‘ जैसे :
- They arrived. At that time we were arguing.
- When they arrived, we were arguing.
- The police came. It was three o’clock at that time,
- It was three o’ clock when the police arrived.
इसका अर्थ है ‘यद्यपि ‘ अर्थात किसी कार्य का किसी बात के बाबजूद होना या न होना
- He worked hard. He did not succeed.
- He did not succeed although he worked hard.
4. SO THAT
इसमें कोई बात किसी अन्य बात पर आधारित होती है
- He is very poor. He cannot pay his fees.
- He is so poor that he cannot pay his fees.
इसका अर्थ है ‘नहीं तो ‘
- Walk fast. If you don’t, you will miss the train.
- Walk fast otherwise, you will miss the train.
6. BEFORE (से पहले )
- The doctor came. The patient had already died.
- The patient had died before the doctor came. Look before you leap.
7. AFTER (के बाद )
- Turn off the tap after use.
- He posted the letter after he had written it.
8. BECAUSE (क्योकि )
To express the reason
- He failed. He did not work hard.
- He failed because he did not work hard.
9. SO/THEREFORE (इसलिए )
To express the result
- He did not work hard. He failed in all subjects.
- He did not work hard so he failed in all subjects.
- Aman is working very hard. She will top the class.
- Aman is working very hard, therefore, she will top the class.
10. THAT (कि )
To combine two simple sentences.
(i)The earth is round. The teacher told us.
The teacher told us that the earth is round.
(ii) He is a sincere worker. All know this.
All know that he is a sincere worker.
11. IF (कि क्या )
To combine simple sentences with an interrogative sentence starting with a helping verb
- May I take your pen? Please tell me.
- Please tell me if I may take your pen.
- Can you swim? I want to know this.
- I want to know if you can swim.
12. AND (और )
To express two similar qualities and actions.
- Someone pulled the chain and the train stopped.
- He came in and sat beside me.
(a)To express the result according to action :
- He worked hard and got very good marks.
- He did his best and achieved the goal.
13. BUT (लेकिन )
(a)To express two opposite qualities and actions:
- The bus overturned but none was injured.
- I went to meet him but he was not at home.
(b) To express the result opposite to action:
- He worked hard but failed.
- Our team played well but lost the match.
14. WHAT (क्या /जो )
To express something:
- You want something. Tell me this.
- Tell me what you want
15. WHEN (कब जब )
To express the point of time:
- Do you know when the next train will arrive?
- Someone picked my pocket when I was getting off the train.
16. WHY(क्यों )
To know the reason:
- You have rejected my application. Tell me the reason.
- Tell me why you have rejected my application.
- I can’t explain why he has not come today.
17. WHERE (कहा जहा )
To tell about the place:
- Tell me where you live.
- This is the place where Gandhiji was born.
18. WHO(कौन/ किसने/जो /जिसने )
To tell/know about some person.
- Tell me who stole my pen.
- This is the boy who won the first prize.
19. WHOM (किसे/ जिसे/ जिन्हे )
- Those die young whom the gods love.
- Tell me whom you gave my book.
20. WHICH (कौन सी /जो )
To tell/know about some object.
- Give me the book which is lying on the table.
- The car which I bought last year has been stolen.
ERRORS IN USE OF CONJUNCTIONS
1. Scarcely or hardly is followed by when. e.g. Scarcely had I entered the room when I heard a shriek. Hardly had I slept when the telephone rang.
2. Though is followed by yet e.g. Though he worked hard yet he failed.
3.No sooner is followed by than. e.g. No sooner did we reach there than it began to rain.
4. Not only is followed by but also. e.g. Not only did he help her, but also dropped her home safely.
5. Let is negative and so should not be followed by not; it is followed by should. e.g. Work hard lest you should fail. If would or may is used in place of should, then else should be used in place of lest. e.g. Give him water, else he may die. Leave on time, else you would miss the train.
6. Both are complemented by and, not by as well as. e.g. Both Amit and Satish are good at Science.
7. So… as is used in negative sentences, whereas as is used in affirmative sentences. e.g. He is not so tall as his brother. He 4 as tall as his brother.
8. Other is followed by than. P.R. He has no other claim than his wealth.
9. The word reason is not followed by because, but by that. e.g. The reason why he didn’t go was that his mother was ill.
10. because denotes reason. in order that denotes purpose. e.g. He went to the doctor because he was ill. He went to Delhi in order that he might see Mr Roy.
11. Words such as regard, describe, define, treat, mention, depict, portray are followed by as. e.g. I regard her as my sister. He was treated as a slave.
12. As and since are also used to express reason. e.g. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother. Since he did not come to the party, his gift was sent to him.
13. Neither is followed by nor and both are followed by the same auxiliary verb. e.g. Neither Ravi nor Raju was seen. Neither did I read nor did I write.
14. Either is followed by or. e.g. Either you are or he is to blame.
15. Unless, until, if not, so that should not be followed by not. e.g. Wait here until I come. Do not go unless I return.
16. It is used in a conditional sense; Whether is used in uncertainty. e.g. If he does not return the books, he will not be awarded the certificate. I don’t know whether he was present.
17. To express time before use until or till and to express how long use as long as. e.g. He continued to be lazy until he was ten years old. Work as long as you live.
18. Such is followed by as. e.g. We talked about such subjects as the weather. Such is followed by that if we emphasize the degree of something by mentioning the result. e.g. The extent of the disaster was such that not a single man could survive.
19. Like is followed by a pronoun; as is followed by a clause. e.g. He runs like me. He runs as I do.